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98 Richmondshire Churches.

Mustiers, in the first year of the king's reign, had
acknowledged that he owed him. William resigned
the rectory about 1340. (Castlecomer MSS.; Cal.
Close Rolls, i and 7 Edward III.)

c. 1340 WALTER DE CALVETON, presented by John de Musters
and Alice, his wife. On 26 January, 1344, the king
granted a commission of oyer and terminer, touching
a complaint by Henry de Percy, the elder, that Walter
de Calveton, parson of the church of Kirtelyngton,
John and Peter de Calveton, and others (named),
broke his park at Topclif-on-Swale, hunted therein,
took and carried away deer, felled trees, and carried
them away. In 1349, Walter de Calveton, rector of
the church of Kyrtellington, and William de Settering-
ton, parish chaplain of the same church, acted as
feoffees in a fine and recovery of the manor of Kirkling-
ton with Theakston and Sinderby. (Cal. Patent Rolls,
Edward III ; Castlecomer MSS.)

c. 1350 ROBERT DE MUSTERS, presented by John de Musters
and Alice, his wife. Styled rector of the church of
Kyrtellington in 24 Edward III (1350-51), when he
and William Scurueton had a grant of one messuage
and one oxgang of land in Kirklington from John de
Musters, which they released to the same John in 1352.
Also Robert, here styled son of Sir John de Musters,
releases to John, the son of William Mowbray, in fee,
all his right in the manor of Kirtelington. He had an
indult to appoint confessors from Pope Innocent VI
on 7 ides March, 1353. He is called Robert Mustres,
parson of Kirtelyngton, in a licence in mortmain, 28 Febru-
ary, 1363-4, granting to him and others that they
may found a chantry in the church of West Tanfield,
according to the ordinance of Avice, widow of John
Grey, of Rotherfield. (Castlecomer MSS.; Cal. Pat.
Lett., iii, 493 ; Rotul. Orig., ii, 278.)

c. 1365 WILLIAM DE HAULAY, presented by Alexander Mow-
bray and Elizabeth, his wife. Was concerned in
1379 and 1381 in the matter of the alienation in
mortmain of a rent of 8 marks out of the lands of
the abbot and convent of Neubo to a chaplain to
celebrate divine service in the parish church of Newark,



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 99

for the souls of Robert de Caldewell, his parents and
ancestors, and others. He died 21 October, 1383.
(Castlecomer MSS.; Col. Pat. Rolls, Richard II.)

1384 WILLIAM DE MONKETON. Collated by Alexander, Arch-
bishop of York, in consequence of lapse, no presentation
having been lawfully sustained. His name appears
in a list of clergy who went with the English army
to Scotland in company with Richard II, in August,
1385 Willelmus Monkton, rector ecclesie de Kirclyngton.'
By an inquisition held at Ripley, 20 April, 1390, it
was found that John Wetwang, a monk of Fountains
Abbey, had divers silver vessels to the value of 512
marks, which were formerly Alexander Neville's, late
Archbishop of York, who forfeited to the king, 2 and
that he had sold them for that sum to two merchants
in York, whereupon he and the Abbot of Fountains
were impeached yet now the king pardons the said
monk and the said abbot (5 July, 1391), and annuls all
proceedings against them, because they allege that a
certain man, William de Monketon, then parson of
Kyrklyngton, clerk to the said archbishop, had received
the whole 512 marks, and that the abbey had made
no profit by the transaction. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Richard II.)

1386 WILLIAM DE FAUDON, presented by John de Wandesford
and Elizabeth, his wife, 26 November, 1383, but institu-
tion was appealed against, first to the Archbishop of
York, then to the King's Bench, by whom it was
sustained. In 1389, William de Faudon, parochial
rector of the church of Kyrtelyngton, appealed to Pope
Urban VI against William de Munketon, priest, and
others, touching the benefice and the fruits thereof.
He obtained letters compulsory, directing certain people
in the diocese of York to deliver up, under pain of
excommunication, certain written instruments and muni-
ments essential to clearing the merits of the case, and which
they withheld. Dated at Rome, 30 July, 1389. (Castle-
comer MSS.)

