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three lay brethren of the abbey, their men and servants, plucked
out their beards, cut them with knives, and otherwise ill-treated
them. 4

On 28th August, 1356, Hugh Knyght, priest, complained
that he had been attacked at Wath by certain laymen bearing
arms, and that in self-defence he slew one of his assailants.
John de Crakhall, canon of Ripon, is commissioned to inquire
into the affair. 5

1 Re. Grey. 3 Burton's Monasticon, p. 183.

2 Cal. Papal Letters, i, 179. * Cal. Pat. Rolls, 7 Edw. II, p. 136.

5 Reg. Zouche.

Saint Mary, Wath. 151

The Rectors have been as follows :

1299 J OHN DE WINTRINGHAM was designated acolyte, rector of
Wath by Ripon, 17 kal. December (15 Nov.), 1299, when
he had letters dimissory for the Order of subdeacon ; and
on 19 January following for the Order of deacon. (Sede
Vacante, fo. 61.)

1316 JOHN DE APPLEBY, parson of the church of Wath by
Ripon, had protection for one year, 24 August, I3T.6. 1
Founder of the chantry of St. John the Baptist, 1327, and
died in that or the following year. In the inquisitio
post-mortem he is styled John de Appleby, parson of the
Church of Wath juxta Rypon, and he held lands in Holm,
Pykall, Sutton Hougrave, and Wath. 2 In 20 Edward III
(1346-47), Robert Middleham claimed one bovate of land
in Appleby against John Try veil, consanguineus and
heir of John de Appleby, late parson of the church
of Wath juxta Melmorby in Richmondshire. (Plantag.
Harrison, p. 469.)

1354 JOHN BRETON, parson of Wath, was defendant in 28 Edw. Ill
(1354-55), in an action for contempt and trespass, at
the suit of Henry de Walton, archdeacon of Richmond.
(Ibid., p. 47.)

1362 HENRY LOKESBURGH, presented by Avice, Lady Grey, of
Rotherfield, and instituted 19 November. Resigned
about 1370. (Torre's MS.)

1371 ROBERT DE DALTON, instituted 28 October, 1371, but
resigned two months later. He was subsequently
canon of Lincoln, 1379, an d Vicar-General of the
Archbishop, 1387. (Ibid.)

1371 ALEX. DE BROMPTON, or BRYNISTON, instituted 29 Dec.,
1371, on the presentation of the same Avice, Lady
Grey de Marmion. Resigned 1380. (Ibid.)

1380 WILLIAM DE GALMETON, presented by John Marmion,
and instituted 30 December, having exchanged benefices
with Thomas Raynard, formerly vicar of Burneston,
who had been instituted the same day. Thomas
Raynard is, however/ called rector of Wath in a
commission of 6 September, 1382. (Ibid.; Reg. Neville,

1 Cat. Pat. Rolls, 10 Edw. Ill, p. 536. * Escheats I Edw. Ill, No. 140.

152 Richmondshire Churches.

1395 RICHARD BARRET DE QWYNTON, previously for three
years rector of Tanfield, presented by Elizabeth Mar-
mion, and instituted 6 September. He had a papal
indult to take and let to farm the fruits of his benefice
to any persons, clerks, or laymen, and further, that
he should not be bound to be resident while engaged
in the study of letters at a university, or when in
the service of a prelate, or while in attendance at the
Roman Court. The indult is dated at Saint Peter's,
Rome, 14 Kal. August, 15 Boniface IX (19 July, 1404),
and he is styled Richard de Qwinton, rector of Wath
by Rypon, in the diocese of York. (Torre's MS.',
Cal. Papal Letters, v, 618.)

1420 THOMAS HODE, rector, was enfeoffed, with others, by
Richard Norton, late Chief Justice of the Common Pleas,
with the manor of Norton Conyers, for the founding
of a chantry of one chaplain in the chapel of Saint
Cuthbert there. (Inq. ad quod damnum.)

