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in an action for trespass' and contempt, brought
by Henry de Walton, archdeacon of Richmond. He
died in 1358, and treasure to the value of 1,000 marks
in gold and silver was found buried under the land
where he dwelt, within the site of St. Mary's Abbey, York.
This was ordered to be seized into the king's hands as
treasure trove, and was ordered to be sent to London
without delay. His executor, John de Hothwayt, parson
of Danby, was convicted of having taken 300 of that
treasure, but this was set aside 12 December, 1358, the
king being informed that the 300 so taken was of the
money of John de Heslarton, late parson of Patrikbrumpton
Church, which remained in his hands as executor, and
that it was concealed in a bundle of hay, and not
underground. (Yorks. Chantry Surveys, p. 103 ; Cal.
Pap. Lett., iii, 503 ; Cal. Close Rolls, 26 Edward III and
32 Edward III ; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 33 Edward III ; Plantag.
Harrison, p. 47.)

1358 THOMAS NEVILL, a twin brother of Alexander Nevill, after-
wards Archbishop of York. In 1347, when in his fifteenth
year, he had a papal dispensation to hold the benefice
of Brantingham, in the East Riding, and four years
later he was granted a dispensation to hold a second
benefice, although lie had also a canonry and prebend
in York Minster. He resigned Patrick Brompton in



120 Richmondshire Churches.

1359, and died at Villeneuve, near Avignon, where
he was in attendance on the Papal Court, in 1361.
There were many claimants for the rich benefices
which became vacant through his death. (Torre's
MS.; Cal. Pap. Reg., i, 321 and 374, iii, 262 ; Yorks.
Arch. Journal, xv, 476^.)

1359 \VILLIAM DE STRODE, king's clerk, instituted 30 November,
1359. Had previously, in 1355, held a benefice in
the gift of the abbess and convent of Wherwell.
Became also vicar of Brantingham on the death of
Thomas Nevill, which was confirmed by Innocent VI,
16 kal. September (17 August), 1361, "notwithstanding
that he has the church of Patric Brompton in the
diocese of York, and expects a canonry and prebend
of Wherwell." He was deprived of the living of
Brantingham by Urban V, 16 kal. April (17 March),
1364, " by reason that he did not cause himself to be
ordained priest." (Torre's MS.; Cal. Papal. Reg., i,
278, 321, 374, and 482.)

1369 JOHN DE WALTHAM, instituted 15 May, 1369, on the
presentation of the abbey and convent of St. Mary,
and on the resignation of Robert Palmer, last incum-
bent. Resigned the benefice 1370. (Torre's MS.)

1370 ADAM DE THORNTON, presented by the abbey, and
instituted 20 May, 1370. Was also rector of Stretton.
On 16 September, 1372, he was admitted prebend of
Monkton in Ripon Cathedral, which had been awarded
him in Rome. He was still canon of Ripon in 1375 ; and
in the 7th of Richard II (1383-4), Adam de Thornton,
styled rector of Patrick Brunton, granted three messuages,
a windmill, and four oxgangs and two acres of land in
Sixendale to St. Mary's Abbey. (Torre's MS.; Mem.
Ripon, ii, 229 ; Dugdale's Monasticon, iii, 537.)

1389 WILLIAM LANE was presented 17 August, 1389, to the
church of Patrigbrompton, which is in the king's gift
by reason of St. Mary's Abbey being in his hand
through voidance. The presentation is directed to
Thomas Dalby, archdeacon of Richmond. (Cal. Pat.
Rolls, Rich. II, 1388-92, p. 101.)

1390 JOHN BELNERGE had ratification, under the Privy Seal,
of his estate as parson of Patryngbrumpton in the
diocese of York, 26 April, 1390. Was presented,



Saint Patrick, Patrick Brompton. 121

in the following month, to the church of Aston Flam-
vyll with that of Burbache annexed, 21 May, 1390,
on exchange with John de Popilton. The presentation
is in the king's gift by reason of the lands of John de
Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, being in his hands. (Ibid.,
pp. 242 and 247.)