1 Archbishop Neville's Certificate, 3 other Pope in Scotland, this was really
Nov., 1389. equivalent to deprivation. He died as a

2 Archbishop Neville was 'translated' parish priest at Louvain, 13 May, 1392,
by Urban VI to the See of St. Andrew's and was buried in the church of the
in April, 1388, but as they believed in the Carmelites there.



100 Richmond shire Churches.

1391 ROBERT DE MIRFLET, instituted 9 April, 1391, on the
presentation of John and Elizabeth Wandesfords. (Torre's
MS.)

1435 WILLIAM PLUNGAR, parson of the church of Kirtlyngton,
witnesses a release to John Wandesford of all lands
and tenements in Kirtlyngton, which he has of the
gift of William Smelt, of Topcliffe, 8 December, 1435.
(Castlecomer MSS.)

1438 CHRISTOPHER MOUNTFORD, presented by John Wandesford,
and instituted 5 September, 1438 ; vacant by the death
of William Plungar. (Torre's MS.)

1439 ADAM COPENDALE, instituted 17 February, 1438-9, on
the presentation of John Wandesford.

1491 RALPH WANDESFORD, petitioned Pope Innocent VIII to
be admitted to holy orders notwithstanding defect of
birth (illegitimacy), which was referred to the official
of the diocese of York, who was authorised to grant
dispensation if he saw fit. Dated at St. Peter's, Rome,
12 September, 1490. Is styled "rector of Kirklington"
when he was ordained sub-deacon 28 May, 1491 ;
deacon 24 September ; and priest 17 December, same
year. 1 Acted as one of the trustees of an entail of
Kirklington, 10 January, 1504-5. In a suit respecting
the will of Gerard Wanseford, of the city of York,
"stacionar," in the year 1513, Ralph Wansfoith, parson
of Kirklyngton, is one of the witnesses. (Castlecomer
MSS.; Reg. Rotherham ; Davies' York Press, p. 154.)

1524 THOMAS POWERS is mentioned as incumbent in the return
of benefices made to Cardinal Wolsey, 24 January,
1524-5,- and he was still rector in 1535, when the
living was worth in mansion-house and glebe 3 6s. 8d.,
and in other exits 22 45. 8d., less reprisals 45. 2d.
clear value, 25 75. 2d. (T. R. Miscellaneous Books,
Henry VIII ; Valor Ecdesiasticus.)

J 547 JOHN WANDESFORD, third son of Thomas Wandesford, of
Kirklington, is designed scholar of the diocese of

1 Mr. S. J. Chadwick says that it was xxii. (Notes on Dewsbury Church, by

common to admit men in minor orders, S.J.C. )

and sometimes under age, to benefices. _, . . ,

For an interesting chapter on this subject, T- 1S the .<? ale of the . ret j urn ' ^ ut

and on pluralities, fanning benefices, the hst was evidently compiled rather

ignorance of incumbents, etc., see Cutts, earlie ?; .Wolsey s mandate ordering the

Parish Prints and their People, chapter c n'P''ation is dated 31 August, 1523.



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 101

York in a dispensation from Peter Vannes, authorised
by Pope Clement VII, to be admitted to holy orders
though under age in his 23rd year dated at London,
3 December, 1531. Was parson of Kyrtlyngton
20 April, 1547, when he witnessed the Twill of his
sister-in-law, Anne Wandesford, widow. At an episcopal
visitation in 1548, Mr. John Wandisfurth was rector and
Ralph Smythe curate. Buried at Kirklington, 8 March,
1589-90, aged about 81. (Castlecomer MSS.; Par.
Reg.)

1590 ROGER LASCEI.LES, son of Francis Lascelles, of Aller-
thorpe, and Susan Wandesford, his wife. For his
pedigree see page 71. Of Brazenose College, Oxford.
Presented by Sir Christopher Wandesford, and instituted
19 May, 1590. Died 21 July, 1630, aged 73 "a most
religious and faithful pastor the space of forty years."
(Castlecomer MSS.; Par. Reg.; Oxford Hist. Soc., xii, 69.)

