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in a cavity beneath the floor of the chancel, where it had
probably been thrown in the course of some alterations in the
Seventeenth century. The reason for thinking that it had lain
lost for so long is that the monument is not without the usual
initials and lettering with which vandals in all ages have



130 Richmondshire Churches.

chosen to deface works of art, yet none of these mutilations
seem to be of more recent date than about 1660. The knight
is depicted in chain armour with head piece and coif of mail,
the latter bound on by a narrow band about the temples.
The mail shirt extends to the knees, and the arms and gloves
of the same material are all in one piece. There is a sleeveless
surcoat reaching to the ankles, but gathered up in folds about
the waist by a tight band. The sheathed sword has a pommel
hilt, and is attached by a belt round the waist, from which
it depends in the front of the person. The head reposes on
crossed cushions, and a shield is hung upon the left arm by
means of a broad sash passing bendwise over the right shoulder.
The device upon the shield is,
happily, well preserved, and
may be blazoned : A fillet dan-
cette surmounted by a chevron.
Although differing so widely
from the well-known saltire of
subsequent lords of Raby and
Middleham, this is without
doubt the shield of a Neville.
It may quite possibly have
been adopted from some family,
the heiress of which married a
Neville ; and the arms convey a
suggestion of the bearing of
Fitz Randolph. The manor of
' ' Picala ," as it is called in Domes-
day, was then (1085) in the hands
of Alan, Earl of Richmond ; but some hundred years later it
was bestowed by Alan, Constable of Richmond Castle, in marriage
with his daughter, Amfelisa, upon Jollan de Neville. The words
in the grant are the lands of Pikale, with the monastery lands and
their pertinents, in woods and plains, in mills, meadows and
pastures, in roads and ways ; and the witnesses include Ralph de
Glanville, Roger de Lascelles, Geoffrey de Neville, etc. 1 Alan
the constable was a contemporary of Earl Conan, who died in
1171, and he held the office until 1206, when he was succeeded
by Hugh de Neville. Ralph de Glanville died at Acre, in the
Holy Land, about 1190 ; and Roger de Lascelles was living
in I2I2, 2 and died before 1221. The date of this charter may,

1 Charter Rolls; Gale's Richmondshire, Appendix, in.
a Gui thorough Chartulary, ii, 312.




All Saints, Pickhill. 131

therefore, be roughly assumed at slightly before 1190. Whether
the distinguishing device which appears* upon this effigy was
adopted by JoUan de Neville from the ensign of Alan the
constable will, perhaps, never be known, but it is certain
that it was borne by his descendants in the Thirteenth and
Fourteenth centuries.

Jollan de Neville had a grant of lands in the county of
Kent in H99, 1 and he was connected with the Exchequer in
1 200 and 1207. He was in all probability the original compiler
of a part at least of the ancient record called Testa de Neville'',
and he died in the gth of John (1208-9), leaving two sons,
John and Jollan, who became successively lords . of Pickhill.
The former died without issue in 1219, and Isabel, his widow,
remarried to Ralph Musard, whose wife she was in 1223 and
1227. * The younger Jollan, who succeeded to the property
of his elder brother, 4 was, as we have already noticed, Justice
Itinerant for several years before 1241, and afterwards one of
the Superior Justices at Westminster until his death in 1246.''
On 19 October, in the last-named year, the king took the
homage of Jollan, son of Jollan de Neville (who was 22^ years
of age), for a knight's fee in Sheerness ; and also for lands
at Hesinton, in Suffolk, in respect of which he is heir to John
Beauchamp, his uncle." Jollan was also heir in the same year
of Eva de Grey in lands in Oxfordshire, and his mother's* name
was Maud. : This Jollan survived his succession only a few
years, and, dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother,
John de Neville, whose homage was taken 15 March, 1250.'"

As thus :

ALAN, Constable of Richmond Castle.



JOLLAN DE NEVILLE, d. i2O9=AMFF.LiSA, mar. c. 1190
JOHN DE N., d.s.p. 1219 JOLLAN DE N., justice, d. 1246

JOLLAN DE N., b. 1224, d. 1249 JOHN DE N.,

1250, 1254, &c.

