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John Wandesford, who died 4 May, 1463.

It may be transcribed thus : Orate pro animabus Johannis
Wandysford armigeris et Alienore uxoris ejus qui obiit quarto
die May Anno Domini Millesimo quadracento sexagesimo tercio.

This was the third John Wandesford in succession, and
he was lord of Kirklington for upwards of fifty years. Eleanor,
his wife, was a daughter of Thomas Mountford, of Hackforth,
in tne parish of Hornby. She obtained licence from the Arch-
deacon of Richmond, 2 October, 1467, to cause masses to be
celebrated within the manor of Kirtlyngton by a suitable
chaplain or chaplains, for the space of one year,' and a similar
licence was granted to her by Archbishop Neville, 27 September,
1469.' Her will, which was nuncupative, is dated in a certain
low chamber or parlour, called the Prior's Chamber, within the
Priory of the Friars preachers of the city of York, 2 October,
1472 ; and it was proved 2 September, 1473. To be buried
in the parish church of Kirtlyngton ; towards the maintenance
of the lights, called the Rudlith and Ladylith, 3 in the said
parish church, 35. 4^.; to the sustenance of two elymosinary
readers and two extra readers, 4 counterpanes and 4 linen
sheets ; to the Anchorite of Richmond, 2od.

On the clerestory wall, above the chapel, but towards the
nave, hangs a funeral helmet, surmounted by the Wandesforde
crest, a church or minster, 4 wrought in metal. The detail
of the crest is excellent. There is a central tower, with

i, 144). The editor, the Rev. James suggest that it was specially bin nt at some

Raine, tells us that John Mowbray, who particular season of the year connected

is styled 'of Kirklington, 'was great -great- with ploughing. These were probably

grandson of Robert Mowbray, younger wax candles, and are called lumina, but

brother of William de Mowbray, the there were also general lights in the

ancestor of the Mowbrays, Dukes of church supported by bequests, which are

Norfolk. called lampades ; these must have been

1 7vVf. Archd. Rich., quoted by Raine. of some other form, such as a lantern.

- Reg. Neville, i, 646. (A'otes by T.M.F.)

:i The ' rood-light ' was common in 4 The peculiar crest of this family was

churches, and was burnt during service doubtless adopted in allusion to the sur-

time before the rood or cross. The 'lady- name of the family of Monasteriis or

light' was burnt before the image or altar Musters, whose successors the Wandes-

(sometimes both) of Our Lady. (See under fordes are, at Kirklington. The motto is

I'ickhill, p. 127.) The latter was also TOUT POUR L'EGLISE. The device of

called the 'plough-light' (Pat. Rolls, the coat armorial Or a lion rampant

27 Eliz., part 10, m. 10), which seems to double queued azure was most probably



88 Richmondshire Churches.

an octagon spire, in each face of which are two narrow
windows, two western turrets, with a west door and large
window over it. The roof is of the tunnel or cylindrical form,
and there is a transept with door and a window above ; two
round-headed windows in the nave and two in the chancel.
The helmet and crest are of the style of Henry VII's reign,
and were most likely placed in the church in memory of Sir
John Wandesford, who died without issue in 1503. A pair of
gauntlets, which hangs beside the helmet, is of the same age.

Pedigrees of these families, which have furnished so many
rectors of the church, as well as being successively lords of the
manor for more than eight centuries, will be quite pertinent to our
subject.

Beneath the south window of the chapel is the tomb of
Sir Christopher Wandesford, who died in 1590, surmounted
by his effigy, and presenting a fine display of armorial shields.
The tomb bears so strong a family likeness to the monument
of Sir William Ingleby (died 1579) in Ripley Church as to
suggest that both are the work of the same sculptor. In
each case the altar tomb has a moulded base and cornice,
and the front elevation is enriched with four shields of arms
(see Plate XXIV, at p. 95). Those at Kirklington are :

