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of Kyrkby Wisk ; 2os. to the poor of Great Langton.
(Ibid.; Richmondshire Wills ; Life of Thornton.)

1697 JOHN NICHOLSON. Of Christ's College, Cambs.; B.A., 1672 ;
M.A., 1697. Presented by Sir Hugh Smithson, insti-
tuted 2 August, 1697. Died 1722.

1722 THOMAS BECKET. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; M.A., 1704.
Presented by Sir Hugh Smithson, instituted 29 Nov.,
1722. Buried at Kirkby Wiske, 10 September, 1751.

1752 THEOPHILUS LINDSEY. Fellow of St. John's College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1744 ; M.A., 1748. Presented by the Bishop of
Chester, and instituted 20 June, 1752. Resigned the
benefice in 1755, and was subsequently vicar of Catterick,
1763-1773. He became the founder of modern Unitarian-
ism. (See ante, p. 35.1

1 Yorks. Arch. Journal, xii, 292. * Pat. Rolls, 13 Car. II, part 4, No. 30.

To face page 76.


Saint John the Baptist, Kirkby Wiske. 77

1755 CHARLES DODGSON. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; B.A.,
1746 ; M.A., 1758. Presented by the Earl of Northumber-
land, and instituted 10 April, 1755. Resigned in 1761,
and was subsequently Bishop of Ossory, 1765-1773 ; and
Bishop of Elphin, 1775-1795.

1762 WILLIAM COOPER, D.D. Fellow of Trin. Coll., Cambs.; B. A.,
1758; M.A., 1761; D.D. ,1773. Presented by the Earl of
Northumberland, and instituted u February, 1762. He
published a volume of sermons in 1766. Archdeacon of
York, 1777. Died 1786 ; buried at York Minster.

1786 MATTHEW RAINE, D.D. Fellow of Trin. Coll., Cambs.; B.A.,
1782 ; M.A., 1785 ; D.D., 1799. Presented by the Duke
of Northumberland, and instituted i September, 1786.
Died 1807.

1808 CHRISTOPHER BETHELL, D.D., son of Rev. Richard Bethell,
rector of St. Peter's, Wallingford, and brother of Richard
Bethell of Rise, M.P. for Yorkshire. Born at Isleworth
c. 1773. Fellow of King's Coll., Cambs.; B. A., 1796;
M.A., 1799; D.D., 1817. Instituted 17 March, 1808,
on the presentation of the Duke of Northumberland.
Consecrated Bishop of Gloucester in 1824, but continued
to officiate here occasionally, signing the register ' C.
Gloucester.' Resigned this benefice in 1830, and was
in that year translated to the see of Exeter, and then of
Bangor. Died 19 April, 1859, aged 86.

1830 RICHARD HENRY CHAPMAN. Of Queen's College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1807 ; M.A., 1810.

1845 ROBERT PULLEINE, son of Henry Percy Pulleine, of Crake-
hall. Born 18 September, 1806. Emmanuel Coll., Cambs.;
B.A., 1829 ; M.A., 1832. Presented by Lord Prudhoe,
1845. Died 23 October, 1868, aged 62.

1868 JOHN JAMES PULLEINE, D.D., son of the preceding rector.
Presented by Eleanor, Duchess of Northumberland.
Hon. Canon of Ripon, 1882 ; Bishop Suffragan of Penrith
22 May, 1888, the title being changed to that of Richmond
by Royal Warrant, 2 May, 1889 ; rector of Stanhope, 1888.

1888 CHARLES MAXWELL WOOSNAM, presented by Eleanor, Duchess
of Northumberland. Resigned 1890, and was thereafter
(1893-1904) Archdeacon of Macclesfield.

1890 EDGAR CARR, B.A., Durham, presented by Eleanor, Duchess
of Northumberland.



Ax Kirklington 1 there are no pre-Conquest remains nor
other evidence of a church before the Norman invasion. Neither
is a church mentioned in Domesday, but this last circumstance
is not to be taken as proof that no church existed here at the
period when the survey was compiled. It is impossible to say what
system the enumerators went upon. In some counties the churches
are pretty fully returned, but no church at all is mentioned in
either Lancashire, Middlesex, or Cornwall, although many existed.
The manor was at that time (1085) held by Robert de Musters,
who followed William the Conqueror from Normandy in the
train of the Earl of Richmond, by whom he was rewarded
with many manors and lands. Robert bestowed the church
of Burneston upon St. Mary's Abbey, York, in the reign of
William Rufus ; and it can scarcely be doubted that Kirk-
lington, which was the residence of the Musters family, and
of Roschil, their Saxon predecessor, would be also provided
with a church in the Eleventh century.

