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jambs are worked with engaged shafts carrying capitals, and
no doubt it was originally surmounted by a gable, forming
what might be termed a quasi porch, with some enrichment
above the arch, all traces of which have disappeared. Com-
parison with analagous and contemporary examples which
have survived elucidate without any question what the treat-
ment was. These are the northern and western doorways
of the splendid remains of the Abbey Church of Kelso ; the
west door of the somewhat earlier nave of Lindisfarne Priory ;
and the almost contemporary doorway opening from the great
stair to the upper hall of Bishop Pudsey's addition to the
castle at Durham. Another example, though much restored,
may be quoted that of the north door of the Galilee chapel
of Durham Cathedral, erected by the same prelate.

There is no evidence of a transitional chancel, as at Hornby ;
it is probable, therefore, that the east end of the early church

110 Richmondshire Churches.

lasted until the Fourteenth century, when the fabric underwent
material transformation. We may thus picture the church at
this time as consisting of the present nave with the aisle on
its north, and a chapel on its south side, a small chancel
not much longer than its width, and the west end probably
surmounted by a bell-cot. The north aisle wall appears to be
contemporary with the arcade. The fourteenth century work
is to be distinguished by the walls being almost 3 ft. in thick-
ness, rising from a bold plinth, and furnished with buttresses.
The wall in question, however, has a substance of 2 ft. 5 in.
only, and was built without plinth or buttresses, like the chancel
of Kirklington, which is of nearly the same date. There is
a north door towards the western end, semi-circular headed,
and with continuous mould to its jambs and arch, consisting
of a pointed roll, set between hollows ; and this appears
contemporary with the arcade and the aisle wall. The original
windows have all, however, been replaced by larger ones, which
are of various dates, and are all dissimilar. Near the middle
of the aisle wall a window with acutely pointed arch and
widely splayed jambs seems to be an insertion of about the
year 1250 or 1260. It is of two uncusped lights, the mullion
bifurcating at the springing line, and carried right and left
into the window arch. The trefoil-headed lancet in the west
wall may also date from the latter part of the Thirteenth
century ; the other windows are of fourteenth century character,
but of different designs and inferior technique to those in the
south aisle.

About the year 1320, the present magnificent chancel was
built, and at the same time, or possibly a few years later,
the three western bays were added to the south aisle of the
nave. The intention on the part of the twelfth century builders,
if such existed, of completing this part of the church on the
lines of the north side, was carried out only in a general sense.
The details were worked in the fashion of a century and a half
later, and considerable economy was exercised. The chapel
arch was either shored up or reset, and a column of fourteenth
century type inserted in the place of its western respond. The
capital of the latter, carved with the water-leaf, has been
preserved by being- built into the south aisle wall above the
piscina. The piers of the aisle each consist of four filleted
shafts set [at jthe Bangles of a square centre. These carry oc-
tagonal caps, but the neckings follow the curved section of the

Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. Ill

columns, and the two forms meet in a deep hollow. The
arches are of two orders, with plain mouldings on their cham-
fered faces. The fourteenth century builders omitted the hood-
mould, and they appear also to have stripped off the indented
hood from the eastern arch, for a length of this is preserved as
a detached stone in the vestry, and can have come from no
other place. The east end of the aisle was appropriated as a
chapel, probably dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. It
contains a piscina with credence shelf above, enclosed within a
pointed tref oiled arch, with triangular hood ; and on the east
wall are image blocks, the one being semi-circular and moulded,
the other semi-octagonal, with the shell ornament carved on
its under surface. The altar window is of three lights with
reticulated tracery, in imitation of the east window of the
chancel, but inferior to that in execution. The three windows
in the south wall have been of uniform design. Their jambs
and arches are moulded, both inside and out ; and they each
have two pointed lights with foliation and uncusped openings
in the head.