1. A lion rampant, double queued, for WANDESFORD.

2. Wandesford, impaling a cross moline, for FULTHORPE,
of Hipswell.

3. Wandesford impaling ermine, 3 bows bent in pale, for BOWES,
of Streatlam.

4. A bend within a bordure engrailed, for MUSTERS, of Kirk-
lington.

The effigy lies at full length upon the tomb, and is depicted
in armour, except as regards the head, which rests upon a
cushion. The feet are unsupported. It is clearly a portrait,

assumed from the bearing of the Mow- dignities of Viscount Castlecomer and

brays, Elizabeth Musters, heiress of Earl Wandesforde, and the heiress in

Kirklington, in the Fourteenth century 1769 married John, eighteenth Earl of

having married (ist) Sir Alexander Ormond, with the provision that her

Mowbray and (2nd) John Wandesford. second son should inherit her estates, and

By her first husband the Lady of Kirk- that he and his descendants should bear

lington had a daughter, Elizabeth, who the surname and arms of Wandesforde.

became the wife of the celebrated Justice The manor of Kirklington affords the

Gascoigne. She was heir of her father, only illustration in Yorkshire (so far as

but not of her mother. Kirklington, we are aware) of lands which have

being a male fief, descended to the descended in an unbroken line of inheri-

Wandesfordes. The family was ad- tance from the original Norman grantee

vanced in the Eighteenth century to the to the present day.



PEDIGREE OF MUSTERS.



ROBERT DE MUSTRRS,
of Kirklington, 1085

I



LISOIS, 1131 GEOFFREY



ROISERT DE MUSTERS; confirmed the church of Burnebton
to St. Mary's Abbey c. 1150-60; mentioned in 1172
(Pipe Rolls) and 1183



GEOFFREY DE MUSTERS, =Avice de Sablello LISOIS, 1219

mar. 1204, d. c. 1228



ROBERT DE MUSTERS, LISOIS, 1230 RICHARD DE MUSTERS,
I 1229, 1231, etc. rector of Kirklington,

I 1231

JOHN DE MUSTERS, = , dau. and heir of John



1240-1260



de Shelton, co. Notts., 1254



ROBERT DE MUSTERS, = , dau. of JOHN DE MUSTERS,



1267, d. c. 1300



John Picot parson of Treswell,

1267



WILLIAM DE MUSTERS, ROBERT, 1337 JOHN DE MUSTERS,



1301, d. s.p. 1337



rector of Kirklington,
1310



SIR JOHN DE MUSTERS, = Alice, ist - Blanche, WM. DE MUSTERS,
1340-1363 | wife widow, 1363 rector of Kirklington,
I 1327

I I

SIR HENRY DE MUSTERS, = Elizabeth, dau. of ROBERT DE MUSTERS



1349; d. before 1367



Sir Brian Thornhill rector of Kirklington,

1350



Sir Alex. Mowbray, = ELIZABETH DE MusTERS=John Wandesford,
1355; d.c. 1368 | | 1370; d. 1397-8

A /K



PEDIGREE OF WANDESFORD.



GEOFFREY WANDESFORD, Sir John Mow bray, Margaret Percy
of Alnwick, 1338, &c. 'of Kirklington,'
| 1342, &c.



JOHN WANDESFORD, = Elizabeth de Musters, heiress = Sir Alex. Mow bray,



1370; d. 1398



of Kirklington



1st husb. ; d. 1368



JOHN WANDE.sFORD, = Isobel, dau. and co-heir of
of Kirklington John Colville, of Dale



JOHN WANDESFORD, 1411 ; Eleanor, dau. of Thos. Mountford;



d. 1463 ; brass



. 1473



CHRISTOPHER WANDESFORD, = Sibyl, dau. of



of Kirklington, 1470



John Thwaytes



SIR JOHN WANDESFORD,
1484; d. s.p. 1503



Margery, dau. of=THO.MAS,



Henry Fudsay



d. 1518



CHRISTOPHER, =Anne, dau. of Sir John Norton, JOHN WANDESFORD, rector



d. 1540



of Norton Conyers



of Kirklington; d. 1589



FKANCis, = Anne Fullhorpe, CHRISTOPHER Francis La.scelles, = SUSAN WANDES-



b. 1526 ;
1559



. 1593



of Hipswell; of Allerthorpe
d. 1601



SIR CHRISTOPHER WANi>ESFORD, = Elizab., dau. of Roger Lascelles,



d. 1590; monument



Sir Geo. Bowes, rector of Kirkl.,
of Streatlam 1590-1630



SIR GEORGE WANDESFORD, knt., = Catherine, dau. and co-heir of
b. 1572; d. in London 1612 Ralph Hansby, of Gray's Inn



