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daughter of Rev. Zachary Cawdrey, rector of Barthomley,
co. Chester ; secondly, Sarah, daughter of Thomas Harrison,
of Allerthorpe, in this parish. (Par. Reg.; Tombstones.)



16 Richmondshire Churches.

1711 JOSEPH ROBINSON, son of J. Robinson, of Bencoger, co.
Cambs. Matriculated St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford,
18 March, 1700, set. 16. Presented by Thomas Robinson,
and instituted 23 November. (Par. Reg.)

1714 JOHN ROBINSON, M.D., inducted in July. Was fifty years
vicar. His first wife, Rachel, was buried 29 September,
1725. He married, secondly, at Well, 26 December,
1734, Mary Fisher, of Scruton, who died and was buried
at Burneston, 17 June, 1739. He died 16 December,
1764, aged 84. (Burn, and Well Par. Reg.; Tombstones.}

1765 GREGORY ELSLEY, son of Gregory Elsley, of Patrick Bromp-
ton, born 1716. Was previously for twenty-four years
perpetual curate of Patrick Brompton ; instituted here
5 January on the presentation of his cousin, Gregory
Elsley, of Mount St. John. Died 24 May, 1789, aged 73,
having married Mary, daughter of John Dun well, of
Spofforth. She died 6 May, 1798, aged 68. (Par. Reg.; M.I.}

1789 HENEAGE ELSLEY, second son of Charles Elsley, of Patrick
Brompton, by Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of the Very
Rev. Heneage Dering, LL.D., Dean of Ripon, and nephew
of the preceding vicar. Of St. Peter's College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1768 ; M.A., 1780. Instituted 12 June, 1789. He
died 20 December, 1833, aged 87 years. By his wife,
Miriam, daughter of Rev. William Lockey, he had
several children. Mary, his daughter, was the 'origina-
tor and assiduous promoter' of the Church of St. John,
Skipton Bridge. She died 1848, aged 59.

1834 RICHARD ANDERSON, son of John Anderson, of Swinerthwaite.
Matriculated Lincoln College, Oxford, 30 June, 1810,
aet. 18 ; B.A., 1815. Previously for twenty years curate
of the parish. Resigned 1854.

1855 HARRY VANE RUSSELL, formerly domestic chaplain to the
Dowager Duchess of Cleveland, by whom he was pre-
sented to the benefice. Resigned 1874.

1874 JOHN THORNEYCROFT HARTLEY, rural dean of East Catterick,
1891, honorary canon of Ripon, 1906.



Saint Lambert, Burneston. 17



SUNDRY NOTICES.

In 1274, Stephen de Lemyng, of Bryniston, imprisoned at York for the
death of Adam le Surr, had letters directing the Sheriff of York to admit
him to bail, dated at the Tower of London, 8 October, 1274. (Cal. Close
Rolls, Edw. I, p. 101.)

1310, February 12. Complaint by the Abbot of St. Mary's, that whilst
the abbey and its lands were under the protection of the late king, Mary de
Neville, Adam of Middleham, Hugh le Forrester of Snape, and many others,
carried away his goods and assaulted his men and servants at Bryniston, co.
York. Henry le Scrope and others were commissioned to inquire into the
affair. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 3 Edw. II.)

1478 John Kendale of Skelton, chaplain, by his will, dated 2 May, 1478,
left to the fabric of the parish church of Brynystone 65. 8d. (Ripon Chapter
Acts, ii, 177.)

1553, March 18. Letter from John, Lord Latimer, and Christopher Neville,
saying that the vicar and churchwardens of Burneston were commanded to
provide things necessary for ye setting furth of devyne servis, whych to doo
they ar very stubburne. (Whitaker's Richmondshire, ii, 132.)

1658, July 20. At the Quarter Sessions held at Richmond, it was pre-
sented that the chancel of Burniston Church was out of repair. (North
Riding Records, vi, 10.)



CHAPTER II.
SAINT ANNE, CATTERICK.

Hie predicavit et celebravit Panlinus.

IT is a somewhat remarkable circumstance, that a parish so
conspicuous as Catterick is in the story of the conversion of the
Angles during the seventh century, should possess no visible
evidence of the existence of a church or cemetery of that
period. A cross-arm and part of a cross-head of Anglian type,
in the Antiquarian Museum, Cambridge, acquired by Bishop
Browne, 1 were brought from Catterick. But the fact remains
for us that the mother church of the whole district is, as a
building, one of the least ancient in the Deanery which it
formerly denominated. Ecclesia de Catrice is mentioned in
the .Domesday Survey (1085) ; and so far as we may judge,
it underwent the usual amount of rebuilding and extension
during the three subsequent centuries. It stood within the
churchyard, but to the north of the present fabric, which is
situated upon an eminence off the main road, and is approached
by what in Scotland would be termed wynds. No indication
of the early church now remains, but so recently as 1834
its site could be distinctly traced, and some of the foundations
have at different times been discovered and laid bare.