1429 JOHN NORTON had a dispensation preserved at York,
in which he is described as illegitimate son of Richard
Norton, 14 June, 1408. Was a prebendary of Ripon,
1419, and instituted to Easingwold, 1425, on the pre-
sentation of Henry Bowet, archdeacon of Richmond,
but he resigned that benefice on his institution to
Wath, 7 November, 1429, to which he was presented
by Henry VI, and which he held until his death.
His will is dated in the vigil of the Purification B.V.M.,
1435, and was proved at York, 23 February, 1435-6.
He styles himself Magister Johannes Norton, clericus
et canonicus eccl'. Colleg. S. Wilfridi de Ripon. Rich-
ard Norton, his brother, and John Shirburn, chaplain,
are executors. (Torre's MS.; Mem. Ripon, ii, 203.)

1435 ROBERT SHIRWYND, chaplain, instituted 24 February,

1435-6, on the presentation of Sir William Fitzhugh.

His name occurs as rector in an inquisition, 27 August,
1446. (Torre's MS.)

1454 WILLIAM GARSYNGTON, chaplain of Watthe, was concerned
in an action for debt against Thomas Plummer, of
Asmunderby, 13 November, 1454. (Ripon Chapter
Acts, ii, 48.)

Saint Mary, Wath. 153

,1477 JOHN NICOLSON occurs with many others in a commission
to inquire into the right of patronage to Bedale.
(Reg. Ebor.)

In 1507, Jane, Lady Stapleton, widow of Sir
William Stapleton, of Wighill, bequeathed her best
beast as a mortuary gift " to the parson of the Churche
of Wath, near Ripon." Her daughter, Margaret, was
then the wife of Sir John Norton, of Norton Conyers.
(Test. Ebor., iv, 273.)

1520 ROBERT SMYTHE, S.T.P., is mentioned as rector by the
late Mr. Lukis, who has recorded that he bequeathed
a Bible to Marmaduke Huby, abbot of Fountains.

1524 CHRISTOPHER BURGHE. Also rector of Spennithorne and of
Hawkeswell. Thos. Donyngton, writing to Cardinal Wolsey,
14 April, 1527, says that Sir Christopher Burghe,
parson of Spenythorne, is attached to appear in Chan-
cery for 20, which he owed to the late Mr. Dalby
[Archdeacon of Richmond] for the first fruits of the
parsonage of Wathe. He is very obstinate against
Wolsey and the king, as Cromwell can show. If he
were treated as an example, the quiet of Richmond-
shire would be improved. Dated from your Grace's
church of York, 14 April (1527). In 1525, John Laythsett
was "curatus," with a stipend of 4 135. 4^., and probably
did the duty or most of it. (Letters and Papers,
Henry VIII, iii, No. 3,043.)

1535 WILLIAM PYNDER was rector of the church when the
Valor Ecclesiasticus was compiled in this year. The
fruits of the benefice are the mansion, 205.; tithes of
corn, 13 ; of lambs, calves, and wool, 405.; small
and private tithes as in the Easter book, 465. 8d. =
18 6s. 8d. gross. Nine shillings and ninepence are
payable yearly to the monastery of the B.V. Mary
at York.

1548 JAMES SELLER was rector of Wath at a visitation of
the archdeaconry in this year, and was still so at a
second visitation in 1554. (Yorks. Arch. Journal, xiv.)

1569 HENRY STUBBS. Of Merton College, Oxford, in and before
1564. Instituted 9 March, 1569, on the presentation
of Wm. Parr, Marquess of Northampton. Buried at
Wath 7 June, 1614. (Chester Dioc. Reg.; Par. Reg.)

154 Richmondshire Churches.

1614 JOHN CHAPMAN, B.D., presented by Gregory Milner,
gent., and instituted 27 June. Buried at Wath,
18 December, 1619. (Ibid.)

1620 HUGH BAGULEY, presented by Lord Burghley, and
instituted 4 January, 1619-20. Died 1635, buried at
Richmond 9 August. He -made his will in August,
1633, giving all his books to George Baguley, his
son, and 20 to Emma, his wife. (Richm. Par. Reg.;
York Wills.}

1635 GEORGE BAGULEY, son of the foregoing, instituted 23
Dec., on the presentation of Emma Baguley, his
mother. Buried at Wath, 24 August, 1657. Jane,
his wife, was buried 16 February, 1656. (Chester
Dioc. Reg.; Par. Reg.)