CHRISTOPHER, Lord Deputy^Alice, dau. of Sir MICHAKI. WANDESFORD,
of Ireland; d. 1640 Hewit Osborne rector of Kirkl., 1631



GEORGE, SIR CHRISTOPHER WANDESFORD, bart,, 1662

d. s.p. d. 1686. Father of Chr., Lord Casllecomer,

1651 and grandfather of Hon. and Rev. John

Wandesford, rector of Kirklington



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 91

and bears a striking resemblance to the picture of Sir Chris-
topher at Castlecomer, the seat of the Wandesforde family
in Ireland. He wears an Elizabethan ruff round the neck, and
the hands, which are without gauntlets, are joined in prayer, in a
more free and natural manner than that which was conven-
tional in the earlier effigies. The cuirass consists of breast
and back plate, the former having a ridge down the centre,
and projecting point at the abdomen. The shoulders and arms
have the usual protection, but the large coudiere or elbow-
piece, which was a feature in the armour of the Fifteenth
century, has no place here. Long jointed and overlapping
taces extend all the way from the waist to the knees, and
protect the front of the person only, the back being covered
with a leathern garment, around which the taces are bound
by straps. The knee plates, which are strengthened by a
corrugation, retain something of the mediaeval flange on the
outer sides ; and the legs are encased in greaves or double
leggings of plate. The feet of the figure are damaged, but have
been protected by sabbatons cut off square at the toes, and
furnished with rowelled spurs. The sword, which is bound to the
waist by a sash and girdle, lies at the left side of the wearer.
A helmet with closed vizor, carved in stone, forms part of the
composition, but does not seem to have been attached to the
monument in any way. The same thing occurs at Ripley,
where the knight is also depicted bareheaded, and the helmet
merely placed, as a detached stone, beside the effigy. At the
back of the altar tomb is a stone erection, containing an
inscribed panel, surrounded by arabesque scroll-work, and
surmounted by the armorial achievement of the family. This
is modern, but it appears to be a replica of what was there
before, especially as a similar design occurs over the Ingleby
tomb. It is rather poorly executed. The inscription is as
follows :

MEMORIAE

CHRISTOFERI WANDISFORD MILITIS QVI

OBIIT II mo DIE IVLII ANNO D*NI I5QO ANNO

AETATIS SVAE 42 do

Hie jacet ille, Deo, Patriae, Qvi vixit Amicis
Dum Patriae et Charis sivit adesse Devs.
Nunc tumvlo corpvs, nunc solv nomen amicis
et Patrie, superest Spiritvs ipse Deo.



92 Richmondshire Churches,

The elegiacs may be translated thus : Here lies he who
lived for God, for his country and his friends, so long as God
willed that he should be with country and dear ones. Now
there remains his body for the tomb, his name alone for his
friends and his country, his spirit itself for God.

The shield above, of six quarterings, depicts the bearings of
i. Wandesford ; 2. Musters ; 3. Colville ; 4. Conyers ; 5. Fulthorpe ;
6. Bland. 1 This is surmounted by the appropriate helmet and
mantling with the Wandesford crest, a minster proper.

Sir Christopher Wandesford, whose monument this is, took
part when a young man, with his father-in-law, Sir George
Bowes, in the defence of Barnard Castle in the Rising in the
North, 1569. He was the trusted servant of Queen Elizabeth,
who employed him upon several occasions, and conferred
knighthood upon him in 1585. He was high sheriff in 1578
and 1579, an d at one time Vice- President of the Council in
the North. He also rebuilt the Hall at Kirklington, as it now
stands, about the year 1571. The Rev. Dr. Toby Matthew,
Dean of Durham, and afterwards Archbishop of York, preached
his funeral sermon in this church, 13 August, 1590, from
2 Timothy iv, 2.