ANDREW DE NEVILLE, of Pickhill 1287, = ALICE, living 1296
d. 1295 J

I

JOLLAN DE NEVILLE, b. 1270;
Had grant of market in Pickhill 1306

1 Rot. de Oblatis, p. 25. "' Fosi fudges, p. 474.

2 Foss' Judges. o xfi _#/. fi'm'um, pp. 455 and 464.

I F o\ f f , ines > ** en ' m ' I)P ' I( J5' 35i- 7 juj. Cal. Genealogicum, p. 180.

* Rot. Llaus., I, 409, 490; II, 43 ;

Exc. Rot. Finium, 140. 8 Ibid -> 73-



13-2 Richmondshire Churches.

John granted a lease of the whole of his lands of Pickehal,
with the capital messuage there, to Richard Grusay, citizen of
York, for six years from 1254.' John, son of John, is men-
tioned 12 September, 1257, when the king confirmed a lease of
the manor of Pykehall to Nicholas de Menyll, son and heir of
Stephen de Meynill, at farm for twenty years, he doing the
usual services to the chief lords of the fee.' The next lord
of Pickhill of whom we have notice was Andrew 7 ( de Neville
at the date of Kirkby's Inquest, 1287, and who had property
also in Lincolnshire 9 Edward I. 3 Andrew died in 1295, and
looking at the style of the armour and probable date of the
effigy in Pickhill Church, it is reasonable to suppose that he
is the person commemorated. Jollan, son and heir of Andrew
de Neville, aged 24 and upwards, is mentioned in connection
with the Lincolnshire property in 1295 ; and in the following
year Ordericus de Wyppeyns came before the king at York,
on Wednesday, the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedra (22 February),
and sought to replevy his land in Pykhale, taken into the
king's hands for default, against Alice, late the wife of Andrew
Neville. 4 To Jollan de Neville Edward I granted, 26 May,
1306, rights of market and fair and free warren in his lands
of Pikehale co. York, Rolleston co. Notts., and Riggesby co.
Lincoln. 5 There may be a weekly market at Pickale on Satur-
days, and a fair of ten days duration yearly, in the vigil and
day of the nativity of Blessed Virgin Mary (September 8)
and for eight days next following."

We are scarcely concerned in this place to follow the pedi-
gree further, but it is evident that the Nevilles retained Pickhill
for more than three centuries at least, for the will of John Neville,
son of Sir Thomas Neville, of Pickhall and Rolleston, was proved
10 September, 1515. 7

Within the parish cf Pickhill, and at a distance of about a mile
and a half from the church, was situated the Premonstratensian
Abbey of Swainby, of which it may be said
Perierunt etiam ruinae.

Its site and its memory alone remain. This abbey was founded
about n88 8 by Helewisa, daughter and heir of Ralph de Glanville,

1 Cal. Pat. Rolls, 40 Hen. III. K The date 1190, usually assigned to

* Ibid. , 41 Hen. III. the founding of Swainby Abbey, cannot

* Cal. Geneal. , pp. 309 and 496. be correct, for several grants to the
4 Cal. Close Rolls, Kdw. I, p. 508. canons were confirmed by Henry II, as
r > Gale, Appendix, 145. narrated in a charter of Edward III; and
'' R. Cart., 35 Edw. I. m. i. Henry II died on 6 Tly, 1189.

7 Test. Ebor., v, 70.



All Saints, Pickhill. 133

a baron and Chief Justice of England in the reign of Henry II,
and wife of Robert of Middleham, the builder of Middleham Castle.
Her son, Waleran, was living at the date of the foundation. But
Ralph, son of Robert, and heir of Waleran, having had many con-
tests (altercationes) with the canons of Swainby, removed the abbey
in 1213 to Coverham, where he founded them a house and (by
fine passed in the King's Court in the i4th of John) bestowed upon
them the church of Coverham, together with many lands and tene-
ments. Helewisa, the foundress, died in 1195, and was buried
at Swainby, but her bones were afterwards transferred to-
Coverham and deposited in the Chapter House there. 1 There is a
grant of lands, about 1215, by Michael of Leyburn, to the
church of St. Mary de Caritate of Swainby, and to the canons
of the same, "which church has recently been translated thence
to a place called Coverham." Elias, parson of Picchehale,
is one of the witnesses."