From the evidence of the existing fabric, it is clear that a
large aisleless nave was constructed shortly after the Norman
Conquest, the walls of which were pierced, and north and
south aisles added in the former half of the Fourteenth century.
The quoined angles of this early nave are still intact, though
that at the south-west corner has been obscured by the erection
of the staircase turret of the tower. The quoins at the north-
west angle of the nave may be most readily seen, outside,
but those at the two eastern angles are also visible, and the
plinth of the fourteenth century aisle walls is stopped where
it meets the older work. The walls of this church were nearly
3 ft. 6 in. thick, which accounts for the extraordinarily massive
substance of the pier arcades, as they had to be inserted in the
old walls. Whatever the chancel may have been, which was

1 The ancient name is Kirtlington, and Conquest days, as can be proved at

the'k' does not seem to have been Kirkdale and Kirk Hammerton, and may

substituted for ' t ' until after the middle reasonably be held to have been the case

of the Sixteenth century. It would there- at Kirkby Moorside, Kirkby Misperton,

fore be incorrect to infer from the name and other places which are compounds of

that this was a church - town in pre- the word Kirkby.

To face page 78.


Saint Michael, Kirklington. 79

associated with this nave, it was replaced by the present
chancel scarcely earlier than 1200, and very possibly a few years
later. It is of considerable dimensions, measuring 42 ft. by
19 ft. 6 in. on the inside, and the walls, which are of rubble,
with quoined angles, are 2ft. 7 in. thick on the north and
south, and 3 ft. on the east side. There is no plinth to the
walls, neither were these furnished with buttresses of any kind.
The chancel, however, underwent material transformation in
the Fourteenth century, and the original details which survive
are confined to three lancet-shaped windows and the quire door
in the north wall. The last has a full centred, equilateral
arch with imposts enriched by the nail-head ornament, and a
hood-mould, chamfered on its outer and inner edges. The
lancets have their heads worked, in each case, out of a single
stone When some alterations were being carried out in 1889,
the plaster was stripped off the east wall, and revealed the'
original window jambs at some little distance out from those
of the present east window. We may, therefore, conclude that
the latter has replaced a triplet of lancets, which originally
formed the eastern termination of the chancel. The fourteenth
century windows in the south wall have been similarly inserted
in the positions previous^ occupied by windows of Early Eng-
lish character, and the door leading into the vestry is of the
same period (c. 1330), and is rather unskilfully grouped with
the lancet nearest to it. The enlargement of the windows at this
period was clearly to afford more light to the chancel ; and an
additional two-light window was, for the same reason, opened
out of the north wall, near its western end. A recessed niche in the
south wall, containing piscinas, was partly destroyed as a conse-
quence of these alterations, the double drains with their circular
basins being all that is left beneath the sill of the most easterly
window. 1 Two aumbreys occur in the east wall, on either side of
the altar ; these have pretty trefoiled heads, the centre foil
being of lancet form. They are probably contemporary with
the chancel walls.

The extension of the church in the Fourteenth century
embraced the alterations already mentioned in the chancel,
the rebuilding of the chancel arch and the addition of north
and south aisles to the nave. This took place very early in
Edward Ill's reign, which was a great church - building era in

1 Piscinas of any form are rare in the Thirteenth century an altar 'was
England at this early date, though after scarcely ever erected without one, :-., i