Other memorials in the chapel commemorate Sir Christopher
Wandesford, Bart., M.P. for Ripon, died 1686 ; Eleanor, his
widow, daughter of Sir John Lowther, of Lowther Castle,
Bart., died 1714 ; and Christopher, first Lord Castlecomer,
died 1707. At the west end of the south aisle are the tomb-
stones of Mary Wandesford, the foundress of " The Lady's
Hospital " in Bootham Bar, York, died 1726 ; Rev. Richard
Ella, who was twenty years curate and twenty-eight ["years
rector of the parish, and died 1802, aged 91 ; and Rev. William
Ogilby, LL.D., also rector of Kirklington, died 1748.

Two mediaeval grave-covers are preserved beneath the tower.
One of these has a sculptured cross-head of the Thirteenth
century ; the other has a plain incised cross, with a representation
of a chalice and book the Gospel. From the tall form of the
chalice this appears to be of early date, not later than 1250, and
possibly even of the Twelfth century. The arms of the cross are
cut off diagonally, in the manner expressed heraldically as slipped.

1 Conyers of Sockburn was brought arms of Bland of Stratford were quartered

into the shield by the marriage of John by the Kulthorpes of Hipswell in conse-

Wandesford with Isobel daughter and quence of the marriage of Alan Fulthorpe

coheir of Sir John Colville, whose grand- with Alison heir of Thomas le Bland at

mother was Elizabeth Conyers. The the end of '.he Fourteenth century.



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 93

In the chancel there is a tablet to the memory of Philip
Bendlowes, who died 1769, " the last male heir of that antient
family." He left 50 to the churchwardens of Kirklington,
the interest to be applied for the benefit of the poor of How-
grave, in such a manner as they should see fit. The Bendlows
had been settled at Howgrave since the Sixteenth century.

A few fragments of stained glass from different parts of
the fabric were glazed, at the last restoration of the church,
into the lancet looking into the vestry. A dragon in a circle
is fourteenth century work, and is most likely coeval with
the aisles ; various heads of saints and other objects are pro-
bably from a fifteenth century window ; whilst a representation
of the Wandesford crest is much later Seventeenth or even
Eighteenth century.



A hatchment over the tower arch recalls the funeral of
Sir Christopher Wandesford, first baronet, 1686. The shield
is emblazoned with the quartered coat of WANDESFORD, impaling
Or six annulets sable, three, two, and one, for LOWTHER.

At the old lectern there is a chained book with the manu-
script date 1671 ; and, according to Mr. J. O. Morris's Little
Guide, this is one of two chained books only which are left
in the North Riding, the other being at Grinton in Swaledale.
The chain is older than the book, and has probably been
used to secure one of the chained Bibles which were ordered
to be provided in all churches after the Reformation. The
volume is a copy of the fourth edition of the Companion to
the Temple, by the Rev. Thomas Comber, D.D., Dean of Durham,
who married a granddaughter of Lord-Deputy Wandesford.

The holy vessels include a chalice with paten forming
the cover, shown in the annexed illustration. These bear the
London hallmark, and the date letter for 1632 ; and as the
paten has the family motto, Tout pour I'Eglise, inscribed upon
the foot, we may conclude that these two pieces were the
gift of Christopher Wandesford, who was Lord-Deputy of Ireland
in 1639. The salver, which is engraved with the double-queued
lion in an oval, was probably given by the Hon. and Rev.
John Wandesford, rector of the parish from 1717 till 1747.
It was made by Edward Holaday, London, in 1718. This
and the flagon are both of the Britannia standard, the latter
bearing the Wandesford crest and motto and the maker's



94



Richmondshire Churches.



marks of Richard Greene, London, 1721. In addition to the
vessels illustrated, there is a second salver with the Wandesford
lion in a lozenge and the initials M.W. chased on the back.
Miss Mary Wandesford, of York, who died in 1726, left, by
her will, to Lord Castlecomer "all my plate marked M.W.
for his use during his life, to remain to my nephew, John
Wandesford, rector of Kirklington." There is also a more
modern cup, which was a "gift to Kirklington parish by the
rector, Rev. John Prior, 25 May, 1854," but which appears
by its marks to have been made by John Scofield in 1782.