Fountains Abbey had also extensive possessions here, as in most
other places. Elias, son of Stephen de Rokesby, gave several
tenements in Pickhall and Rokesby in 1235 ; and two years later,
Richard, son of William de Rutington, released to the abbot a claim
to two carucates of land in Rokesby. William the clerk of
Pykehall, Ralph of Ainderby, Alan of Sinderby, Roger the
carpenter, and Bartholomew of Eskelby are amongst the donors
to the abbey of lands in this parish ; and in 1250-4 Agnes,
wife of Hugh, son of Wigan de Balderby, quit-claimed her
dower in Rokesby-Pikehall. All these, together with many
smaller benefactions, amounting together to four and a half
carucates of land, with tofts, crofts, meadows, etc., were con-
firmed to the monks, free of all service and suit of courts,
by John, son of Jollan de Neville, without date, but about

I27O. 3

But the Religious House to which the church of Pickhill
was appropriated was the Hospital of St. Leonard, at York.
Edward I, in the last year of his reign, gave licence to Walter
de Langeton, Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, to alienate
in mortmain to the master and brethren of that hospital
the advowson of the church of Pykhale, co. York, together
with half a bovate of land there, and for them to appropriate
the church. At Carlisle, 20 March and 4 April, I3o;. 4 The

1 Burton's Monastuon, p. 418- 3 CaL PaL Kolls al 24 Feb " I312;

* CaL fat. Rolls, 6 Edw. II. Burton's Monasticon, pp. 190-1.

l. rat. Rolls, 35 Edw. I, pp. 506 and 516.



134 Richmondshire Churches.

original donation seems, however, to have been of still earlier
date, for in the taxation of churches made by order of Pope
Nicholas IV in 1292, Pikhale, which was valued at 40, is already
said to be appropriated to St. Leonard's. In 1293-4, the master
had a grant of free warren in his lands at Howe, Eskelbye, and
Hun ton. 1 The advowson remained with St. Leonard's Hospital
until the Reformation, after which it appears to have been exercised
at first by the Bishop of Chester ; but in 1719 the presentation was
made by Trinity College, Cambridge, the present patrons.

Amongst the chantry certificates prepared in 1548, the
following note occurs : Memorandum. That there is within the
sayd paryshe certen arrable lande to the value of two acres gyven
to the findyng of a light, lyeng in the West Felde of Pical of the
yerely value of xiiijd. in t'holding of John Basker.

The parish registers are preserved since 1654 on ly. but a copy
of an older register, not now in existence, supplies entries of marriages
and burials since 1567, and baptisms since 1571. The record,
however, exhibits several deficiencies and irregularities ; and
Volume III, embracing the period 1679-1727, is imperfect.
It has been printed by the Yorkshire Parish Register Society.
The following entries occur in 1644 :

A stranger found dead when the army passt by, buried April xvj
Batty, a cornett being slaine in a skirmish, buried Oct. xiiij
Lieutenant Hill slaine at ye same, buried Oct. xv

The holy vessels are of some interest. A small chalice,
with a bell-shaped cup on a baluster stem, has well-defined
marks : (i) Z, the York date-letter for 1631 ; (2) Half a fleur de
lys and half a leopard's head, which was the Old York " touch"
mark ; (3) S.C. for Sem Casson, goldsmith, of York, who was free
of the city of York in 1613, and was buried in the " high crosse
alley" of St. Michael le Belfry, 27 February, 1633. There is a
chalice at Crayke, of the same year, and also made by Sem
Casson. A second chalice at Pickhill, with what appears to
be the Catherine-wheel mark, and the maker's initials, H.R.,
has inscribed upon it : Datum in usum Ecclesiae de Pickhill, 1683.
A very large paten, which might be better described as a
salver, with foot, is of the Britannia standard, that is to say,
it is composed of u oz. 10 dwt. fine silver, as against the
sterling standard, which is n oz. 2 dwt. fine. It bears the
London marks of 1717, and the inscription : The gift of Mrs.

