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kingdom, originally comprising, besides the western parts
of Yorkshire and Lancashire, the greater portion of the
counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. But in the year
1127, Henry I took Allendale and Cumberland out of
the Archdeacon's jurisdiction, in order to found the See of
Carlisle. And in compensation for the loss thus sustained,
Archbishop Thurstan conferred upon the Archdeacon all the
privileges and prerogatives of a bishop, save that he could
not, by Canon Law, ordain, consecrate, nor confirm. He had
his own Consistory Court at Richmond, where wills were
proved, licences and faculties granted, and all matters of
ecclesiastical cognizance dealt with. He had also the sole
supervision of the clergy within his jurisdiction, including
institution to, and removal from, benefices.

The Archdeacon of Richemont, says Leland (1535), hath
goodly revenews, and hath a peculiar jurisdiction in Richmont-
shire, as exempte from the Bishope.

A few years later, however, namely in 1541, Henry VIII
established the bishopric of Chester, and the pastoral and
judicial powers were transferred thither from York. The office
of Archdeacon of Richmond was technically abolished, or,
perhaps, more properly, incorporated in the new bishopric.
But in practice it continued to exist, and the limitations
imposed upon the dignitary were slight. His revenues, it is true,
underwent serious diminution, and his position was now that
of a commissary, elected by the Bishop of Chester ; but with
these restrictions he continued to exercise the same authority,
judicial and otherwise, which had been enjoyed by his pre-
decessors, so long as it should not trench upon the privileges



xx iv Richmondshire Churches.

of the Bishop of Chester. 1 And he also retained a stall in
York Minster. So matters continued until the foundation of
the See of Ripon, in 1836, when the jurisdiction was transferred
to it.

That portion of the archdeaconry which was locally in
the county of York consisted almost entirely of the deaneries
of Catterick, Richmond, and Boroughbridge ; and the churches
which have been here selected for description were all in the
old deanery of Catterick, except Kirkby Wiske, in Richmond
Deanery, and Hornby, which was a Peculiar of the Dean and
Chapter of York.

It is a consequence of the unusual position which Richmond-
shire occupied as a Peculiar amongst archdeaconries that the
documentary connection with either York or Chester is very
slight. It was only in exceptional circumstances (as during a
vacancy in the archidiaconal office) that the Archbishop or
Bishop interfered. The Consistory Court was held at Richmond,
and the wills between 1127 and 1541 were deposited in St.
Catherine's Chapel in Richmond parish church. In the last-named
year they were taken to Trinity Church, Richmond. In 1709
or 1710 the court was transferred, for the sake of convenience,
to Kendal ; and in 1718 it was carried to Lancaster, for a
similar reason. The corporation of Richmond was, however,
never satisfied with this arrangement, and after much litigation;"'
lasting from 1743 till 1750, the Spiritual Court was divided ;
the Yorkshire portion being brought back to Richmond ; the
Lancashire and Westmorland part remaining at Lancaster.
It is extremely probable that most of the evidences followed
the wanderings of the Court. It is even said that many of
the wills and inventories were lost or irreparably damaged
at this time (1750), while being conveyed across the moors
in open carts. :i The wills which got back to Richmond were,
in any case, very numerous. The late Canon Raine has recorded
that he had " three months hard labour " in going through
them, in 1852. Those relating to the Richmond, Catterick,
and Boroughbridge deaneries were then "in a very fair state

1 Rymer's Fcedera, xiv, 717. :i The Rev. H. Lawrance says that he

"There is a rare tract, entitled "The <] oes not , think f 1 , ar e 1 W^ f **
case between the Mayor and Corporation document, were then lost but prefers to
of Richmond and the Principals and oppose that they were left at Lancaster;
Officers of the Consistory Court of the f*Pialy *> it is the evidences relating
Archdeaconry of Richmond, 1748." l " the western Deaneries which are, for

the most part, missing.