1631 MICHAEL WANDESFORD, third son of Sir George Wandes-
ford, of Kirklington, by Catherine Hansby, his first
wife. Presented by Christopher (afterwards Lord-
Deputy) Wandesford ; canon of the first stall of
Ripon Cathedral, 25 February, 1624-5 ; dean of Limer-
ick, 1635 >' an d dean of Deny, 1636. Resigned this
living in 1636. His wife was Bridget, daughter and
co-heir of Giles Parker, of Scotton and Waddington,
who married, secondly, William Humberston. (Par.
Reg.; Mem. Ripon.)

1636 HENRY SUTTON, born at Gloucester, son of Rev. William
Sutton, D.D., of Bredon, co. Worcester. Matriculated
at Brazenose College, Oxford, at the age of 17.
Presented by Christopher Wandesford ; resigned 1638,
and was thereafter rector of Bredon, 1642. He was
son-in-law of Dr. John Prideaux, bishop of Exeter.
(Foster's Ind. Eccl.; Alumni, Oxoniensis.)

1639 ROBERT DAGGET, B.D., of the family of Dagget, of
Howe. Of Sidney Sussex College, Cambs.; B.A. incor-
porated at Oxford ; M.A., 8 July, 1614. Presented by
Christopher Wandesford, instituted 30 April, 1639.
Died suddenly on Sunday, 19 August, 1644 ; buried
at Kirklington. (Chester Dioc. Rec.; Life of Thornton,
P- 58.)



102 Richmondshire Churches.

1644 MICHAEL SYDDALL, youngest son of William Syddall, of
York, presented by George Wandesjord, and officiated
1644-49, but was never legally instituted. 1 He was
also vicar of Catterick, where he died, and was buried
8 January, 1658, aged 45. (Par. Reg.; Castlecomer
MSS.; Life of Thornton.}

1649 PHILIP NISBET, intruded presbyterian minister, son of
Rev. Philip Nisbet, rector of St. Martin's, Micklegate,
and afterwards of Easington ; nephew of Sir Alex.
Nisbet of that ilk, and first cousin of the author of
Nisbet's Heraldry. Deposed 1662, and died in October,
1663 ; buried at St. Martin's, Micklegate, York. His
wife was Susan, daughter of Abraham Hemingway,
with whom he had several children baptised at Kirk-
lington, 1647-60. His widow was buried 19 April,
1683. (Par. Reg.; Life of Thornton ; Baxter's Life and
Times, ii, 834.)

In August, 1660, James Scott [? Stott] petitioned Charles II
for presentation to the rectory of Kirklington, in
Richmondshire, which was void through the death of
Robert Dagget. " His loyalty and orthodoxy have
reduced him to great distress for twenty-two years,
but now His Majesty can show favours to constant
sufferers." A certificate of the petitioner's sufferings
is annexed to the petition. (Cal. State Papers, I Charles
II.)

1662 RICHARD TATHAM, presented by Christopher Wandesford,
and instituted 21 January, 1662 "a most learned,
devout, and faithful pastor the space of thirty-six
years." Died at Tunstall, co. Lanes., n July, 1698,
aged almost 70, and is buried there. Eleanor, his
wife, was buried at Kirklington, 23 April, 1668. His
daughter, Alice, married George Woodyear, of Crookhill,
near Doncaster. (Chester Dioc. Rec.; Par. Reg.)

1 Opposition was raised to the settle- spoken and railed against the Lord's

ment by the victorious Independents, and Prayer in York Minster, saying they were

General Fairfax himself sent a minister all damned that used it, for it was a

named Clarkson to be admitted to the Popish invention ! Kirklington rose in its

rectory of Kirklington, saying that "the pews in hot anger, and a Kirklington

Parliament did not think fit to entrust Jenny Geddes was found to flourish her

the disposal of livings to any but them- stool at the preacher, shouting at the

selves.' Mr. Clarkson preached in the same time, "They weare noe more

church once, but was violently ejected by damned than himself, old Hackle-Back "

the people, on the ground that he had (Life of Thornton, p. 210).