The local registers of baptisms, marriages, and funerals
have been printed by the Yorkshire Parish Register Society,




COMMUNION VESSELS AT KIRKLINGTON.

forming Volume XXXV of their publications. They are preserved
since the year 1568, and with unimportant exceptions are com-
plete and in good condition. One volume, however, embracing
baptisms and burials for the period 1735-65, has sustained
damage, and many of the entries are to be read only in part.
The dullness, which is inseparable from this class of record,
is relieved, in the present case, by an interesting entry con-
cerning the collection of the tithes and profits of the parish
apparently copied from some ancient statutes and usages.
It is a pity that a date cannot be assigned to it :



PLATE XXIV.




[W. Davcy dv Son, phot.

KIRKLINGTON MONUMENT OF SIR CHRIS. WANDESFORD, 1590.



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 95

Easter reckonings to be paid the week before Easter for the year pre-
ceding. Wool to be gathered at the time of shearing. Lambs to be taken
at St. Thomas' day in summer 1 ; Geese at Michaelmas ; Hens and Turkeys at
Christmas ; Pigs to be taken when three weeks old. Easter reckonings to be
paid after this manner, viz. every parishioner above the age of sixteen is to
pay for oblations 2 -zd. Item every inhabitant is to pay for every cow renew-
ing within the year zd., not renewing id. oblation ; and if the owner have
five kine or above, he is to pay for every cow 4^., or otherwise to pay Tith
calf in kind. For every Kiln id.; each swarm of bees id. If there be five
swarms or above, they may be taken in kind. Hemp may be tithed in kind,
or if the Rector please, for each peck of hemp seed sown, id. For each plow,
id.; orchard, id.; foal, id.; garden id. For every hen not paid in kind, 6d.
Tythe corn is to be paid in kind, Hay in kind, or an arbitrary composition
which hath usually been is. for each day's mowing.

We have met with no earlier authority for the invocation
of the church than the will of Anne Wandesford, quoted above,
1547. It was, however, undoubtedly dedicated to St. Michael.
As Burneston had Saint Lambert's fountain, mentioned so early
as the Twelfth century, so Kirklington possesses its Holy Well,
beside the old Mill House on the north of the village. Although
its name has now passed from the popular remembrance, it
is provided in a lease 1 "* of lands to Roger Croft, in 1628, that-
his cattle shall have right of access to go into the water near
unto a spring called Michaell-well, both in winter and summer ;
and we are left in no doubt as to where the spring was situated,
for Mrs. Alice Thornton has recorded that her father brought
water to the Hall in lead pipes from a cistern of the same
metal "near St. Michael's Well by the mill-race." \f

In the survey of churches made by the authority of Parlia-
ment in 26 Henry VIII (1535-6), and known as the Valor
Ecclesiasticus, it is said that there is a chantry in the parish
church of Kyrklyngton in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary,
Robert Wylkynson being the stipendiary. The rents of divers
tenements with which it was endowed amounted at that time
to 3 6s. 8d.; but this would not be the only remuneration of
the chantry priest, who might receive additional fees for obiits
and certains and other services, such as school teaching. An
'obiit' consisted of masses said for the soul of a deceased person

1 St. Thomas of Canterbury = 7th July. Church; oblations for the dead which

were given at burials ; oblations given by

* Oblations or obventions were offerings penitents . an d pentecostals, which were

made by the pious faithful to God and ma d e at Pentecost by parishioners to their

the Church. Besides Easter dues there ish iest and by c i aug hter churches to

weie altar oblations, which the priest had the mother church. (From Note* on

for saying mass; oblations which were Dewsbury Church, by S. T. Chadwick,

given by wills of the faithful to the jr g ^ \



96 Richmondshire Churches.

on the anniversary of his death. A 'certain 5 was saying a short
prayer at mass, on Sundays, for certain persons by name.
When the chantry certificates were prepared in 1548, there
was certain money given by the ancestors of Francis Wandesford,
for the founding of an obiit, to the yearly value of 6s. 8d., out of
lands in Howgrave ; also the farmers of Sexton lands in Kirk-
lington had always been used to maintain one lamp within
the quire of Kyrtlyngton, before the sacrament there, to the
yearly value of 6d. 1