1 Cat, Rot. Chart., 22 Ivhv. I.



All Saints, Pickhill. 135

Sarah Eaden to ye parish church of Pickhall in Yorkshire Anno

Dom. 1733. There are also two fine pewter flagons and an

alms dish of the same metal, productions of the Eighteenth century.
The following are the clergy of the church, so far as known

to us :

c. 1198 ELIAS, parson of Picale, witnesses in company with
Honorious, Archdeacon of Richmond, and others, a
grant by Elena de Hastings to Eggleston Abbey,
without date, but several of the other witnesses were
living in the year 1200, and Honorious was archdeacon
for a few months only, in 1198, the Dean of York
having protested against his installation. Elias was still
parson of Picchehale at the date of Michael of Leyburn's
charter to Swainby Abbey, about 1215. ' (Cat. Pat. Rolls,
6 Edward II, pp. 553 and 574.)

1254 The vicar of Pykall was included with others in the
archdeaconry in the settlement of the question of mortuary
dues. (See p. I2n.)

1294 BOGO DE CLARE, son of the great Earl of Gloucester,
canon of York, and an extensive pluralist in the
church, is stated to have been parson of Pykehaie
and other parishes when he had protection for one
year, dated at Westminster, 28 September, 1294.
(Cal. Pat. Rolls, 22 Edward I, p. 95.)

1301 ODO DE GRANDISON, clerk, nephew of Odo de Grandison,
knight, had provision of a canonry and prebend at
York from Boniface VIII, on condition that when it
takes effect he is to resign the church of Picala, in
the diocese of York, which he now enjoys, 4 Non.
March, 1301. (Cal. Papal Letters, i, 594.)

1399 JOHN COKE, instituted 16 July, 1399, on the pre-
sentation of the master and brethren of St. Leonard's
Hospital. (Torre's MS.)
JOHN HEKYNGTON, vicar; died 1440. (Torre's MS.) .

1440 THOMAS MONYNGTHORP, instituted 6 August, 1440.
(Torre's MS.)

1525 JOHN RICHE was vicar when a return for the arch-
deaconry was made to Cardinal Wolsey in January,
1524-5. He appears to have been also vicar of Down-
ham. The name of the vicar is not given in the
Valor Ecclesiasticus, 1535. (T.R. Miscellaneous Books,
Henry VIII.)

1 See ]>a^'c 133 ante.



136 Richmondshire Churches.

1548 JOHN COOTES was vicar at a Visitation in 1548. His will

is dated 14 August, and proved 27 September, 1552.

To be buried in the church of All Saints, Pickhill.

Mentions John Raper, of the Hall Geatt, and several

others. Residue to James Coots and Richard Coots,

his brothers, and their eldest sons, and they executors.

Witnesses : Rauf Jackson, priest, and Thomas Walker.

(Yorks. Arch. Journal, xiv, 409.)
1554 EDWARD WILLYS was vicar at a Visitation in 1554.

John Raper and Christopher Whitling, churchwardens.

(Ibid.)

1574 RICHARD SOULLE, curate of Pickhill, made his will 1574.
1580 ROBERT STAGE, instituted 2 August, 1580. (Yorks. Arch.

Journal, xiv, 410.)
1611 ROBERT SLATER, vicar ; buried 12 December, 1611. (Par.

Reg.)

1612 WILLIAM BENSON, vicar ; buried 17 June, 1613. (Ibid.)
1613 MR. MAUDS, vicar of Pickhall ; buried 7 May, 1628. (Ibid.)
1628 JOHN BRIGGS, mentioned as vicar in 1630 ; buried 15 April,

1639. (Ibid.)
1639 WILLIAM LOFTUS, vicar ; buried 29 September, 1642. (Ibid.)

1660 JOHN DUNN, vicar in 1660 ; buried 29 December, 1697.
(Ibid.)

1698 TIMOTHY PLACE, previously officiated at Marton-on-the-
Moor, where his children were baptized : Elizabeth, 1694 ;
Timothy, 1696 ; and John, 1697. Instituted to Pickhill
6 September, 1698. Buried 30 May, 1710. Mary, his
widow, was buried n February, 1699. (Ibid.; Chester
Dioc. Rec.)