In the striking superiority of the chancel to all other work
in the building, we trace the influence of the wealthy monastic
house to which it owes its origin. The builders did not
suffer the fact that it had to be accommodated to a very
narrow nave to interfere with its due proportions ; ' and we
have thus the unusual spectacle of a chancel nearly 6 ft.
wider than the nave. Its interior dimensions are about 41 ft.
by 20 ft. 3 in. Externally, the east end is skilfully arranged.
Four well-grouped buttresses embrace the angles ; the two
facing east have gabled heads, whilst those facing north and
south are crowned by crocketed pinnacles with carved finials.
The great east window of five lights, with good mouldings
and hoods both inside and out, affords an admirable example
of reticulated tracery, so much in vogue in the former half
of the Fourteenth century. Illustrations occur at the Friary,
Reading, 1306 ; at the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Oxford,
1318-37 ; and in the south wall of the cloisters at Westminster.
The south elevation of the chancel is, perhaps, the most pleasing
part of the structure ; the more so as it has, to a large extent,
escaped the injury done to other parts of the fabric in 1864.
The wall is divided by buttresses of bold projection into
three compartments, the buttresses being crowned by curved
pyramids with finials. The windows of the chancel, three

112 Richmondshire Churches.

in the south wall and one on the north side are all alike,
the jambs and arches being of two orders, moulded both inside
and out with sunk chamfers. The tracery is simple but good,
consisting of pointed trefoils and quatrefoils. The hood-moulds
which surmount the windows terminate in large sculptured
heads. Those inside the church depict human visages of
serene expression, outside they are the heads of devils and
other uncouth monsters ; and each one is a carefully wrought
work of art. The idea typified is that the church represents
the Kingdom of Heaven, within which are holiness and virtue;
evil and sin dwelling without. The quire door in the south
wall is placed just east of the western buttress, and has con-
tinuous mouldings the filleted roll set between hollows to
its jambs and arch, with a hood-mould above, terminating in
grotesque heads. Beneath the adjoining window is a recessed
niche, which may have once contained a figure of Saint Patrick.
At the extreme west end is a low side window, or lychnoscope,
as it has been termed, having a trefoiled ogee head, moulded,
but without hood. The wall is capped by a fine moulded
cornice, from which two gargoyles project ; a parapet and

The detail of the chancel within is in no way inferior to
its magnificent external effect. The chancel arch is acutely
pointed, and of three moulded orders, the outer order being
continuous, but the two inner ones rise from moulded bases,
and are interrupted at the springing by small capitals. The
section may be described as a series of pear-shaped members
with deep hollows between them, but the soffit order is a filleted
roll. The transcendently beautiful effect of this chancel is largely
due to the employment of elaborate suites of mouldings in its
windows and other arches. The sedilia which occupy the normal
position on the south wall within the altar rail, are quite the best
example in the district of this interesting feature. The arches which
surmount the three stalls are trefoil - headed, with pedimental
enclosing canopies enriched with crockets and finials of the hawthorn
leaf. The spandrils are relieved with sunk trefoils. At either end of
the group are flanking buttresses, panelled, and terminating in
crocketed pinnacles ; whilst the gablets between the stalls are
carried by boldly sculptured heads, the one of a Bishop, the
other of a priest. East of this a' piscina, with plain circular
basin, is placed in a trefoil-headed recess. The central foil is
a semi-circle ; and the whole is enclosed within a pointed hood.


To face page 113.

[G. W. Thornton, phot.


Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 113

On the east wall and on either side of the altar, are fine
tabernacles formed by engaged wall shafts, resting on small
corbelled heads, and surmounted by projecting canopies. These
are of the ogee form, moulded, with triangular hoods above,
crocketed, and with well-carved finials. The image blocks
are boldly carved ; that on the south represents a king's head,
crowned, and with flowing curls ; that on the north a grotesque
human bust with arms and hands. On the north side of the
chancel, and also within the altar rail, a sepulchral or monu-
mental canopy is recessed in the wall. (Plate XXVI.) The
arch is admirably moulded, the motif being the same as that
of the chancel arch ; and it is rendered into a trefoil at the
head by large moulded cusps, with sunk triangles in the span-
drils. There is a bold hood-mould, of the round and hollow
type, carried on sculptured heads, which are exceptional amongst
those inside the chancel, being grotesques perhaps because
they were associated with burial. 1 There are flanking shafts
on either side of the tomb, terminating in small pinnacles.
A fine roll-mould is carried round all three sides of the chancel
in the form of a string-course running beneath the sills of the
windows, and carried over the heads of the low side window,
the quire door and sedilia on the south wall ; and over the
sepulchral recess and the vestry door on the north. The walls
are crowned internally by a moulded cornice.