Between the years 1412 and 1415 the church was entirely
rebuilt by the bounty of Dame Katherine de Burgh, widow of John
de Burgh of Catterick, and by William, their son. It is remark-
able that the abbey and convent of St. Mary of York, to
whom, as impropriators of the rectory, the chancel belonged of
common right, should not have been made parties to the rebuilding
of it, but as Dr. Whitaker points out, this difficulty may be removed
by supposing that the family of De Burgh were lessees of the greater
tithes, burdened, as was not unusual, with the duty of repairing
the chancel, as part of the consideration.

It is evident, from portions of the former church which have been
re-used in the existing structure, that the older building contained
features of the Norman and Early English periods as well as

1 Yorkshiie Ardiaological Journal, xix, p. 305.



Saint Anne, Catterick. 19

of the fourteenth century. The original contract for the recon-
struction of the fabric, dated 18 April, 1412, is preserved, and
is printed at the end of the present chapter. The contractor
was Richard, a mason of Crakehall, near Bedale, who two
years previously had entered into an engagement with Sir
John Conyers for the erection of the south aisle of Hornby
Church. He was to take down and remove the stonework of the
old building, after the timber had been taken off, to quarry such new
stone as might be required ; to build the church according to
the specified plan ; and to have the work completed by the
Feast of St. John the Baptist, 1415, unless sudden war or
pestilence should afford sufficient excuse for delay. The De
Burghs, on their part, gave the stone of the old church, they
were to cart the newly-quarried stone, and provide lime, sand,
and timber for scaffolding and centerings. The money payment
was 170 marks. The roof and joiner- work generally was,
perhaps, the subject of another contract, for the timber of the
old church is excepted from the materials which Richard
might employ. The tower, vestry, and porch are later additions,
and were not embraced in the contract, and the same remark
applies to the eastward extension of both aisles.

The church, as we now see it, consists of a clerestoried
nave with aisles on both sides, which are extended eastward,
forming chapels, a chancel with a vestry on its north side, a
western tower, and a south porch.

The nave is of four bays, the arcades on either side being carried
on plain octagonal columns, crowned by moulded capitals of
Thirteenth century section, and evidently brought from the old
church. The arches are of two moulded orders, without hood
moulds ; and the centering, like that of the south arcade at Hornby,
takes the form of an arc of a very large circle. The clerestory
windows were three on either side, each of one narrow light (which
is unusual), square-headed, and as tall as they could be made between
the aisle roofs and the cornices. When the church was restored
in 1851, the pitch of the aisle roofs was raised, necessitating the
demolition of these clerestory windows ; and in their stead, four
two-light windows on each side have been substituted, each light
consisting of a small quatrefoiled opening.

The chancel is of equal width with the nave, as provided
in the contract, but it is noticeable that the dimensions specified
in many parts of the building have not been scrupulously



20 Richmondshire Churches.

adhered to. The church on the whole is somewhat smaller
than was provided for. The east window, of five lights, with
ogival and cinquefoiled heads, is a fully-carried-out "Perpen-
dicular" motive. The upper part of the window is divided by
vertical tracery bars into ten lesser lights with trefoiled heads,
the central portion being sub-divided into tiers by embattled
transoms. The sedilia of three stalls in the south wall, the
buttresses, windows, and doors are all as specified. There were
to be three windows of two lights each, and a quire door on the south
side; and a vestry door on the north of the chancel pro-
jecting bond stones being left for the erection of a vestry later.
A three-light window from the old church was to be set in the north
wall, opposite the reading desk, but this has disappeared to make
room for the arch opening into the chapel of St. James.

The south aisle was to be furnished with a three-light window
at its eastern end, with an altar and piscina ; and three two-light
windows and a door in the south wall. Except so far as alteration
was necessitated by the addition of the south chapel, this represents
the condition of the south side of the church to-day.

The north aisle, like the south one, had its eastern extremity
opposite the chancel arch, and was also provided with an altar
and piscina. The east window, of three lights, was to be brought
from the north side of the old church, and one window only and a
north door are specified to be constructed in the aisle wall. The
east window was removed when the chapel was erected 1490, and
a second window in the north wall, towards its western end, was
inserted about 1825.

The windows at the west end of both aisles are of one light only,
pointed and cinquefoiled, with straight stone lintels and labels
above. With these exceptions, all the aisle windows constructed
at this period are of uniform design. The arches are four-centred,
with hood moulds, terminating in plain returns. The lights are of
ogee form, cinquefoiled, and the tracery is of simple character.
.The south doorway is of Fourteenth century manner, and must
have been brought from the old church. Its two orders are con-
tinuous, each having a quarter round worked upon its chamfered
face, and a bold hood, consisting of a scroll and hollow, is carried on
corbelled heads. The original oaken door, studded with iron nails,
was extant at the date of Raine's monograph (1834).