1710 ANDREW DARLING, presented by the Bishop of Chester,
and instituted 26 March, 1710. Died February, 1718-
19, and was buried in the chancel i March. (Ibid.)

1719 WILLIAM HARDCASTLE, instituted 27 August, 1719, on the
presentation of Trinity College, Cambridge. (Ibid.)

1722 JAMES TIREMAN, instituted 4 May, 1722, on the pre-
sentation of Metcalfe Graham.

1726 HUGH SPENCE, previously curate successively of Kirkby
Wiske and of Manfield. Presented to Pickhill by
Metcalfe Graham, and instituted 20 August, 1726.
Buried 17 March, 1739-40. (Ibid.)



All Saints, Pickhill. 137

1740 JOHN PARNTHER. Fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1728 ; M.A., 1732. Presented by Trinity College,
Cambridge, and instituted n July, 1740. Resigned 1771.
He married at Kirklington, 2 February, 1737, Mistress
Coalman, of Wath, apparently the widow of Rev. John
Colman, rector of Wath, who died in 1734.

1771 JAMES KITCHING, instituted 29 April, 1771. Died 1807.
He married at Pickhill 9 April, 1772, Catherine Wright,
who survived him, and died 9 February, 1808. Several
of their children are buried beneath the Lady Chapel.

1807 THOMAS JAMES JAUMARD. Of Trinity College, Cambridge ;
B.A., 1802 ; M.A., 1805. Instituted 19 August, and
inducted 4 September, 1807.

1819 JOHN RAPER-HUNTON. Was at Richmond School, and then
called John Raper. Under that name he matriculated
at Clare College, Cambs ; B.A., 1806 ; migrated to Trinity
College, and took his M.A. from there, under the name of
John Raper-Hunton, in 1819.

1825 WILLIAM TWIGG. Of Trinity College, Cambs.; B.A., 1818 ;
M.A., 1821. Died 13 June, 1859, aged 63, to whose
memory a stained glass window exists in the Lady
Chapel.

1859 JACKSON MASON, eldest son of Rev. Wm. Mason, vicar of
Normanton. Of Trinity College, Cambridge ; B.A., 1856 ;
M.A., 1859. Author of a poem on St. John the Baptist
(Seatonian prize), 1867 ; a translation of the rhythm
of St. Bernard into the original metre ; a critical
paper on the extension of the Diaconate ; In Memoriam,
a poem on Bishop Patteson. He was the translator
of many Greek and Latin hymns, several of which
appear in the 1888 edition of Hymns A. and M.,
which contains also two original hymns by him,
namely, Voice of the Beloved (500) and Forty days Thy
seer of old (503). Inducted November, 1859. Resigned

1883, and was subsequently vicar of Settle. Died
27 November, 1888, aged 54 ; buried at Pickhill.

1884 ARTHUR WIGSTON HOWARD, B.D., inducted 3 April,

1884. Resigned i November, 1906.

1907 JOHN WILSON, presented by Trinity College, Cambridge,
and instituted 19 September, 1907.



C'HAPTER VIII.



ST. MARY, WATH BY RIPON.

THE story commences here, as it does at Pickhill and Wens-
ley, with certain sculptured stones taken out of the walls of
the building during some repairs to the fabric in 1873, and
which speak to us of a church existing here before the Norman
Conquest. Five such fragments are now preserved, either as
detached stones, or built into the modern wall of the organ
chamber. Mr. Lukis tells us that four of them were discovered
in a buttress, now demolished, on the north side of the chancel
arch, so it is probable that they were built in there in the
Thirteenth century. All appear to be of late date Tenth or
Eleventh century- and of rather poor character ; but their
presence here is very significant when viewed in conjunction with
the dimensions of the nave. All experience goes to show the
abiding religious character of a spot once sacroscanct ; people
did not, in early times, lightly abandon a site dedicated to
God. And a comparison of the proportions of the nave with
those of other " Saxon" churches leads us to the conclusion
that the foundations and, perhaps, even to some extent the
walls of this portion of the fabric are of pre-Norman origin.
The nave is 50 ft. long by 20 ft. broad, and its walls are
2 ft. 7 in. thick. If it had been built after the Norman Conquest
it would almost certainly have had greater width in comparison
with its length, and the walls would have been thicker, 3 ft.
being the usual dimension for Norman walls. The foundations
of an apsidal east end and of a chancel arch of narrow extent
were laid bare in 1873, l and are shown by the dotted line on
the plan.