Saint Michael, Kirklington. 103

1698 EDMUND TATHAM, presented by Sir Christopher Wandes-
ford, and instituted '17 October, 1698. Resigned 1705 ;
buried at Kirklington i June, 1733. He had a son,
Edmund of Melmerby, born 1700, died 1747. (Ibid.}

1705 ROBERT ASHETON, presented by Sir Christopher Wandes-
ford, and instituted 14 September, 1705. Resigned
1717. (Ibid.)

1717 HON. JOHN WANDESFORD, younger son of Christopher,
Lord Castlecomer, instituted 20 June, and inducted
2 July, 1717. He was also vicar of Catterick from
1722 until his death in March, 1747. He was buried
at Kirklington. (Ibid.)

1748 WILLIAM OGILBY, LL.D., presented by Lord Castlecomer,
and instituted 2 May, 1748. Died 21 February, 1758,
aged 43 ; buried at Kirklington. (Ibid.)

1758 JOHN TALBOT, of the family of Mount Talbot, co. Ros-
common. Clare College, Cambs.; B.A., 1752 ; M.A.,
1755. Presented by John, Earl of Wandesford, insti-
tuted 8th and inducted 19 August, 1758. Had a son,
Henry Herbert, baptized 1765. He died 18 June, 1773,
aged 66. (Ibid.)

1773 RICHARD ELLA, previously for twenty years assistant-
curate, instituted 9 December, 1773, on the presentation
of the Earl of Wandesford, and inducted I5th of the
same month. Died 28 January, 1802, aged 91 ; buried
at Kirklington. (Ibid.)

1802 THOMAS PLACE, LL.B., presented by Anne, Countess of
Ormond, and instituted 6 March, 1802.

1828 PETER EWART, fourth son of William Ewart, of Liverpool.
Matriculated at Christ's College, Oxford, 27 January,
1809, aet. 19 ; B.A., 1823 ; M.A., 1826. Presented by
Anne, Countess of Ormond, and instituted January,
1828. Died at 51, Westbourne Terrace, Paddington,
25 August, 1852. Will, dated 12 July, 1841, proved
at London, 20 December, 1852.

1853 JOHN PRIOR, of Mount Dillon, co. Dublin, previously
for seven years curate of Taney, same county. Pre-
sented by Hon. Chas. Butler Wandesforde, and insti-
tuted 18 January, 1853. Died 21 December, 1867
buried at Kirklington.



104 Rickmondshire Churches.

1868 JOHN MERIDYTH, presented by Chas. Wandesforde, and
instituted 12 June, 1868. Died 25 February, 1878,
aged 71 ; buried at Kirklington.

1878 GEORGE AUGUSTUS WARD HUDDART. Of Trinity College,
Dublin ; B.A., 1867 ; M.A., 1870 ; LL.D., 1882.
Presented by Chas. Wandesforde, and instituted 9 August,
1878. Died 26 September, 1908, aged 64 ; buried at
Kirklington.

1909 MACDONNELL LONGUET LIEBENROOD, instituted 25 Febru-
ary, and inducted 16 April, 1909, on the presentation
of Richard Henry Prior Wandesforde.



CHAPTER VI.



SAINT PATRICK, PATRICK BROMPTON.

THE earliest historical notice of the church of Brompton
Saint Patrick is furnished by a deed of about noo, or a few
years thereafter, by which Bardulf , at the prayer and request of
his brother Bodin, and for the souls of their father and mother,
bestowed the churches of Patrick Brunton and Ravens wath,
together with a carucate of land in each place upon the Abbey
of Saint Mary at York. 1 Bodin was lord of Bedale in 1085,
and in his old age, desiring to serve God and to quit the world,
he divided his property between Ribald and Bardulf and retired
to the newly-founded Benedictine monastery of St. Mary.
Akarius, son of Bardulf, gave two sheaves of the corn growing
upon his demesne of Patric Brumpton to the priory of Saint
Martin, near Richmond"; and the church of Patrick Brompton
is also mentioned by name in a general confirmation to St.
Mary's Abbey of all their possessions by Stephen, Earl of
Richmond, who was Earl from 1093 till H37. 3