80 Richmondshire Churches.

the district. The unusual breadth of the nave, which is nearly
two and a half times as broad as the aisles, was, of course,
dictated by the width of the early aisleless church. This
gives, however, a very spacious and dignified appearance to
the interior. The erection of very wide aisles to serve as chantry
chapels, as at Tanfield and Bedale, has a tendency to rob the main
part of the building of its proper value. The arcades are of four
bays on either side, resting upon plain octagonal columns. These
rise from moulded bases of uncommon form for this period, the
principal member being a water-holding hollow, with a quirk
above, where it joins on to the shaft. The bases present, in fact,
a very usual type of abacus-mould, turned upside down.
The capitals consist of a scroll-mould, a quirk, and a hollow,
with a moulded roll for necking. The arcades are received at
their eastern and western ends upon semi-octagonal responds,
with bases and caps similar to those of the isolated piers.
The arches are of two chamfered orders, and are furnished
with hood-moulds towards both nave and aisles. These hood-
moulds terminate in carved subjects, in which the grotesque
is somewhat too prominently evinced, considering the sacred
character of the structure. It has been said of these corbels that
most of them exhibit maniacal, and some even diabolical, expression ;
and the effect is distinctly unpleasant. We have already
observed that the insertion of these arcades in already existing walls
was the cause of their unusual thickness. It also occasioned the
irregularity observable in the work, for the arches vary considerably
in height, and not one of them is accurately centred. It is
probable that half an arch was built at a time, the wall above
being shored up until the arch was complete. In this, as in many
other cases of distortionate building, for which fantastic reasons
have sometimes been assigned, the explanation is simple enough,
if we remember the conditions under which the builders worked,
and the imperfect appliances at their command.

Built into the east wall of the south aisle is a voussoir
or arch-stone, carved with the familiar chevron pattern of the
Norman period. This is a stone from an older building, utilised
by the fourteenth century masons, and may, perhaps, have
come from a south door in the former church. The doorways,
which occupy the western bay in either aisle, have, in each
case, pointed arches of two orders, either order having the
wave moulding, which is carried down the jambs in the form
of engaged shafts, with caps and bases. The doorways are

To face page 80.



To face page 81.

[/. E. Purvess, phot.


Saint Michael, Kirklington. 81

furnished with hoods, which end in carved heads. Two windows
in the south aisle wall and one at its western end, and two
windows in the north aisle wall, are all of uniform design.
They are of two lights, pointed and cusped, with depressed
quatrefoils in the heads. The jambs and arches have a
quarter round moulding, and the sills are graduated in
three slopes, with overhanging drip-moulds. At the west
end of the north aisle, a square-headed window of a single
light is placed. The lintel is formed of a mediaeval grave-
cover, exhibiting the shaft of a cross, and a representation of
shears, denoting that it once marked the grave of a woman.
The east windows of both aisles are also of two lights, their
arches being filled with tracery of a curvilinear form. Of the
four windows inserted in the chancel at this period, three are
of the same quatrefoil design which appears in the aisle walls,
but the most westerly of the three inserted windows on the
south side of the chancel has flowing tracery like the east
windows of the aisles. This is somewhat more carefully fashioned
than the rest of the windows, a bead-mould being worked
into the jambs, mullion, and tracery. It presents, in fact, the
most pleasing piece of detail in the whole church (Plate XXII).
The rear-arches of all these windows are treated in an unusual
manner ; the jambs are splayed, but the soffits of the arches are
square with the wall plane, and where the two forms meet is a shoul-
der composed of a double curve. A bead-mould is carried round
the angles, in the case of the windows with flowing tracery ;
the other windows have the angles left plain.

The chancel arch, which belongs to the same period as the
nave arcades, is a very plain one ; its plainness amounts almost to
baldness. It has two chamfered orders, the outer order dying
into the walls, and the inner carried on corbels at either end,
which have the same moulding as the capitals of the piers.
The arch was formerly of the type known as a drop-arch,
but it was reconstructed in 1859, five feet higher in the apex,
and is now of no recognised form at all.

There is much reason to connect the whole of this four-
teenth century work with the name of William de Musters,
who died about 1337.

Next in date comes the east window of the chancel, which
is an insertion of the former half of the Fifteenth century.
It is of much the same dimensions and proportions as the
east window at Burneston, which may have been constructed

82 Richmondshire Churches.

rather earlier. At Kirklington the window, which is worked
in limestone, is of five lights with ogival and cinquefoiled heads.
The two outer lights on either side have embattled transoms
immediately over their heads, with lesser lights above ; whilst
the central portion of the window-head is divided by the
intersection of two mullions carried into the window arch,
forming sub-arches the last trace of curvilinear expression
in a window of so late a date.