Introduction. xxv

of preservation, and many of them of considerable antiquity.
They are tied up in bundles in alphabetical order ; and an
index, though somewhat faulty and incomplete, has been made
of them." This passage occurs in the preface to Richmondshire
Wills, edited by Canon Raine, and published by the Surtees
Society in 1853. The Testaments there printed can, however,
be only a small proportion of the whole ; and it is believed that
most of the originals are now at Somerset House.

By the Court of Probate Act, 1857 ( 2O an< i 2I Viet., cap. 77),
which came into force ist January, 1858, the Consistory Court
of Richmond was abolished, along with all other Peculiars.
Mr. J. Bailey Langhorne, Deputy- Registrar at Richmond,
who had the sorting of the registers and the sending them
to their respective destinations, was a careful man, a member
of the Surtees Society, and interested in such things. It can only
be regretted that the Nemesis, which has followed the records
of the archdeaconry all through the centuries, pursued them
also on this occasion. The Call Books and Registers of Institu-
tions, and so forth, which would have been specially interesting
to the purposes of this work, have all disappeared, and nothing
is known of their fate. James Torre, who, in 1680, compiled
his manuscript, which is now in the Dean and Chapter Library
at York, refers to three register books then in existence,
namely :

1. The Register of Archdeacon Humphrey de Cherleton,

commencing 2 April, 1361.

2. The Register of Archdeacon Thomas Dalby, extending

from 1390 to 1399.

3. The Register of Archdeacon Henry Bowet, 1418-1442.

Even so recently as 1853, the late Canon Raine observes
" One of the early registers of the archdeacons alone survives.
It consists of 160 pages, written on vellum, and is in very
excellent preservation. It commences in 1442, in the archi-
diaconate of Thomas Kemp, and contains proceedings of the
five succeeding archdeacons, Grey, Lawrence Booth, Arundell,
John Booth, and Sherwood. The documents enrolled in it
are principally institutions, commissions to inquire into rights
of patronage, licences to celebrate mass in oratories, and to
collect alms, papal bulls, and other miscellaneous instruments,"
together with seven wills. Our diligent inquiries have failed
to elicit the whereabouts of this volume, if it be still in exist-



xxvi Richmondshire Churches.

ence. We have ascertained definitely that it is not at the
Chester, nor at the Ripon Diocesan Registry. At the latter
place are deposited various Act books and transactions of the
Consistory Court, covering the period 1533-1609 ; but no
other early records.

It may be a matter of convenience that a list of the arch-
deacons of Richmond should be here printed. The following
is based upon the old authorities, to which we have been
able to . apply both corrections and additions ; but we should
hesitate even now to say that it is either complete or free
from error. It is offered only in the absence of something
better.

1088 CONAN, the Archdeacon, occurs in this year, and in 1099.

1130 THURSTAN, occurs c. 1130 and in 1146.

1146 CONAN, the Archdeacon, occurs in a deed of Earl Alan.

1150 RALPH, the Archdeacon (Clarkson).

1153 BARTHOLOMEW, occurs in 1153 and in 1166.

JEREMIAH, occurs at an early unknown date.
c. 1185 GODFREY DE LUCY, nominated to the See of Carlisle, 1186.
1189 WILLIAM DE CHEMILLEIO, appointed 1189 ; Bishop of

Avranche 1196.

1196 EUSTACE, appointed 1196 ; Bishop of Ely 1198 ; d. 1214.
1198 HONORIUS, appointed 1198.'

1198 ROGER DE ST. EDMUNDO, occurs in 1198 and 1206.
1213 RICHARD DE MARISCO, became Bishop of Durham 1217.
1217 WILLIAM DE ROTHERFIELD, occurs in 1217 and 1220; and

William the Archdeacon is still mentioned in 1231.

(See page 96.)