1658- GEORGE SHAW officiated for rather more than a year,
but was never instituted. He was buried at| Kir Is-
lington 30 January, 1658-9. See Kirklington Parish
Register, where he is styled "person of Wath."

1660 PETER SAMWAIES, D.D. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambs.
Presented by the Earl of Elgin, and instituted
31 December. The benefice is said to be vacant
by the decease of George Baguley. He was instituted
the same day to the rectory of Bedale, upon the presenta-
tion of Charles II ; and he was a canon of Ripon. D.D.
by royal mandate, 1661. These preferments he held con-
jointly until his death, 6 April, 1693. By his will he made
provision for the founding of a Hospital and Grammar
School at Wath, and Almshouses at Bedale. He was
buried at Bedale, where a brass in the chancel per-
petuates his memory. (Chester Dioc. Reg.; Mem.
Ripon ; Bedale Par. Reg.)

1693 STEPHEN PENTON. Educated at Winchester and New
College, Oxford ; B.A., 1663 ; M.A., 1666. Principal,
in 1675, of St. Edmund's Hall, where he built the chapel
and library ; and rector, successively, of Glimpton,
co. Oxford, and Tingswick, Bucks. Instituted to
Wath 27 September, 1693, on the presentation of
his former pupil, the Earl of Ailesbury and Elgin.
Collated to the third stall of Ripon Cathedral, 28 May,
1701. Died 18 October, 1706, aged sixty-seven, and
was buried beneath the chancel of Wath Church.
He is the author of "A Discourse concerning the

Saint Mary, Wath. 155

Worship of God towards the Holy Table or Altar,"
and two or three other works. His will is printed
in the Memorials of Ripon, ii, 301. (Mon. Brass in
Church ; Par. Reg., etc.)

1706 JOHN CARTER, presented by the Hon. Robert and James
Bruce, and instituted 6 February, 1706-7. Buried at
Wath 21 June, 1716. His wife was Dorothy Todd, of
Wath. (Chester Dioc. Rec.; Par. Reg.)

1716 HON. GEORGE BRUCE, second son of Robert Bruce, of
Broomhall, and brother of Alexander, Earl of Kin-
cardine. Instituted 22 October, having been presented
by the Hon. Robert and James Bruce. Died 27 May,
1723, aged eighty-one, and was buried at Wath. (Ibid.;
Tombstone, Lament's Diary, p. 164.)

1723 JOHN COLMAN, LL.B. Of Trinity College, Cambs. Pre-
sented by Charles, Lord Bruce, and instituted 23 July.
Died 14 March, 1733-4, aged thirty-seven. His widow
married, secondly, at Kirklington, 2 February, 1737,
Rev. John Parnther, vicar of Pickhill. (Ibid.)

1734 JOHN HILDROP, D.D., son of William Hildrop, of Peters-
field, Hants. Baptized 4 January, 1681-2. Educated
at Marlborough, and St. John's College, Oxford. Pre-
sented to Wath by Charles, Lord Bruce, and instituted
13 April. Died 18 January, 1756, aged seventy-three.
Catherine, his daughter, married Francis Bacon, of
the city of York, apothecary, died 6 September, 1754,
aged thirty-three, and was buried at Wath. (Ibid.)

1756 CUTHBERT ALLANSON, D.D., of Middleton Hall, son of
John and Rebecca Allanson. Born 1725. Of Brasenose
College, Oxon.; B.A., 1747; M.A., B.D., and D.D.,
23 November, 1778. Previously, since 1749, rector of
Upham, co. Hants, which he exchanged for the rectory
of Wath, 1756. Instituted 30 September, on the
presentation of Thomas, Lord Bruce. Canon of Ripon,
16 July, 1774. In 1776 he was appointed chaplain
to the House of Commons, and died in London while
holding that office 3 June, 1780, aged fifty-four, but
was buried at Wath. He married first, Dorothy,
daughter of Roger Nowell, of Read, co. Lanes., who
died 23 July, 1760, aged thirty-six ; secondly, Bridget,
daughter of Charles Hedlam, of Kexby, co. York,
who survived him, dying 10 July, 1792, aged sixty-two.