T 390 JOHN DE POPILTON, chaplain, previously of Aston Flam-
vyll, had ratification, under the Privy Seal, of his estate
as parson of Patrick Brompton, 17 October, 1390 ;
and again on 28 December, 1399. (Cal. Pat. Rolls,
14 Rich. II and i Henry IV.)

c. 1420 WILLIAM CLYNT was also vicar of Masham, to which
he was instituted in 1393. Attended the General
Council of Constance, 1415. He resigned this benefice
in 1423, and his will was proved at York, 26 June,
1425. (Torre's MS.; York. Fabric Rolls, p. 249 ; York.
Wills.)

1423 GUY DE WISHAM, instituted 17 March, 1423, on the
presentation of the abbey. Died 1429. (Torre's MS.)

1429 ALAN HUMBRESTON, instituted 25 May, 1429. Died 1440.
(Ibid.)

1440 WILLIAM HAMBALD, instituted 30 September, 1440.
Resigned same year. (Ibid.)

1441 NICHOLAS MALLOM, instituted 6 February, 1440-1. (Ibid.)

c. 1490 ROBERT COPPYNG alias CAMMELL. Resigned the benefice.

c. 1490 JOHN WRANGWYCH, parson of Patrick Brompton, was
sued by John Williams, clerk, and others, executors
of Robert Coppyng, or Cammell, formerly parson
of the same, for a pension out of the parsonage,
payable in consideration of Coppyng's resignation,
and for detention of documents. Without date, but
apparently between 1486 and 1494. (Early Chanc.
Proc., Bundle 179, No. 51.)

1525 WILLIAM FARRER is mentioned as rector of the parish
in the return for the archdeaconry made in 1525 ;
also in 1535 ; and at Visitations in 1548 and 1554.
He appears to have been rector-in-charge. (Valor
Eccl.', Yorks. Arch. Journal, xiv, 407.)

1575 GEORGE ASKWITH was curatus at the Visitations in
1548 and 1554, Doctor Will Fairer being rector. Buried
at Patrick Brompton, 22 October, 1575, when he was
styled nuper hujus ecclesiae vicarius. (Yorks. Arch.
Journal, xiv, 407 ; Par. Reg.)



122 Richmondshire Chiwches.

1619 THOMAS BEANE. Resigned the benefice. (Torres MS.}

1619 GEORGE SLUTER, presented by George Preston and
others, and instituted 3 May, 1619. (Ibid.)

!6 2 5 LAURENCE NEWTON, inducted 6 January, 1626. Vicar
also of Hornby 1626-1649. Had a daughter, Ursula,
baptized here 1633. (Par. Reg.)

1673 JOHN PLACE. Of Magdalene College, Cambs.; B.A., 1670 ;
M.A., 1675 ; incorporated at Oxford, 1675. Vicar also of
Well, 1683. He resigned Patrick Brompton in 1696
on his appointment to the rectory of West Tanfield.
(Par. Reg.', Grad. Cantab.', Alumni, Oxon.)

1696- MATTHEW WOOD. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; B.A.,
1689 ; M.A., 1696 ; incorporated at Oxford, 1692.
Vicar of Bowden, co. Chester, 1708. His son, Matthew,
was buried at Patrick Brompton, 10 May, 1698. (Par.
Reg.', Foster's Ind. Eccl.)

1721 RICHARD THISTLETHWAITE. Had a son baptized 9 August,
1722, and a daughter, Mary, baptized 16 January, 1723-4

1724 GEORGE SCOTT, died 9 July, 1740, aged 66. Elizabeth,
his wife, was buried 4 February, 1727. (Par. Reg.;
Tombst.)

1741 GREGORY ELSLEY. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; B.A.,
1740 ; M.A., 1741. Resigned this benefice 1765, and
was instituted to Burneston, 5 January, 1765-6, and
died vicar of that parish 24 May, 1789, aged 73.
Mary, his wife, daughter of John Dun well, of Spofforth,
died 6 May, 1798, aged 68. (Par. Reg.; M .1 . at Burnes-
ton.)