The last extension of the fabric, exclusive of merely modern
treatment, was the addition of the western tower and the
clerestory of the nave. These appear to have been constructed
at the same time, scarcely much before 1500, and possibly
even in the early years of the sixteenth century. The tower
opens to the nave by a pointed arch of two chamfered orders,
which die out into the walls. It is of considerable height and
of a somewhat severe character, exhibiting much blank wall,
with few openings and no strings, though there is one set-
off on the western face. The angles are strengthened by but-
tresses of bold projection, set diagonally, and terminating in
pinnacles of late character. The parapet is embattled, with
three crenellations to each face. The west window is poor.
It has three lights with two ranges of lesser lights above,
all uncusped. The character of the tower is chiefly owing
to the staircase turret, a rectangular projection at the south-
east corner, which rises from the ground .and runs up to a
height of 6 ft. above the battlements. The turret terminates
in a sloping pent-house roof, forming a very conspicuous object
against the sky line. The belfry openings, on all four sides,
are square-headed and transomed, containing two trefoiled
lights, with sunk spandrils.

The clerestory has three windows on either side, of similar
form to the openings of the belfry. It is observable that these
clerestory windows stand neither immediately over the arches
nor over their piers an arrangement not uncommon in fifteenth
century churches. A cornice and moulded parapet surmount
the walls, and a sanctus-bell cot crowned the eastern gable
of the nave. The gable was not at this time removed, but
the new work brought up to it ; and in the drawing of the
church published by Whitaker in 1822, the weathering of the
original gables both of nave and chancel can be distinctly
seen. The south porch, which appears in the engraving, does
not appear to be ancient. It was, in any case, replaced in

To face page 82.


Saint Michael, Kirklington.


1859, when new porches were provided for both the north and
south entrances to the building. A vestry of substantial
character was erected in the place of the small structure on
the north side of the chancel, and the walls of the latter were
furnished with buttresses all round. The usual mistake was
committed of raising the pitch of the nave and chancel roofs ;
but the worst of all the disfigurements to which the church has
been subjected in modern times is the erection of an organ-
chamber, which appears as a truly shocking excrescence upon
the south side of the chancel.


The belfry contains three bells, of which the second is
cracked. They have the following inscriptions :






The font has disappeared, though its circular base remains
near the south door. It was of unusual form, and it would be
unsafe to assume the date of it from the drawing, which appears
in Whitaker's Richmondshire, here reproduced. It appears to be

84 Richmondshire Churches.

of pre-Reformation date, and may possibly be coeval with the
fourteenth century work in the church. It has been replaced
by a deplorable specimen of what Mr. Bond calls " the well-
known mid- Victorian brand."

The pulpit, in carved oak, is of Jacobean character, but has
probably been "made up" from fragments of old work.

The eastern end of the south aisle was, in the Middle
Ages, the chapel of the Wandesforde family, with the invocation
to Saint Catherine. It is mentioned by that name in the will
of Anne Wandesforde, widow, 20 April, 1547, who leaves her
body "to be buried within the church of Saint Michael in
Kyrtlyngton, in the south closet of Saint Katherine." Two
bays of the aisle were, until recently, enclosed by an oak
screen with flowing tracery ; and in a vault beneath repose the
remains of the members of the family of Wandesforde and
of their predecessors, the Musters.

The eastern ends of aisles at this period were invariably,
or all but invariably, furnished with altars which were associated
with chantries. As the south aisle was Saint Catherine's
Chapel, it is probable that the chantry of Our Lady, men-
tioned in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, was accommodated in the
eastern bay of the north aisle. A recess beside the east window
indicates the position of a piscina or aumbrey ; and the north
window in that bay is of larger dimensions than the other
window in the aisle wall.

Of the monuments in the church, the oldest are the effigies
of a knight and a lady, which lie beneath canopied recesses
in the wall of the south chapel. The arches are of the ogee
form, with cusped heads, and are moulded with two filleted
rolls, and a like number of quirked hollows. The same mould-
ing is carried down the jambs, which have moulded bases
and caps, and the canopies are crowned in each case by a
well-carved finial of the hawthorn pattern. This is noteworthy,
as it is rare to find the hawthorn leaf in association with
the ogee form of arch. The date indicated is rather later than
that of the aisle wall, and an examination of the exterior
leads to the belief that these canopies are an insertion. There
is a projection at the back of the recesses, the masonry courses
of which do not run through with those of the aisle wall.
We think the niches were inserted after 1350, though not
very long after. The more easterly of the two contains the
figure of a knight, which affords an interesting example of the