156 Richmondshire Churches.

He had ten children. The only son, George, born at
Wath, 15 March, 1759, became prebendary of the first
stall at Ripon. The eldest daughter, Mary, married,
at Ripon, 30 July, 1782, the Rev. Reginald Heber,
rector of Chelsea, by whom she became the mother
of the Rt. Rev. Reginald Heber, Bishop of Calcutta,
writer of the hymns, " From Greenland's Icy Moun-
tains," " Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty," and
many others which, as literary compositions, rank
among the finest in the English language. (Ibid.',
Mon. Inscription in Church ; Mem. Ripon, ii, 310.)

1780 CHARLES FRANCIS, previously, since 1774, rector of West
Tanfield, instituted here in the presentation of Thomas,
Earl of Ailesbury, 4 October ; resigned, 17878. He
procured some communion plate for the church of
West Tanfield in 1783. (Chester Dioc. Reg.; Par. Reg.)

1788 JONATHAN LIPYEATT, B.D. Also, since 1780, rector of
Tanfield. Was presented to Wath by the Earl of
Ailesbury on the resignation of Rev. Chas. Francis,
and instituted 13 February, 1787-8. Died 2 January,
1799, a e d fifty years, and was buried at Wath. (Ibid.)

1799 THOMAS BRAND, son of William and Martha Brand.
Born at Newmarket. Fellow of Christ's College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1771 ; M.A., 1774. Resigned the rectory of
Maulden, co. Bedford, which he had held since 1795,
on being instituted here 13 April, 1799, both livings
being in the patronage of Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury.
Canon of Ripon, 1805, and Chancellor of Lincoln, 1808.
He died at Rodborough, co. Glouc., while on a jour-
ney, 26 April, 1814, aged sixty-four, and is buried
at Woodchester. (Ibid.; M.I.; Mem. Ripon, ii, 312.)

1814 BENJAMIN NEWTON. Fellow of Jesus College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1783 ; M.A., 1786. Vicar of Little Bedwin,
co. Wilts., 1799. Instituted here 18 October, 1814. Died
1830 ; buried at Gloucester.

I g3o HENRY PARR HAMILTON. Fellow of Trinity College,
Cambs.; B.A., 1816 ; M.A., 1819. Instituted rector
of Wath 7 August, 1830. Perpetual curate of St.
Mary the Great, Cambridge, 1833. Resigned this
benefice, 30 September, 1850, having been installed
dean of Salisbury.

Saint Mary, Wath. 157

1850 JOHN WARD, previously, since 1826, vicar of Great
Bedwin, Wilts. Instituted 29 October. Died 4 Dec.,
1861, aged sixty-six years. Buried at Wath.

1862 WILLIAM COLLINGS LUKIS, F.S.A. Of Trinity College,
Cambs.; B.A., 1840 ; M.A., 1843. Instituted 18 February.
Died 7 December, 1892, aged seventy-five. Buried
at Wath. A notice of his life appeared in the Yorkshire
Archceological Journal, Vol. XII, p. 285.

1893 HENRY RUDD HUNTER, instituted 2 March. Died 3 July,
1907, aged fifty-eight. Buried at Wath.

1907 HARRY CHARLES STURDY. Of Christ's Church, Oxford.
Instituted and inducted by the Lord Bishop of Ripon,
6 October, 1907.