1766 THOMAS HARRISON. (Par. Reg.)

I 774 JOHN PATRICKSON. (Ibid.)

1792 JOHN BAINES. (Ibid.)

1803 EDWARD HARDY, inducted 6 March. (Ibid.)

1811 HUGH RIGG, inducted 31 March. Died 20 February,
1866, aged 84. (Par. Reg.; Tombst.)

1866 JOHN THOMPSON. Of Trinity College, Cambs.; B.A.; 1855 ;
M.A., 1858. Died 23 January, 1889. (&ad. Cambs.;
Par. Reg.)

1889 CHRISTOPHER NORTON WRIGHT, M.A., Cantab. Resigned
1894.

1894- -REGINALD EDWARD POWNALL, B.A. Trinity College, Dublin.



PLATE XXIX.



To face page 123.




[/. J. Rutherford, phot.

PICKHILL SOUTH DOORWAY, C. II3O.



CHAPTER VII.



ALL SAINTS, PICKHILL.

THE church of All Saints, Pickhill, occupies a position,
with no small advantage of situation, upon a natural eminence
to the north of the village, and at a distance of a little more
than a mile eastward from the " Leeming Lane." It is observ-
able that all these so-called " Saxon" villages (e.g. Cundall,
Wath, Kirklington, Burneston, and Bedale) were built not on
the Roman road, but at a distance of a mile or so on either
side of it.

At Pickhill, though no part of the church is older than
the Twelfth century, we have ample evidence to show that a Christian
cemetery at least existed at a period previous to the Norman Con-
quest, though not perhaps earlier than the occupation of York
by the Danes in the Tenth century. The evidences of this
early period which remain, in the form of sculptured stones,
all exhibit work of Viking age character, and all point to the
Tenth century, not earlier.

Of the existing fabric there are no features which can be
certainly identified as being older than about 1130, but we may
profitably commence our consideration of this church with the
pre-Conquest sculptured stones, now, happily, preserved beneath
the tower. These are four in number. The earliest appears
to be a portion of a standing cross of fine-grained sandstone,
and very smoothly cut. The face displays a small cross between
knots, and both sides are decorated with plain plaitwork. A
fragment of a cross-shaft of ruder work bears traces of a
design of Scandinavian character, and the figures upon it may
represent Adam and Eve. Besides these, there are two portions
of hog-back grave -covers ; one of the Brompton type with
bears at the ends, the ridge being ornamented with inter-
laced carving. The other displays a lacertine monster with
knotted tail, and the termination of the head is of elaborate
and unusual character. The ridge has also been carved, but
it is so shattered that the design of the ornament is lost.
These are, assuredly, of Anglo-Danish origin.



124 Richmondshire Churches.

Of the church which was co-eval with these sculptured
stones no vestige now remains. It was replaced, apparently,
about the year 1130, by a Norman structure of very good
character ; as the details are well designed and of considerable
elaboration. This church consisted of an aisleless nave and
chancel, and as there is no evidence of a tower it is probable
that the west gable was surmounted by a bell-cot. The sur-
vivals of this period are confined to the south wall of the nave,
which contains an admirable doorway, and the chancel arch
The greater portion of the south wall remains, with its eastern
and western quoined angles and its chamfered plinth extending
as far as the later chancel. Above the plinth is a course of
large ashlar stones, over which again a considerable portion
of the wall is composed of cobbles. The doorway, situated
towards the western end, has two detached nook shafts in
either jamb. These have well- moulded bases, resting upon
chamfered plinths. One of the bases has its upper member
ornamented with the zig-zag moulding, a very unusual feature
in this position. The capitals, which are scalloped, have
cable-moulded neckings. The abacus is, unfortunatel} 7 , all
modern, but fragments of the original abacus, preserved in the
tower, show that it was ornamented with the device of sunk
stars, set saltire-wise. The arch consists of three orders and a
hood-mould, each order enriched with a profusion of zig-zags,
there being as many as five or six members in each. One of
the lines in the intermediate order bears a striking resemblance
to that of the vaulting ribs in the south transept of Durham
Cathedral. The hood-mould is of considerable interest. It is
of two orders, the outer one projecting from the wall in advance
of the other ; and both orders are ornamented with a series
of sunk semi-circles, a device which occurs also in the Norman
chancel arch at Bubwith Church. More remarkable, however,
is the fact that the hood-mould does not spring quite vertically
from the abacus on either jamb, but its arch is slightly horse-
shoed, indicating Moorish influence. At no great distance
there is another example of Eastern motive in the church of
Ingleby Greenhow, where crocodiles, bears, leopards, the head
of an Egyptian and other Eastern armorial forms are carved
upon the capitals of the nave arcade.