1237 WALTER DE WOBURN, occurs 1237.

1240 ROBERT HAGET, became treasurer of York Cathedral 1241.
1241 JOHN LE ROMAYN, occurs 1241 and 1249.
1256 WILLIAM, occurs 1254 and 1259.
1261 RALPH, occurs c. 1261 and in 1264.
1262 SIMON DE EVESHAM, occurs 1262 and 1267 ; died 1272.
1272 THOMAS PASSELEW, appointed 1272.

1 The Dean of York protested against he was styled Archdeacon of Richmond,
his installation ; but for a time, at least, See page 135.



Introduction. xxvii

1278 GEOFFREY DE S. MEDARDO, occurs 1278 ; died 1281.

1281 HENRY DE NEWARK, resigned 1290.

1290 GERARD DE VYSPEYNS, admitted 1290.

1307 FRANCIS GAYTANI/ died at Avignon 1317.

1317 ROGER DE NORTHBURG, appointed 1317 ; became Bishop

of Coventry and Lichfield 1322.
1322 ELIAS TAILARANDI, provided by the Pope 1322 ; became

Bishop of Auserre 1328.

1328 ROBERT DE WODEHOUSE, admitted 1328 ; died 1346.
1346 JOHN DE GINESWELL, Roman Cardinal, provided 1346.
1349 HENRY DE WALTON, collated 1349. Vacant by death of

Cardinal John.
1359 HUMPHREY DE CHERLTON, appointed 1359. Vacant by death

of Walton.
1383 JOHN BACON, admitted February, 1382-3. Exchanged,

ii January, 1384-5, with
1385 JOHN DE WALTON, became Bishop of Sarum, and Master

of Rolls, 1388.

1388 THOMAS DE DALBY, Archdeacon of Ely, installed 13 Sep-
tember, 1388, and again adm. by King's letters, 5 May,

1396. Will proved 20 May, 1400.

1400 STEPHEN LE SCROPE,- collated 19 May, 1400 ; died 1418.
1418 HENRY BOWET, collated 1418.
1442 THOMAS KEMPE, previously Archdeacon of York. In 1448

"provided " to the See of London.
1450 WILLIAM GREY, Archdeacon of Northampton, adm. 3 March,

1449-50 ; Bishop of Ely 1454.
1454 LAWRENCE BOOTH, adm. 1454. Dean of London 1456 ;

Bishop of Durham 1457.
1457 JOHN ARUNDEL, M.D., adm. 1457. Bishop of Chichester,

1459-
1459 JOHN BOOTH, adm. 1459. Bishop of Exeter 1465.

1 A Roman Cardinal, appointed by the exchanged it with Stephen le Scrope for
Pope in 1307. On 25 April, 1309, the prebend of Driffield. Scrope was
Edward II, sede vacante appointed John thereon readmitted 18 March, 1401-2.
de Sandale, but the Cardinal was in His will was proved 1418. His body to
possession. be buried in St. Stephen's chapel of York

2 Nicholas Bubwith had papal provision Cathedral, "near his father, Archbishop
of the Archdeaconry in March, 1401-2, Scrope."

but held it only two days, when he



xxviii Richmondshire Churches.

1465 JOHN SHIRWODE, adm. 1465. Bishop of Durham 1484.

1485 EDWARD POLE, adm. 6 January, 1484-5 ; died soon after.

1485 JOHN BLYTH, adm. 1485. Bishop of Sarum 1493.

1494 CHRISTOPHER URSWICK, adm. March, 1493-4. Resigned
1500.

1500 JAMES STANLEY, adm. 1500. Bishop of Ely 1506.

1506 THOMAS DALBY, collated 1506 ; died January, 1525-6.

1526 THOMAS WINTER, adm. March, 1525-6. Resigned 1529.

1529 WILLIAM KNIGHT, adm. 1529. Also Archdeacon of Chester,
in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. He resigned
both dignities into the King's hands 20 May, 1541, and the
King incorporated them in the new Bishopric of Chester.



CHAPTER I.



SAINT LAMBERT, BURNESTON.