It is to be regretted that no fragment of architectural
detail of either the Saxon or the Norman period has been
preserved. There was, until recently, a twelfth century south door,

1 Reports and Papers of the Architec- bury, and Worth in Sussex. See The Arts

lural Societies for 1875. Article, "The in Early England, by Professor Baldwin

Church of \Vath near Ripon," by Rev. Brown. Apsidal east-ends are not com-

W. C. Lukis, F.S.A. The plans of other mon in early churches, whether before or

pre-Norman churches which may be com- after the Norman Conquest. Square-
pared with Wath are those of South . ended chancels are much more usual.
Elmham in Norfolk, Britford near Snlis-



To face page 138.



PLATE XXXIIt.




JfflL



s





1 1






CHANCEL




Saint Mary, Wath. 139

which may quite possibly have been inserted in the earlier
walls. Sir Stephen Glynne, writing in 1864, observes, " The
porch is a modern one of brick, but within it is a Norman
doorway of one order with shafts, but clogged with whitewash."
Mr. Lukis, in his careful account of the restoration, says of this
doorway : " When the thick coating of whitewash, which encased
it, was removed, it was found to be in too shattered and
crushed condition to be repaired. Not more than four of the
arch stones were in moderately sound state ; the whole of the
east jamb was gone, the abacus of the capital alone remained ;
and of the other the cushion-capital of the detached angle shaft
had fallen to pieces."

The first extension of this small early church was the
building of a new chancel at least twice the size of that which
it replaced. This took place about the year 1250, and the
details of it which remain afford a good illustration of the
architecture of that period. In the south elevation are three
windows, with widely-splayed internal jambs, each of two
lights uncusped, the mullion simply bifurcating at the springing
line, and continuing right and left to the window arch a
treatment which may be called the germ of bar tracery. Just
east of the central window is a plain doorway over which the
string, which runs beneath the windows, is carried as a hood-
mould. The western of these three windows is transomed at
the level of the sills of the other two, and is carried
downwards, forming a "low -side" window. This lower
part had formerly wooden shutters inside, three out of
the four iron crooks on which they were hung being still
in position. The use of these " low-side" windows, which
are found in so many churches, has been the subject of much
debate. They are almost confined to England, occurring very
rarely in Scotland, and not at all on the Continent ; and they
are almost invariably placed at the western end of the chancel,
on the south side. At Wath, indeed, a second window, similar
in all respects to that under notice, existed until recently in
the north wall of the chancel, opposite the present long window ;
but it was, unhappily, destroyed in 1873 to make room for the
modern organ chamber. At Wensley, again, there were two such
long windows, both probably divided by transoms, in the south
wall of the chancel.

Many suggestions, some of them fantastic, have been made
to account for the low-side window. It was to facilitate coiir



140 Richmondshire Churches.

fession, the penitent being outside in the churchyard. It was
to transmit light from inside the church, during the hours of
darkness, to dispel the evil spirits which were supposed to
haunt the graves of the dead. It was connected with the
ringing of the sanctus - bell. A much more common-place
reason may be nearer the truth. There is abundant evidence
for the belief that painted glass was more extensively employed
in mediaeval times than it is now ; the churches were, no
doubt, very dark. Moreover, before the invention of printing,
the people did not need light ; they saw and heard, but took
no other part in the service. The low-side windows could
not have been filled with stained glass, or they would not have
been so generally furnished with wooden shutters as they are
in so many churches. The need of providing light to the
priest at his reading desk appears to us to afford an adequate
explanation of this puzzling feature, though it should be observed
that all low-side windows were not necessarily fpr one and the same
purpose.

East of the quire door are sedilia of three stalls, with
perfectly plain, pointed, chamfered arches, and east of this again
is a recessed piscina, with double drain, and similarly treated


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