The other Norman feature in the church which has remained
unaltered is the chancel arch, which is of the three-centred
type, similar to the Norman chancel arch of the church of



To face page 124.



PLATE XXX.




All Saints, Pickhill. 125

St. Margaret, Durham. This is of two orders. The soffit
order is ornamented on its western side with a series of bold
chevrons, but it is quite plain on its eastern face. The outer
order is similarly devoid of decoration. The inner order is
carried on jambs, formed by two nook shafts on either side,
rising from bases on chamfered plinths. These have neck-
mouldings and scalloped capitals, similar to those of the south
door ; and the abacus, which is enriched with sunk stars, is
returned along the walls, north and south. The terminations
of this ornament may be considered to give the exact width
of the Norman nave, which was accordingly 17 ft. 6 in., a dimen-
sion quite characteristic of that epoch.

The introduction, which has become so prevalent recently,
of oak screens beneath the chancel arch of churches not designed
for such an enrichment, is attended with very diverse results.
At Burneston there can be no question that the screen imparts
a very impressive and dignified appearance to the interior.
At Kirklington, although the conditions were not very different,
the effect is far less pleasing ; the upper member of the screen
presents a bald, harsh line, cutting the curves of the arch.
Here at Pickhill, it seems to us that the entrance to the chancel
suffers a distinct loss, both in dignity and congruity, by the
introduction of the screen ; and this although the latter, con-
sidered as a piece of wood-work, is excellent.

Amongst the detached fragments taken out of the walls at the
restoration of 1876, and now preserved under the tower, are several
details of the same period. These consist of two pieces from the
abacus of the south door, displaying the sunk star pattern ; one
base mould ; and four lengths of detached nook shafts, ornamented
all over with chevron mouldings. The last is a feature of great
interest and considerable rarity. It occurs in several places in the
work executed under Bishop Remigius in the west front of Lincoln
Cathedral ; also at Stow, in Lincolnshire. In addition to
these fragments, there remains a voussoir or archstone, with
chevron mouldings of late character, and differing from those
of the south door and chancel arch. The late Mr. Lukis
suggested that these may have been the remains of an arcading
carried round the interior walls of the early chancel. There is,
however, no evidence of such an enrichment, and we should
rather regard these fragments as the surviving vestiges of a
Norman west door. It is not by any means unusual to find
in twelfth century churches, and in those without aisles, even



126 Richmond shire Churches.

three elaborately-detailed doorways. Two examples may be
quoted, namely, the before-mentioned church of Stow, which
has very elaborate south and west doors, and a somewhat plainer
one to the north ; and the church of North Newbald, in the East
Riding, a complete and very little altered Norman church, which has
three highly-enriched doorways to its nave. Besides the relics
above noticed, there remain in the walls of the chancel many
stones with a twelfth century moulding carved upon them,
which have evidently at one time formed the arch of a doorway,
and were utilised in the building of the chancel about 1280.
These occur mostly in the east wall, but two of them are conspicuous
above the lintel of the low side window in the south wall.