AT Burneston we have an illustration, rare in this part of York-
shire, of a church fabric built upon an uniform plan, and entirely
in the work of one architectural period. History tells us of a
church here at least 250 years before any portion of the existing
structure could have been built ; and it is an unusual circumstance
that every vestige of that church should have disappeared,
and an altogether new fabric commenced at the close of the four-
teenth century. Extension and development of the early church
has been the rule ; and in cases where reconstruction took place
some fragment of the former edifice was most commonly incor-
porated in the work, as the tower at Masham, and the south doorway
at Well. But at Burneston the church was built entirely anew.

There are no pre-Conquest remains ; and the church is not
mentioned in Domesday. But it is evident that a church was either
built or extensively re-endowed within a few years of 1090. To
the Abbey of St. Mary at York, founded in 1089, Robert de Musters
gave the church of Bryniston with four carucates of land there,
which was confirmed by King William Rufus (1087-1100), and by
Stephen, Earl of Richmond (1093-1137). ] Then, in the chartulary
of the abbey, mention is made of a grant by Robert de Musters,
grandson of the former Robert, without date, but about 1150-1160,
confirming the gift of the church of Bryniston together with four
hides of land in that vill, which Robert, his grandfather, had made
to the abbey ; this he does for the health of his own soul and for the
souls of his said grandfather, of Geoffrey de Musters, his father,
of his mother, and his other ancestors. 2 Ribald of Middleham
granted to the same monastery and to Abbot Stephen (1089-1112)
four oxgangs in Briniston, for the soul of Beatrice, late wife of
Ribald, and for that of Stephen, Earl of Richmond. 3 In his latter
years Ribald himself retired to the abbey, and he was still Irving
in 1131-2, when he quitclaimed to Abbot Gosfrid one of these
oxgangs in Burneston, which he was holding under the monastery. 4

1 Men. Ang., iii, 532, 534. 3 Reg. Marie, i, 229; Gale, App., 234;

- . . . , Yorks. Archeeol. Journal, v, 321.

Cart., xvi, A fo. 229. 4 Qld



2 Richmondshire Churches.

Another early benefaction was by Gernegan son of Hugh, who grant-
ed to God and to the Abbey of Saint Mary of York, and to the monks
serving God there, all the lands which Hugh his father had given
them lying between the rivulet, which rises at Saint Lambert's
fountain 1 and flows into the Helam, and the great road leading from
York to Richmond, with the meadow adjacent, etc., to hold it
peaceably for ever. The date of this charter is not so easy to assume,
because the Hughs and the Gernegans, who were lords of Tanfield,
and had Carthorpe in this parish, rang the changes upon four
successive generations. The last Gernegan died in 1200, and Hugh
his father was a witness in 1140. But it may have been two
generations earlier. At the period when Kirkby's Inquest was
compiled (1287), the whole of Burneston was in the possession of
St. Mary's Abbey, half the fee being held of Robert de Musters,
and half of Mary de Neville, of Middleham.

The whole of these notices relate to a church of which no material
vestige remains. The last decade of the Fourteenth century may be
mentioned as the period when the rebuilding of the structure was
commenced ; and it is significant to find that the monks at that
time took steps to make their title clear. The church of Bryneston
was confirmed to the abbot and convent by letters patent of Thomas
Arundel, Archbishop of York, and legate of the Apostolic See,
21 November, 1392 ; and this was afterwards ratified by Pope
Boniface IX, at St. Peter's, Rome, 3 Ides November, 1396."