ALTHOUGH no part of the existing fabric is older than the
Thirteenth century, Wensley is pre-eminent amongst the churches
of the district as the home of early sculptured stones, many of
which belong to the Seventh or Eighth century. These have
been, from time to time, taken out of the walls of the present
church, or found buried in the churchyard ; and their presence
leaves no manner of doubt that Wensley was a centre of the Chris-
tian Faith, and no doubt possessed a stone church of good
character, before the coming of the Danes. The pre-Norman
stones, now preserved in the church, are nine in number. Of
these the most interesting, because they exhibit lettered inscrip-
tions, are two built into the inside of the north aisle wall.
One of these, which has been frequently engraved, is of brown
sandstone, and bears a cross with expanded terminations. Between
the arms are two birds above, and two quadrupeds below. The last
resemble those in the illuminations of the Lindisfarne gospels.
The word DONFRITH, in Saxon characters, fills the space below
the cross. The other stone, built into the same wall, has
the letters of the word EADBEREHCT disposed between the
arms of a cross. This is also of brownish sandstone, but
the carving is in shallow relief, and the lettering cannot be
distinguished as easily now as in photographs taken twenty
years ago. The stone was found in 1846 by Father Haigh,
the runic scholar, used as a flag-stone in the pavement of the church-
yard path, but turned face downwards. And as Symeon of
Durham mentions ARUWINI et EADBERCTUS, under date 740,
Father Haigh thought that this might be a fragment of their
tombstone. In the course of some repairs to the church in
November, 1904, two stones displaying very fine carving were
taken out of the chancel walls. Each is carved on three sides,
as shown in the annexed drawing by Professor W. G. Colling-
wood. " They are," he says, "of whitish-yellow sandstone,
well chiselled with rounded arrises and stems, unusually neat
in the clearing of the ground." These stones, like the two
built into the north wall, belong to the Anglian period the

To face page 158.


[W. G. Collingwood, del.


Holy Trinity, Wensley. 159

era when the tooling was more finely wrought, as the design
was also fuller and richer than after Danish motive begins to
appear. To this latter period belongs a fragment of a shaft
preserved within the church, composed of sparkling sandstone,
and enriched on all four sides with the ring-knot and inter-
lacing strap work. This is very roughly cut, but strongly
modelled, evincing Irish influence ; it probably belongs to the
latter half of the Tenth century. 1 Two somewhat similar stones
are built into the walls on the outside of the fabric ; one,
worked with the cat's cradle, being in the north aisle wall,
near its eastern buttress ; the other, displaying plain over-and-
under plait work, is built into the north wall of the tower.
These are probably of the Eleventh century, and the same
remark applies to the head of a wheel-cross, and some parts
of the shaft and head of another cross (in the vestry), with
plain double-bead moulding and a pellet in the centre.

Associated with these early Christian memorials, there must
certainly have been a church ; and, as we have already pointed
out, a site hallowed by the prayers and the ashes of many
generations of their predecessors was not readily changed by
the mediaeval church-builders. Here, as at Wath and at Patrick
Brompton, at Pickhill, and doubtless at many other places,
it is probable that the nave occupies the actual position of
the pre-Conquest church. As there is no trace in the building
of any twelfth century, or so-called " Norman" work, it may
be supposed that this early structure remained unaltered until
the Thirteenth century, when the present handsome chancel
was added to it.

The Thirteenth century was especially distinguished by a
desire for more spacious chancels in the place of the early form
of east end, which was of very restricted dimensions, e.g.
Escombe, Kirk Hammerton, Adel, etc. Of the churches dealt
with in this volume, Hornby acquired its new chancel c. 1190 ;
Kirklington, c. 1200 ; Wath, c. 1250 ; and Pickhill, c. 1270 or
1280. Judging from its architectural character, we should place
the chancel of Wensley between that of Kirklington and that
of Wath, but nearer to the latter say, about the year 1245.
It is a very charming example of the work of that period.
In the south elevation are three windows, each being a single
lancet-headed light, the western one divided by a transom, and

1 Found in 1895, on opening a vault for the burial of the
late Lord Bolton.

160 Richmondshire Churches.

carried down to form a " low-side" window. There is a piscina,
enclosed within an arched recess beneath the most easterly of these
windows. All have their rear-arches admirably moulded with rolls
and hollows, and the jambs are furnished with nook shafts having
moulded bases and capitals ; and, as a still further enrich-
ment, the outer angles of the jambs are worked with a series
of fine bold dog-tooths. The most easterly of these windows
was walled up previous to the recent repairs, and is shown
in that state in Plate XL. The existence of the piscina beneath
it was unsuspected until the plaster was removed in 1904,
when this very pleasing feature was revealed. The basin is
octagonal, and is enclosed beneath a recessed canopy, having
a pointed trefoiled head, well moulded, on the angles. In
the spandrils are sunk circles, one of which contains a pointed,
and the other a round-leaved trefoil. The most westerly
of the three windows in the aisle wall retains its transom,
thus providing a " low-side" window in the normal position,
much the same as the " low-side" window at Wath. The
middle window of the three was a lancet of equal length with
the last, and may also have been furnished with a transom,
but if so, the evidences of it have been obliterated. The
lower portion of the lancet has been rather ruthlessly hacked
away to make room for a quire door, with flat lintel, below
the window (Plate XXXVIII). It is not easy to say when
this was done, but probably quite late Seventeenth or even
Eighteenth century. The sedilia occupy the usual position
in the south wah 1 . These are of three stalls of somewhat
unusual width. The arches are pointed, without hood-moulds,
but enriched with the dog-tooth device carved upon their
angles and carried down the outer jambs of the group. The
stalls are divided by shafts, with circular bases, and caps
carrying square abaci.