It is certain, therefore, that a church of some sort existed
here prior to the date of any work now visible in the structure ;
and a close examination of the nave and its proportions justifies
the conclusion that it represents in its width and height, and
probably also, if not entirely, to a certain extent, in its length,
the actual ground plot of a pre-Conquest church. The com-
parison of the proportions of the nave with those of Sockburn
and Billingham in the county of Durham, and that of Wadworth
in the West Riding, results in a material strengthening of this
view. No doubt a large number of other parallels could be
produced. The extreme narrowness and extraordinary height
of the naves of 'Saxon' churches has always been one of their
most striking characteristics ; and the sudden change from
these proportions to others of totally different relations imme-
diately after the Conquest has frequently been dwelt upon
by writers on the subject. The most probable explanation
of the lofty elevations of the early churches is that the windows

1 Gale's Honour of Richmond, Appen- 2 Burton's Afotiasiicon, p. 272.

dix, p. 57. 3 Man. AngL, iii, 532.



106 Richmondshire Churches.

were placed in the upper part of the walls ; and this for two
reasons. The first is that more light would be derived from
them if they were set high ; and as they were constructed
before glass was in universal use, and were probably mere
openings, the building would not have afforded the same
degree of shelter to the inmates if the windows were low
down in the walls. The other reason is that the churches were
often used as places of refuge, and in case of a sudden attack,
it is obvious that the attacking party would be placed at a
disadvantage if the openings were set at a considerable height
from the ground.

In common with most other churches, the structure under
consideration has passed through such serious alteration during
the last fifty years that any indications of what might or
might not have been pre-Conquest masonry in situ have been
overlaid and obliterated ; and no fragment of sculptured
stone of that period, whether monumental or architectural,
has come to light or been preserved. This fact does not, how-
ever, in any way annul the significance of the remarkable
dissimilarity between the proportions of the nave and those
of the chancel.

But to whatever period its erection is to be assigned, the
evidence of the structure itself makes it quite clear that the
early church consisted of an aisleless nave and chancel only,
to which more than one extension has been provided, as the
necessity for increased accommodation arose. The north aisle
was added first, then the south aisle and an extended chancel.
Such, indeed, is the normal story of the development and
expansion of small aisleless churches. It was customary in
early times to bury the dead on the south side of the church
only, and one reason why the first addition was almost always
made on the north was because no graves would be disturbed
in such a process. Another reason is doubtless to be found
in the fact that the light comes from the south. Windows
are often both more numerous and larger on that side, and
to introduce an arcade and an aisle between the nave and
the daylight would be to darken the main body of the church.
At Pickhill, Tanfield, Kirkby Malzeard, Low Kilburn, Ample-
forth, and Helmsley aisles exist on the north sides of the
churches only, whilst at Hornby and Bedale there are aisles
on both sides, but those on the north were constructed first.
And in both the last-named churches recourse was had in the



To fact page 106.



PLATE XXV.




[G. W. Thornton, phot.

PATRICK BROMPTON PR RESPOND, 6. Il8o.



Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 107

Fifteenth century to the expedient to a clerestory to afford
more light to the nave.