The chancel, which is the oldest part of the existing fabric, is
doubtless a monument to the munificence of the abbey, and may
be referred, as we have said, to the closing years of the Fourteenth
century, when the style in building, which is spoken of as " Per-
pendicular," was at its best. Externally, the south elevation of the
chancel presents a charming picture. There are three windows,
each of three lights, which are ogival and cinquef oil-headed, and
with a short embattled transom intersecting the tracery above the
centre light. The window arches and mullions are admirably
moulded. The mullions have half-round mouldings, inside and
outside, with fillets on either face. In the jambs the mould next
the glass is half a mullion, and this splays out into three deep hollows.
Beneath the centre window is placed the quire door, which has a

1 This is a very early mention of Saint name of the wapentake of Halikeld is

Lambert, the patron saint of the church said to be derived from Saint Lambert's

and parish. The fountain or well was Well at Burneston. Halig Keld = Holy

probably situated in what is now the new Fountain,

portion of the churchyard, and the 2 ~ , A T

' rivulet ' is now enclosed as a drain. The Ca ' ^ a/> ' Lett ^ v ' 3 '



Saint Lambert, Burneston. 3

four-centred arch and hood-mould. Two flanking buttresses
divide the three bays of the south wall, and a pair of buttresses
is placed square at each of the eastern angles. These terminate
in plain broached spirelets of peculiar octagonal form, crowned
by carved fmials. The wall is surmounted by a projecting
cornice and moulded parapet. The east window of the chancel
is of five lights, with three tiers of sub-lights in the head. The
tracery is subordinated, the two central mullions being carried into
the window arch as sub-arches. In the head are two embattled
transoms to the centre portion, and one each to the sub-arches.
On the north side of the chancel there is a three-light window at
the western end, similar to those in the south wall. All these
windows are furnished, both within and without, with hood-moulds,
which terminate in carved heads.

The inside of the chancel is carried out with the same magnificence
and careful attention to detail which characterises the exterior.
A boldly-moulded string-course is carried under the sills of the win-
dows, and rises over the vestry door on the north side as well as over
the sedilia in the south wall. On either side of the east window are
niches formed by a moulding and surmounted by ogee heads,
cusped and enriched with crockets and finials, in imitation of vaults
but worked out of the solid. The brackets for supporting the
images are of semi-octagonal form, and are carried by carved busts
of angels. The three stalls of the sedilia have trefoiled heads, the
centre foils being semi-circular ; and the mouldings are carried con-
tinuously down the jambs, and have small moulded bases to the
principal members. The stalls are surmounted by crocketed gables,
with finials, divided and flanked by buttresses rising from boldly-
carved projecting heads, one of a bishop and the other of a priest,
and terminating in triple gables. Immediately to the east of the
sedilia is a piscina, which has a moulded ogee arch with sunk cusped
spandrils. The string-course is dropped on either side of it as a
label-mould.

As regards the sedilia and piscina, it may be said that the whole
group appears to have been copied from a design of much earlier
date than that in which it was executed. Not only in these details,
but in the arrangement of the buttresses and cornice outside ; of
the string-course ; and of the niches on either side of the altar ; the
whole chancel is an adaptation of a design as early as that of the
chancel of Patrick Brompton (c. 1320) a work which also owes its
existence to the Abbey of St. Mary at York. But it has been well
observed that a building is to be dated not by the evidence of the






4 Richmondshire Churches.

early work but by the evidence of the late work seen in it ; and in
this case the character of the window tracery forbids a date much
before 1400. " It is common enough," says Mr. Francis Bond,
" in the lazy and conservative habits of the human mind, to copy
older detail ; it is not common, nor indeed hardly possible, to intro-
duce detail which, as yet, is in the womb of the future."

The chancel arch is a drop arch of two moulded orders, furnished
with hood-moulds on either side. The jambs are moulded, of seven
members, and carry semi-octagonal capitals of peculiar form. Here
also we perceive the influence of an earlier school of design, the
chancel arch exhibiting much of the character of the former half
of the Fourteenth century. It was a very unusual thing for
builders of that time to hark back to older forms ; and Burneston
probably represents the latest of a family group of chancels, of
strongly-marked type, which originated at York very early
in the Fourteenth century. 1 Ainderby Steeple, Kirkby Wiske,
and Owston, near Doncaster, may be mentioned as other
examples. On the north side of the chancel is an ancient
vestry, the- door into which has a four-centred arch, with
continuous mouldings of two orders, and hood-moulds which end
in female heads.