Externally, the south windows have two orders to their
jambs and arches, each order being a plain chamfer ; and they
are furnished with hood-moulds both within and without.
A string-course is carried beneath the windows of the chancel
on the south and east elevations only.

A single lancet-shaped window on the north has plainly splayed
jambs, and an obtuse segmental scoinson arch above its head.
It is also without hood-mould on the exterior. This window,
like that in the south wall, opposite to it, has only recently
been opened out, after being walled up, probably for centuries,

To face page 160.



To face page 161.

Holy Trinity, Wensley. 161

in which condition it is seen in the annexed illustration (Plate

Perhaps the most interesting feature in the chancel is its east
window. The details of the side windows show that the work was
in progress at the dawn of the tracery principle, when lancets were
being grouped in various ways, so as to form a homogeneous whole.
It may be that a triplet of lancets was first intended, but was given
up while the work was going on. Two stones now built into the
angles of a recess in the fifteenth century vestry are carved with
the dog-tooth enrichment, and have been worked to a radius which
would suit such lancets. We have assumed the year 1245 as an
average date for the chancel ; and the east window cannot be later
than 1250. If the change was made as suggested, it is a parallel
case to that of the nine altars at Durham, where the group of lancets
intended at the north end was abandoned in favour of the existing
fine example of an early specimen of " bar" tracery. The Wensley
window is a good example of " plate" tracery. The five lights are
divided by mullions only, and are enclosed within a circumscribing
arch, surmounted by a hood-moulding. The three centre lights
are carried up to the arch, but the two outer ones are stopped
just above its springing line, and trefoils are pierced in the spandrils
above. The triangular eyes over these trefoils are left solid, though
the upper pair of eyes are pierced. The lights are all foliated with
solid flat cusps, a form which only lasted a few years. Plate tracery
is rarely met with in the northern counties, and the Wensley
example is a very valuable one. The rear-arch of the window is
devoid of ornament, the jambs being plain splays, and the head
set square upon the soffit.

The next building era was about the year 1300, or, perhaps,
a decade or so earlier, when aisles were added to either side
of the nave. This necessitated the entire demolition of the
early church, though it is probable that the pier arcades were
built upon the old foundations.' 2 The arcades are of three bays,
on either side ; and the arches, which are of wide span, are
of two chamfered orders with hood-moulds, both towards the
nave and towards the aisles. The isolated piers are plain
octagons, and the arcades are received at either end on semi-

1 The illustrations of Wensley bearing life-history of the church which has now

the name of C. C. Hodges are produced passed away.

from photographs taken in 1887, before 2 The nave is lg feet widc between

the late repairs. They are distinctly the wa n s _ a very common 'Saxon

more valuable on this account, since they dimension,
preserve the memory of a phase in the

162 Richmondshire Churches.

octagonal responds. All these are very lofty and rise from
compound bases, consisting of a square plinth nine inches high,
surmounted by an octagonal subbase ten inches in height,
chamfered on its upper angle. Then a lesser octagon occurs,
eight inches high, and this carries a moulded capping, where
it joins on to the column. The capitals are a simple form of
the bell type, with neckings and well-moulded upper members.
Two pointed windows occur in either aisle wall, each consisting
of two foliated lights, with an uncusped opening in the head.
They are, in this respect, similar to the windows in the north
aisle of Hornby Church, but the mouldings of the jambs and
arches at Wensley are slightly more advanced than those at
Hornby. The rear arches are ornamented with a hollow and
a chamfer, and the exterior faces are also moulded with hollows

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