The entrance to a rood loft, with its newel stair of eleven
steps in the north abutment of the chancel arch, is excep-
tionally well preserved ; and it was only recently that the
opening at the head of the stair, giving access to the rood-
loft, was walled up and obliterated. The marked similarity
between this chancel and that of Kirkby Wiske, and, in a lesser
degree, those of Croft and Ainderby Steeple, has frequently been
commented upon. Doubtless all are of nearly the same date,
but we incline to think that Patrick Brompton is slightly the
oldest, as it is unquestionably the best. More remarkable,
however, is the parallel afforded by a comparison with the
chancel of Burneston, which can scarcely be less than seventy
years later, yet which has assuredly been inspired by the same

1 See remarks upon a similar sepulchral instances, temporary structures only,

recess at Kirkby Wiske, at page 66. At Newark a chantry chapel was added

Although not designed for such a purpose, to the north side of the chancel early in

it is quite likely that these recesses were the Sixteenth century, "in that place

used as Easter sepulchres. There is where the sepulchre is wont to be set up

evidence that the accessories for the per- at Easter."
formance of this function were, in most

114 Richmondshire Churches.

design. Mr. Hamilton Thompson says that these fourteenth
century Richmondshire chancels are, indeed, members of a
fairly large family, due to a school of masons working, in the first
instance, at York ; the type afterwards spreading into Lincolnshire,
Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire, and in some instances into
Cheshire and South Lancashire. Their presence here is easily
explained by the connection between St. Mary's Abbey and
the churches of Patrick Brompton and Burneston ; and their
occurrence in the archdeaconry of Nottingham, and in the
dioceses of Lincoln and Lichfield is also susceptible of fairly
satisfactory proof. The masons who worked under Archbishop
Romanus on the nave of the Minster developed a York
school, whose last great work before 1291 had been the nave
of St. Mary's Abbey. Members of this school would naturally
be employed in other parts of the diocese ; and so we get,
in process of time, evidence of their handiwork in the North
and East Ridings. Others would be sent southward, probably
by the Archbishop, to Southwell ; and Southwell, from about
1296 onwards, certainly became the centre of a school of
masons who showed a genius for sculpture, closely allied to
that of the builders of the nave and chapter house of York
Minster. At Halsall, again, which is close to Southport, the
interior likeness of the chancel to Patrick Brompton and
Kirkby Wiske is so close that it seems impossible to doubt
the connection.

On the north of the chancel is a contemporary vestry,
which has on its east side a three-light window, with a nearly
flat segmental head, and tracery of uncommon form, reminding
us somewhat of a window at Over, in Cambridgeshire. In the
north wall there is a pointed window of two lights, and a
piscina enclosed within a trefoil-headed recess. Affixed to
the same wall there is an image block carved with a human
visage, having remarkable wavy locks of hair. A corbel stone
exactly similar and doubtless the work of the same sculptor
is found at Kirkby Wiske on the north wall of the sanctuary ;
and it is quite likely that this has once occupied a similar
position at Patrick Brompton.

One of the bells, with the inscription : PRAY FOR us, BLESSED
PATRICK, has evidently been cast for this church ; and it
appears to be one of a series of bells (of which Bedale and
Burneston furnish other examples) provided about the year

Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 115

1400. It is too large for a bell-cot, and its presence here
suggests that there was a tower or belfry of some sort in the
Fifteenth century or earlier.

1577, March 27. At the towne called Patrike Brumton, nere to Rich-
inonde, beganne a vyolent winde, that overthrewe cotages, trees, barnes and
haystackes, the steeple of the church riven from the topp to the battlements,
and shortly fell to the ground ; the fall whereof spoyled a greate parte of the
churche ; three belles which hunge in the steeple were caste out into the
churchyarde, and neyther of them broken. The lightnynges were also verye
greevous, with many daungerous flashings, and overthrowing of hedges, con-
suming all kinde of grairie in their barnes, to the great hindraunce of many.
Batsman's Divine Warning to Judgment, p. 403.

Stow adds : "With most strange sights in the ayre, both terrible and
fearefull." Annals, p. 1153.

Shortly after the catastrophe above narrated, the "steeple"
was rebuilt in the form of a plain square tower, as shown
in the accompanying illustration of the church in 1820. This
was, in turn, demolished in 1864, when the present rather gaudy
erection was constructed. It is said that the sixteenth century
tower was encased within the present one, but this can only
have been so to a very limited extent ; and the latter is in
general design, in its belfry openings, battlements, and pinnacles,
really a new work. The arch by which it opens to the church
is also modern, and is a great disfigurement to the interior.