The first addition to this Norman church was the throwing
out of an aisle upon its north side, and this change may be
referred to about the year 1220. The earlier north wall appears
in this case to have been taken down and the new one erected
at a very short distance outwards, thus slightly increasing the
width of the nave. The arcade is of three bays, and the piers,
rising from well-moulded octagonal bases with square sub-bases,
consist in each case of four clustered shafts, disposed in the form
of a quatrefoil on plan. The responds at the east and west ends
have moulded corbels and detached shafts carrying capitals, with
a square bell and flat upper member. The arches are of two
chamfered orders without hood-moulds, and are of characteristic
'Early English' section. The aisle wall is modern.

We have already seen at Patrick Brompton 1 the reasons
why an aisle, when it had to be added, was almost always
placed on the north side of the nave. It may here be
pointed out that of parish churches with one aisle only, there is no
instance in which the fabric was constructed in that way
at the beginning the aisle is always an addition. The old
builders had no objection to a lopsided arrangement if it came
in their way, but they did not deliberately design one."

At the same period that the nave arcade was added, a
Lady chapel was formed on the north side of the chancel,
in the position of an eastward extension of the aisle. This
contains in its south-east angle a piscina and squint, similar
to one in Well Church, and the chapel may quite possibly
represent in its eastern dimension the extent of the Norman
chancel. Mr. Lukis, who was present and took much interest

1 See page 106, ante.
"Micklethwaite, Archeeohgifal /oional, xxxvii, 366.



To face page 126.



>LATE xxxi.




[/. /. Rutherford, phot.



PICKHILL - CHANCEL ARCH, C.



All Saints, Pickhitt. 127

in the restoration of the church, in 1876, records the fact
that the early chancel was 14 ft. 6 in. long internally. It is
highly probable that he saw the foundations of the east wall
in situ, like the apse at Wath, which he marked upon his
plan of that church. 1 The chapel opens to the chancel by a
pointed arch of two orders, the soffit order being carried on
shaft corbels with capitals, similar to the pier responds of the
nave. Towards the aisle, the opening to the chapel is by an
arch, which may also have been furnished with an inner order
carried on coi belled shafts, but if so this has disappeared in
the course of some restoration, and the reveal is now devoid
of embellishment of any kind. The chapel was doubtless
devoted to the functions of a chantry in honour of the Blessed
Virgin. On 25 April, 1586, Queen Elizabeth granted to John
Awbrey and John Ratcliffe two messuages with a toft and a
croft and eight acres of arable land in the fields and territories
of Sinderby, Picall, and Roxby, which were of old given
for the maintenance of a priest to celebrate masses for ever
at the altar of the Blessed Mary, before the image of the said
Blessed Mary, in the parish church of Picale. The premises
in question were conveyed, in 1590, to trustees " to the end
that the rents and profits should be employed only in and about
the repairing and amending of the parish church of Pickhill
for ever." These extensions of the Norman church may safely
be put at about 1220-30, and there is much reason to connect
them with the name of Jollan de Neville, who was Lord of
Pickhill from 1219 until his death in 1246. Jollan, who was
the son of Jollan (died 1209), succeeded his elder brother,
John, in the fourth year of Henry III ; was Justice Itinerant
in 1234, an d again in 1240 ; and from 1241 to 1245 he was
one of the Superior Justices at Westminster.

Before the close of the Thirteenth century, or about the
year 1280, another considerable addition was made to the
church. This consisted of a new chancel, which was extended
eastward, so as to be nearly twice the size of the earlier one.
The east window of this chancel, which is worked in limestone,
is of much interest. It has three lights, the mullions simply
bifurcating at the springing line, and crossing each other in
the head ; and the openings are without cusps. It is, indeed,
an early example of bar tracery ; and the same arrangement is
seen in the south aisle of the Priory Church of Blyth, erected in

1 Ass. Arch. Soc. Report for 1875.



128 Richmondshire Churches.

1287, and at St. Mary-le-Wigford, Lincoln, somewhat earlier. The
jambs and arch-moulds are continuous.; the outer member is a
filleted roll, and two smaller rolls are set between hollows, next the
glass. There is no hood-mould. The chancel has a low side window
in the usual position at the western end of the south wall. This has
now a square head, and is of very uncertain date, but it was until
recently enclosed by a wooden shutter. Just east of this the
masonry of the wall indicates that an opening, probably a priest's
door, has been walled up in modern times. Towards the eastern
end of the south wall of the chancel is a semi-circular recessed
piscina, with polygonal projecting basin.