After the completion of the chancel, the tower and spire were the
next section of the work, and these appear to have been erected
not earlier than the year 1400, or possibly a decade later. It is
not easy to imagine the appearance of the church before the present
nave and aisles were built, but the tower seems to have originally
stood as an isolated campanile, for it is buttressed equally on all
four angles. The weathering of a roof of high pitch, between the
eastern buttresses, indicates that a building of narrow dimensions
at some time abutted against the tower ; but there can be small
question that a nave, very much as we now see it, was part of the
original intention. As it was uncertain, however, when that would
be accomplished, it was necessary to render the tower stable in the
isolated position which it at first occupied. We have thus the
unusual feature of two diagonal tower-buttresses rising within the
church.

The tower has a bold plinth, and one set-off at the sill of the belfry
windows. The west window is of three lights and six upper lights,
with no transom to interrupt their length. It has a moulded
external arch and hood-mould. The four buttresses are placed
diagonally at the angles, those towards the 'west having niches
for images, with ogee-cusped heads, worked in each case out of

1 See page 113 for additional observations on this type of chancel.



PLATE L



To face page 5.




Saint Lambert, Burneston.



5



one solid piece of limestone. The pediments of these are enriched
with the cross flower ornament a curious recrudescence, rarely
found in England, of an early feature used at a later date. The
buttresses carry gargoyles, surmounted by pinnacles, depending
from which are carved armorial shields. That at the north-east
angle bears A fesse, between three crescents, for BOYNTON ;
at the north-west angle, three chevronels embraced, a chief
vair, for FITZHUGH ; at the south - west a saltire, for

the south-east pinnacle is much



NEVILLE ; whilst that on
weathered, but appears to
maiinch with a bendlet, for
TON, of Norton Conyers. 1
other
down



be a
NOR-
Two

shields of arms occur lower
on the western buttresses ;



the more southerly of the two is a
repetition of the saltire of Neville,
whilst that on the northern but-
tresses seems to be a maunch, for
Conyers. Projecting at the south-
east angle is a square turret, carry-
ing the staircase and terminating
in a sloping head, which dies out
below the belfry window. At the
wall heads are cornices and para-
pets ; and the square tower is at
this point modified into an octagon
by squinches, and is surmounted
by a short octagonal stone spire very unusual in this part
of Yorkshire.

The pinnacles of the tower are of the same uncommon form as
those which crown the chancel buttresses, from which they have
doubtless been copied ; but, unlike the chancel, which is constructed
of excellent ashlar, the tower walls are of squared rubble, and in
other respects the technique of the masonry is quite different in
these two parts of the fabric. We think it is permissible to hold




1 The Boynton family was seated at
Roxby and at other places in the North
Riding, but we have not been able to
trace their connection with Burneston.
Sir Henry Fitzhugh of Ravensworth
married the heiress of the Marmions of
Tanfield about 1400, and died in 1424.
The gateway tower at Tanfield, with its
beautiful oriel window, was built in his



time. The Nevilles had long been asso-
ciated with the parish. Ralph, Earl of
Westmorland, who married John of
Gaunt's daughter^ was Lord of Middle-
ham from 1389 till his death in 1424.
Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, near
Ripon, was King's Serjeant 1408, Chief
Justice of the Common Pleas 1413, and
died 1420.



Richmondshire Churches.

that Burneston tower and spire are the work of Richard the mason
of Crakehall, who contracted for the erection of the south aisle c
Hornby in 1410, and for the rebuilding of Catterick Church in 1412
The reasons for this assumption are as follows :

i The lower stage of the tower is covered by a quadriparti
vault, with diagonal and ridge ribs, the key of the vault itseli
being a horizontal circle of masonry, forming the well-hole, and hel<
in position at a height of 23 feet from the floor by the mutual
pressure of the vaulting. Precisely the same treatment occurs at
Catterick ; and both were doubtless inspired by Bedale Tower,



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