The tower contains three bells, which have the following
inscriptions :





The first bell measures 25^ inches across, and weighs about
3| cwt. The initial cross is floriated, and the legend is in
decorated capitals, the interspaces of each letter displaying a
small sprig or branch ; and each letter is placed at an equal
distance round the shoulder of the bell, thus filling up the
space in a regular way. The letters are of similar form to those
which appear on a pre-Reformation bell at Marrick, but the
initials in that case are crowned.

The legends on the two other bells both appear to make
reference to the havoc wrought by the great storm of 1577 ;
but that upon the second bell is scarcely intelligible. Bell-

116 Richmondshire Churches.

founders were not scholars, and frequently bungled an inscription
given them to produce. If we were to substitute RIMA for CIMA,
the meaning might then be : A VERY LITTLE CRACK OCCASIONED
VERY GREAT RUIN. This bell measures 28 inches across ; the
third bell 31 inches. And they may weigh about 5 cwt. and
6 cwt. respectively.

In the west window of the north aisle many fragments
of mediaeval glass, representing the heads of saints and other
objects, have been pieced together kaleidoscope fashion, and
so preserved from destruction. In the vestry windows are two
excellent armorial shields in painted glass.

1. Azure semee of fleurs-de-lys, a lion rampant " guardant
argent, for DALTON. Laurence Dalton began a visitation of
Yorkshire in 1559, and, dying 1561, was buried at St. Dunstan
in the West, London.

2. Gules a fesse argent between as many crosslets or, three
in chief and as many in base. This appears to be for PEVERELL.

Of other memorials in the church, mention may be made
of a brass commemorating THOMAS LOWDEN, of Brunton, Attorney
of Laws, who died 8 December, 1666. There is also a grave-
cover, which may well be contemporary with the north arcade,
but it is much worn by passing feet. It displays a chalice of
the tall, early shape, and the shaft of a cross which has
apparently had a linen scarf or vexillum attached.

The communion vessels are none of them of great antiquity,
yet they present features of special interest. The chalice
was made by John Langwith, a goldsmith of York, who was
free in 1699. The date letter G represents the year 1707-8,
and this is the only example known of a York piece of that
year. Its marks also show it to be of the higher standard of
silver, namely n oz. 10 dwt. fine, as against n oz. 2 dwt.
silver to 18 dwt. of alloy, which constitutes "sterling." This
higher standard (still legal, though seldom used, as it is too
soft) was compulsory between 1697 and 1720, in order to check
melting of the coinage to make plate. The Patrick Brompton
cup is a very rare instance of the use of this standard in association
with the York marks. The paten was made by Cattle & Barber
of York, in 1810, and is a piece of some interest ; it was given
to the church by Mr. William Atkinson. The flagon has the
London marks for the year 1810, and the maker appears to
have been Richard Cooke ; it was the gift of Gregory Elsley,


To face page 117.

Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 117

There is a curious case in the Archbishop's register at York,
in the year 1397, from which it appears that Robert Redmersell,
clerk, had been accused before the justices of the peace at Northaller-
ton, on the feast of St. Andrew, 17 Richard II (3Oth November,
I 393)> f r that he came by night and carried off a chalice of
the value of 405. from the church of Patrikbrumpton, for which
sacrilege he was committed to the Archbishop's prison at York.
The case came up again before the Dean and Chapter, acting Sede
vacante after Archbishop Waldeby's death, on Robert's petition
to be tried by compurgation, which means that he would be
deemed innocent if he produced twelve trustworthy clergy
and laity of the vicinity where the crime was committed,
"and where the said clerk was resident," who should say on
oath that they believed the charge to be unfounded. This
was granted I2th March, and his compurgation was received
on the 28th of the same month, 1398.'

The parish registers ' commence in the year 1558, and are
in good condition, with the exception of one volume containing
burials between the years 1684 and 1724. This has suffered con-
siderable damage.