The last quarter of the Twelfth century was a period of
special activity in church building in this district. As at
Hornby, so at Patrick Brompton, the character of the ornament
of the north arcade has doubtless been inspired by the new
work then executed at St. Mary's Abbey, the vestibule to the
Chapter House of which remains in ruins. 1 It is of a school of design
of which Yorkshire affords many admirable examples, e.g. Askham,
Nun Monkton, Old Malton (west doorway), Sinningthwaite, and
elsewhere ; but the architectural affinities of the arcade are more
with Hornby than with the work seen at these other places. At
Patrick Brompton it would appear that the intention was
either to add transepts to the eastern end of the nave, or to
throw out transeptal chapels on either side, or possibly a
scheme was set [on foot to rebuild the whole church on a
uniform plan. Which of these three alternatives was in the
minds of the promoters must ever remain a matter of con-
jecture. But however this may be, a careful examination of
the details of what may be termed the three sections of the
work carried out towards the end of the Twelfth century shows us
that ^rnore than one change was made during its progress.
.The first extension was the opening out of an arch in the
north wall of the nave, at its eastern end. The responds
of this are less in height from base to capital than those of
all the other arches constructed at this time ; and the base-
moulds (which consist of a bead and a quirk, with a water-
holding hollow, and a flat elliptical curve beneath) are rather
less advanced in character than the base-moulds towards the
western end of the same arcade. The respond piers, composed
of four clustered shafts, are crowned by semi-octagonal capitals,
adorned with foliage. The arch, which is pointed, is of two
orders, and has a hood-mould towards the nave, but not
towards the aisle. The inner order is ornamented by two
bold rolls at its angles with a pointed fillet, or V-shaped mem-
ber, placed between them ; the outer order is a plain chamfer
towards the aisle, but on the nave side it is highly enriched
by s'eries of chevrons on its wall and soffit planes embracing
a roll set upon the angle. (Plate XXV.) The hood-mould

1 The original fabric of St. Mary's greater part of the city of York. But no
Abbey, erected in 1089, was destroyed in repairs were immediately executed. The
1137 by a fire which devastated the chapter house was built about 1170.



108



Richmondshirc Churches.



consists of the indented ornament, which we meet in a correspond-
ing situation at Bedale, and over the south doorway at Well, c. 1190.

Very shortly after the completion of this work, an arch
was inserted in a similar position in the south wall. In
its details it follows that just described, but it is of some-
what greater span, and is higher by 2 ft. at its springing,
and by 3 ft. 9 in. at the apex. In after years this arch
underwent some modification, as we shall presently see ;
but, whatever the intention may have been at the period
of its construction, the fact that it was built both taller and
wider than its fellow on the north indicates that some change
had taken place in what was originally projected.

The next step was the construction of an arcade of three
bays in the north wall of the nave to the west of the opening
already pierced. The arches are of the same form as the older
one, but they have their springing at the level of that on the
south side ; and a small piece of wall has been left where the
two sections of the work join, thus forming a compound pier.
The details of the arches and their hood-moulds are identical
with those already described, the treatment of the capitals
alone differing. These
are carved with the
water -leaf in much
pleasing variety, and
they exhibit French
rather than English mo-
tive. It is quite possible
that some French stone-
mason may have been
then working in this
district, for the same
peculiarity is even more
marked in one of the
capitals at Bedale, of the
same date. The piers
themselves are formed
by clusters of eight
shafts, and rise from
moulded octagonal bases
and square sub-bases.
The base-moulds of the
isolated piers and of the western respond are of a section asso-




CAPITAL AT BEDALE,

SHEWIN,; KKENCH MANNER.



Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 109

dated with the subsequent period which has been termed " Early
English." So that we are probably justified in the deduction that
we have here a rapid development of the primary intention
namely the addition of small transeptal chapels to that of
a continuous aisle, extending to the western extremity of the
church.

Contemporary with the north arcade was the planning of
an enriched south doorway. This has more than once suffered
mutilation. It was no doubt first inserted in the wall of the
early church ; then removed on the continuation of the south
aisle to the west end of the church in the fourteenth century,
and set in the new aisle wall. Lastly, it suffered considerable
injury in 1864; notwithstanding all which it still retains enough
of its original features to tell its story. It is formed with
three nook shafts on either side, which rise from plain moulded
bases, and carry capitals decorated with the simple water-leaf
curling over at the top, to which Mr. Sharpe has given the
name of " the transitional volute." The abaci are moulded,
and the arch, which is obtitsely pointed, is of three orders.
The soffit order is a bold roll, the middle and outer orders
being enriched with the chevron ornament, and having smaller
rolls on the angles. There is a hood-mould enriched with voided
lozenges enclosing pellets. In order that it might be accom-
modated to a comparatively thin early wall, and yet retain its
character, the doorway was designed to stand out from the
wall to the extent of six inches. The external angles of its


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