The name of Robert de Musters is mentioned in an Extent
of Richmondshire, 1281-2, as patron of the church of Kyrte-
lyngton, which is worth 50 yearly. In the taxation of churches
ordered by Pope Nicholas IV, completed in 1292, it is valued
a t 33 6s. 8^., but this underwent the diminution common
to most benefices, during the unsettled period of Edward IFs
reign ; and in the Nova taxatio (1318) the rectory appears as
worth 13 6s. 8d. only. The advowson was the subject of a
lawsuit in 1384-6, the record of which gives us a great deal
of information regarding the early rectors. It has been already
printed,-' so we will only say here that Sir Michael de la Pole, an
intimate adviser of Richard II, who made himself very un-
popular by the course he took in supporting the king in his
arbitrary method of government, claimed the advowson in
virtue of a grant made to him by John de Musters in 1352.
Michael had presented John de Burton to the living ; John
and Elizabeth Wandesfords had presented William Faudon ;
and after the lapse of six months Alexander Neville, Archbishop
of York, had preferred William de Monketon, his chaplain.
The whole history of the advowson was gone into, and the
presentation of no fewer than seven successive rectors put in
evidence. The suit lasted two years, and was decided in the
Wandesfords' favour.

Kirklington is a rectory with cure of souls, but in the
Thirteenth and Fourteenth centuries there was a vicarage also.
The clergy of the church have been as follows :

1231 RICHARD DE MUSTERS, instituted to the parsonage by
Archbishop Grey, acting in default of William, Arch-
deacon of Richmond, 17 October, 1231, upon the pre-
sentation of Robert de Musters, patron ; William de

1 Yorkshire Chantry Surveys. - The Wandesfords of Kirklington, p. 184.



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 07

Buketorp, having been recently admitted to the perpetual
vicarage of the church. The vicar shall possess all
altarage 1 and church lands, except the messuage,
and shall pay thereout to the parson and his succes-
sors three marks of silver, and shall meet all ecclesias-
tical obligations, episcopal or archidiaconal. The vicar
also to serve the church sufficiently and honestly, by
suitable chaplains and ministers. (Reg. Grey, p. 40.) The
rector or vicar of Kirklington came into the agreement
of 1254, relating to mortuary. (See p. I2n.)

c. 1287 HENRY LE VAVASUR, rector of the church of Kyrtelington,
had a grant from Thomas, son of Alexander of Helper-
by, of a carucate of land, lying from the court of
the rector of Kyrtelington in length and breadth
up to the toft and croft of Ralph le Sergaunt. Without
date but c. 1287. (Castlecomer MSS.)''

c. 1300 JOHN 'DE MUSTERS, presented by Robert de Musters
temp. Edward I, died temp. Edward III. He had a
grant from Ralph de Rugemund of a pasture called
Ronewell, lying between Howgrave and Kirklington,
without date but c. 1300. His nephew bestowed these
lands upon Fountains Abbey in 1354. Thomas, son
of William at the Water of Thornboro', and Sara,
his wife, quitclaimed to John de Musters, parson of
the church of Kirtelington, two bovates of land and
four acres of meadow in Yarnwick, for which he paid
them 10. Fine dated in the morrow of S. John
Baptist, 3 Edward II (25 June, 1310). (Castlecomer
MSS.; Burton's Monasticon, p. 198 ; Yorks. Fines, Edward
II.)

1327 WILLIAM DE MUSTERS, presented by Robert de Musters.
At Auckland, 22 July, 1327, Henry de Mustiers acknow-
ledged a debt of 100 marks to William de Mustiers,
parson of the church of Kyrtelington. He still had the
same designation, 4 March, 1333, when he declared that
he was satisfied of the 100 marks which Henry de

1 This deed amounts almost to an prises all the smaller tithes which vicars

ordination of a vicarage, which, however, have for their maintenance. See Ayliffe's

became merged at a later period in the Parergon, p. 60.

rectory The term altarage was primarily a The CastlecO mer MSS. are printed in

an emolument ar.smg to the priest ratzone ^ Wandesfordes of Kirklington. 1904.
A/tans ; but m a larger sense it com-


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