There was a chapel dedicated to St. Edmund at Hunton
in this parish, founded before 1306, and re-endowed by Geoffrey
le Scrope, chief justice of the King's Bench, in 1329. On
loth July in that year he obtained leave to alienate in mort-
main to Hugh de Burgh, parson of the church of Patrick
Brompton, a messuage, 2 tofts, i croft, and 20 acres of land,
with two meadows in Hunton and Hesselton, to augment the
sustenance of a chaplain, to be found by the parson of the
church, to celebrate divine service daily in the chapel of Hunton
manor, for the souls of the said Geoffrey and of Ivetta, his wife,
their ancestors, and heirs.' 2 The value of the rents and farms
m J 535 was 4 IOS - yeaiiy, and John Wylkenson was chantry
priest. He continued until 1548, when it is said that he was
56 years of age ; the chapel was within the parish of Patrick
Brompton, at a distance of one mile from the church. Mass
was at that time said thrice weekly, upon Sundays, Wednesdays,
and Fridays."

Another chantry is mentioned, that of Saint John the Baptist,
but no date is given for its foundation. This was probably
connected with the altar in the south aisle of the church.

1 Mem. Ripon, ii, 140. - Cal. Pat. Rolls, 3 Edw. Ill, p. 411.

:i Yorks. Chantry Surveys, p. 109.

118 Richmondshire Churches.

The dedication to St. Patrick is an unusual one in this
country, but the church has been so named at least since the
Thirteenth century, and probably much earlier. About 1230,
Helyas son of Arnald, of Neuton, granted to Roger, his brother,
of the same vill, certain lands in the territory of Neuton
" to hold in frank almoigne of God and the church of the
Blessed Patrick of Brunton, paying to the said church of
Patricbrumpton one halfpenny of silver at Christmas." 1

In the. taxation of Pope Nicholas, 1292, Ecclesia de Patri-
brunton is valued at 33 6s. 8d., and there is a yearly payment
of i6s. 8d. to St. Mary's Abbey. In 1392 this annual pension
was 175. 4^., and it was confirmed to the abbey by Archbishop
Thomas Arundel in that year. No vicarage was ordained,
but the rectory was appropriated, after the Reformation, to
the newly-founded See of Chester, and had long been held
under renewable leases by the Elsley family. This tenure
was converted into a fee simple by Bishop Law (1812-24),
who himself gave 200 whilst Parliament granted 300 for the
further endowment of the vicarage. The following is a list of
the clergy, though it is doubtless not quite complete :

c. 1300 THOMAS, parson of Patrick Brompton, had a messuage,
29 acres of land, 2 acres of meadow, and 400 sheep, of the
gift of John of Hunton, by the service of celebrating divine
service daily for the souls of his ancestors.

1306 THOMAS, parson of Patrick Brompton, was at suit with John
of Hunton at Easter, 33 Edward I (1306), touching the
above-named subjects. John asserting that Thomas,
the predecessor in the benefice, had omitted to say service
for the space of two years, and that therefore the title was
lost. At York, 29 January, 1320, the Abbot of Byland
acknowledged that he owed 20^. to Thomas, parson
of the church of Patrick Brompton. (Placit de Banco,
Rot. 176 ; Cat. Close Rolls, 13 Edward II.)

1324 HUGH DE BURGH, king's clerk, parson of Patrick Brompton,
being constantly in attendance on the king's service, had
protection for one year, dated at Nottingham, 22 December,
1324. In 1325 he was the creditor of Roger de Brun-
olesheved, knight, for 405.; he was mentioned as parson
m the licence for Geoffrey le Scrope's chantry in 1329 ;
and in 1330 he declared that he owed zoos, to Richard de

1 Yorks. Archaeol. Rec. Series, xxxix, 124.

To face page 118.


O 2 i_

Saint Patrick, Patrick Brom-pton. 119

Pykeryng, clerk, which was afterwards cancelled on pay-
ment. (Cal. Close Rolls, 18 Edward II and 4 Edward III ;
Cal. Pat. Rolls, 3 Edward III.)

1352 JOHN DE HESLERTOX is probably identical with the
ecclesiastic of that name who founded a chantry at
the chapel of St. John the Baptist at Leeming, 6 July,
1332. Nicholas de Werk, having been convicted before
the sheriff of York for ejecting by force of arms
Thomas de Fencotes, knight, and John de Heslarton,
parson of Patrikbrumpton Church, from certain premises
in York, it was ordered, 20 August, 1352, that Nicholas
be released from prison because he has made line with the
king by two marks, and has also satisfied Thomas and
John. He had an indult from Pope Innocent VI,
3 non. January, 1353, to appoint confessors, in common
form ; and in 1354 he was concerned, with others,

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