Saint Michael, Kirklington. 85

transition from chain to plate armour. The body is protected
by a shirt of mail, covered by a sleeveless and tight-fitting
surcoat, cut off straight at the thighs, where the mail shirt
protrudes below it. Articulated shoulder-plates and brassarts
are worn over the sleeves of mail, and vambraces and rear-
braces are bound on by a narrow strap at the elbow-piece.
The gauntlets are of plate, with divided fingers and ornaments
on the knuckles. The thighs and legs are also clad in plate
armour, with pointed, articulated solerets, furnished with
spur straps and shanks. The knight wears a pointed bascinet
with gorget of mail, which terminates in a straight edge across
the breast. The helm of the warrior forms his appropriate
pillow in death, and the feet are supported by a lion. Low
down upon the thighs a broad horizontal belt appears, consisting
of jewelled squares ; and upon the left arm is bound the
shield, enriched with a boldly-sculptured figure of a rampant
lion. There is no sword.

In the other niche, to the west of this, reposes the effigy
of a lady whose head is pillowed upon a single cushion. The
kirtle is cut somewhat low at the neck, and has tight-fitting
sleeves, which extend nearly to the knuckles and cover part
of the hands. The head-dress is a plain coif, without coverchef
or wimple ; and a mantle falls from the shoulders at the back
of the wearer. There are long pointed slippers, and the feet
rest upon a hound. Sir Stephen Glynne, who inspected these
monuments in 1864, says that the remains of colour then survived
on the lady's head-dress. The shields which appear on the face
of both tombs were doubtless also at one time painted with
armorial devices.

The identity of these figures will, perhaps, always remain
doubtful. The lion rampant was a common charge in the
heraldry of the fourteenth century, and in the absence of
tinctures or other distinguishing features, the shield does not
afford any very conclusive evidence. The family of Musters,
at that time lords of Kirklington, bore totally different arms ;
and the Wandesfordes do not appear to have been connected
with the church or parish before 1370. The present writer,
in his former work on Kirklington, 1 gave reasons for and
against the belief that the male figure might represent John
Wandesford, who died in 1397 ; but he has long had mis-
givings on the subject, for the reason that the style of the

1 The Wandesfordes of Kirklington, p. 128.


Richmondshire Churches.

armour, the form of the lion, and the detail of the canopies
all point to a date at least thirty years earlier. The accidental
discovery, at York, of the will of this John Wandesford sets
the point at rest so far as he is concerned, since it is made
clear by that document that the testator was buried, not at
Kirklington, but at Treswell, the seat of the family in Notting-
hamshire. 1 On the marriage of Elizabeth, the heiress of the
Musters, with Sir Alexander Mowbray in 1355, Sir John Musters,
her grandfather, "wishing to enlarge the estate of John, son
of William Mowbray," granted him all his manor of Kirtelyng-
ton, etc., subject to a rent charge of 405. yearly to himself
for life, and to the provision that the estate should descend

tjtnouitf ($t!ne 85 jfuiii aft


to Alexander Mowbray, John's son, and to Elizabeth, daughter
of Henry Musters, "now his wife," and to the heirs begotten
between them.- Sir Alexander died in 1368 or 1369 without
a male heir ; and it is evident that some new settlement
was made by which the manor of Kirklington came to the
descendants of Elizabeth and John Wandesford, her second
husband. The date 1369 is quite a possible one for these
effigies ; and it seems likely that the hope which the Mowbrays
undoubtedly entertained of establishing a family of Mowbray
of Kirklington found a grave in this monument, upon the
death of Alexander. 3 The curious part of the story is that
the lady must have survived for more than twenty years

1 As this will has never been printed,
we append a short abstract : Will of John
Wandesford, senior, dated at Tereswelle,
15 January, 1397-8. He desires to be
buried in the parish church of Tereswelle,
near the body of his wife. To his son
John a tenement in Mykelgale in York ;
and to his son Roger a tenement outside
Mykyllyth. His son Geoffrey a tenement

in North.- trete in York. To the parish
church of Teressvelle a cloth of gold.
Executors, John Parker, chaplain, and
sons Roger and John. Proved at York,
13 March, 1397-8.

2 Cat. Close Rolls, 29 Edw. III.

3 The will of William Mowbray of
Colton, elder brother of Alexander, was
proved at York, 4 July, 1391 (Test. Ebor.,

Saint Michael, Kirklington. 87

to see her counterfeit presentment in the church, for she was
living in 1391, and was ultimately buried at Treswell. 4 There
are, however, numerous instances of a wife's effigy being placed
beside that of her deceased husband, during her own lifetime.

A brass on the floor of the chapel records the death of

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