The tower is the last addition to the church of any interest,
and this is quite late post- Reformation, indeed. It communi-
cates with the nave by a pointed arch of two chamfered orders,
the inner one dying at the springing line. The west window is
of three lights, uncusped, and the western buttresses which
are set diagonally are of considerable depth and many stages.
The belfry openings are of very late character, certainly not
earlier than 1550, and possibly not earlier than 1584, the date
which appears upon the oldest of the bells. A projection at
the south-east angle of the tower carries the newel stair. In the
jambs of the tower arch on either side are scored incisions,
such as are frequently met with, which have been formed by
the sharpening of knives and other weapons.

The modern vestry, which is placed in the usual position
on the north side of the chancel appears as an excrescence
upon the mediaeval building. But it has this saving grace
that we owe to it the preservation of the only original window,
except that at the east end of the chancel. All the other
windows in the church are modern, and those in the nave wall
are filled with plate tracery a somewhat daring, though not
unpleasing, effort on the part of the architect who designed
them. Since we have not hesitated to condemn the prepos-
terous angle of the roofs at Catterick and that of the nave
of Kirklington, it is a pleasure to be able to say that the
modern roofs at Pickhill, though of high pitch, are entirely proper
to a building, the main character of which is that of the Thirteenth
century. On the whole, the restoration of 1876 was exceptionally
well done. Of the original window in the north wall of the chancel,
we have only the rear arch, which was walled up to save trouble
when the vestry encroached upon a portion |of the wall then
open to the day. There is sufficient, however, to show that this



To face page 128.



1 l.ATF, XXXII.







All Saints, Pickhill. 129

was contemporary with the extension of the chancel, to which
we have assigned a date about 1280.

The tower contains three bells, with the following inscrip-
tions :

1. IESVS BEE OVR SPEED 1656.

2. THIS BELL AT PICAALL ANNO DOMINI 1584.
3- JOHN WARNER & SON LONDON l868.

There is also in the belfry an ancient beam carved with hare and
hounds, masks, foliage, etc., apparently the work of the Fifteenth
century. Some carved lettering of later date (perhaps the
former half of the Seventeenth century) now occupies a position
upon the modern lych gate, but formerly ornamented a parclose
screen dividing the chantry chapel from the aisle. The inscrip-
tion runs :

SI JUDEX PRO CAUSA MEA SENSERIT, JUDICARE NON EST TUUM :
POST TENEBRAS SPERO LUCEM. CREDO CARNIS RESURRECTIONEM ET
EXPECTO IN DIEM DOMINI.

Translation. If the Judge shall give sentence for my cause,
it is not thine to judge : After darkness I hope for light. I believe
in the resurrection of the flesh, and I look for the day of the Lord.

The additional word MORITVRA, which was upon the screen,
but has now perished, implies that the admonition is that of a
woman " She who is about to die." The font bears the date 1686,
and the initials R R I ffi IP; but its base and the lower
of the stalk appear to have belonged to a thirteenth century
font.

There are preserved beneath the tower, amongst other early
fragments which have from time to time been met with in the
walls of the fabric, or half buried in the churchyard, five
portions of thirteenth and fourteenth century grave-covers,
having floriated crosses sculptured or incised upon them. One
of these which belongs to about the same period as the exten-
sion of the chancel is illustrated in Volume XX, of the York-
shire Archceological Journal. Of considerably greater interest,
however, is the effigy of an armed knight, which is now pre-
served within the altar rails. It was discovered in 1876, buried


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