In the chancel are two piscinas (called lavatories in the
contract), constructed in ogival-headed recesses ; but only one
of them is pierced. The remains of piscinas are also visible



PLATE IV.



To face page 21.




Saint Anne, Catterick. 21

at the eastern extremities of Richard's aisles ; that in the south
aisle was enclosed within a pointed recess, but the recess in
the north aisle is ogee-headed.

This brings us to the end of the work projected in the
contract of 1412, which is shown in black on the accompanying
plan. It is plain in character, but well built, the walls being nearly
three feet in thickness. We think, on the whole, too much has been
made in former accounts of the " humble skill " and "countrified "
achievement of the mason of Crakehall. We have specimens
of his craft not only here but in the south aisle of Hornby,
and probably also in the tower of Burneston ; and all these,
alter 500 years, bear witness to the faithfulness of his work.
The criticism, for example, that the great east window at
Catterick is too broad for its height is unjust ; because the
hood-mould outside came to within a few inches of the gable
cross, and the sill of the window is brought down as low
as possible to the altar within. Its proportions were, therefore,
dictated by the scale of the building, as originally projected.
To have made the window narrower for the sake of observing
any Palladian theory of ratios would have been needlessly to
deprive the chancel of light. In 1851, the fatal mistake was
made of raising the pitch of the nave and chancel roofs ; and
to relieve the bare wall in the heads of the gables small openings
were introduced over the chancel arch and above the east
window. The latter is of circular form, divided by mullions,
and is very destructive of the beauty of the east end.

The tower and south chapel are additions of only slightly later
date than the nave and chancel, and may well be the work of the
same master mason. Richard was to shoot out ' tusses' at the west
end for the making of a steeple ; and so far as we may judge from
its architectural character, no long time elapsed before the contem-
plated addition was made. The tower is all one build, and has
a single set-off at the level of the clerestory parapet. It has few
openings. The western angles are strengthened by buttresses
set diagonally, and divided into as many as seven stages. But
the most conspicuous feature is the staircase turret at the south-
east angle, which terminates, as at Kirklington, in a sloping stone
roof, clear above the parapets. The turret is buttressed from the
clerestory wall by a buttress of six stages, set square on its eastern
face ; and the cornice projects boldly from the wall faces, giving
a somewhat aggressive appearance to the tower, which is not really
as lofty as it appears to be. It is 57 feet from the ground



22 Richmondshire Churches.

to the top of the battlements. The west window, which
is set low in the wall, like most tower windows of that date,
is of three lights, with Perpendicular tracery, of good character,
in the head. There are belfry openings on all four sides,^
square-headed, and each having two pointed and cusped lights.
The cornice is a plain set-on, with gargoyles in the centre
of its north and south faces, and the parapets, which are <
considerable height, are embattled, and carry pinnacles at all the
four angles. The lower stage is covered by a quadri-partite vault,
with. chamfered ribs and wall ribs, and a circular well-hole, similar
to those at Bedale and Burneston.

The eastward extension of the south aisle probably took place
before the middle of the Fifteenth century. The arch opening
to it from the chancel is more acutely pointed, and of different
centering from those of the nave arcades; it rests at either
end on semi-octagonal responds, with plain bases and caps.
The former windows have both been re-used, the east window,
of three lights, being simply removed fifteen feet further east,
and the chancel window being reset in the extended aisle
wall. A square-headed aumbrey is recessed in the wall beneath
the last-mentioned window. The small chapel thus formed
has long been identified with the family of Fulthorpe and that
of their successors, the Wandesfords, of Hipswell in the parish,
though there is reason also to associate its foundation with
the D'Arcys of Colburn, whose arms appear, with those of
other benefactors, on the font. The representative of that
family was made a party to the faculty for re-pewing the
church in 1850, along with Sir William Lawson, of Brough, Bart.,
impropriator of the north aisle. Alan de Fulthorpe and Alice,
his wife, had a grant of the manor of Hyppeswell, in the
county of Richmond, in 1391, and Thomas their son is men-
tioned in 1415. Alan, the grandson of the last-mentioned, married
Catherine, sister of the William de Burgh, who founded the chantry
of St. James in this church, 1492. The last of the Hipswell family,
in the male line, was John Fulthorpe, who died in 1556, desiring by
his will to be buried " in Catreke Church near unto my father and
mother." His daughters and co-heiresses married, respectively,
Francis Wandesford, of Kirklington, and Christopher Wandesford,
of Hipswell. John Wray, an old servant in the Fulthorpe and
Wandesford families, made his will at Hipswell, 10 December,
1589. 'To be buried at Catterick on the south side of my Mr.
Wandesford's porch [chapel].' On the floor of the same chapel,



PLATE V.



To face page 23.




Saint Anne, Catterick. 23

though now covered with pews, there is a blue marble slab recording
the death of Alice, widow of the Rt. Hon. Christopher Wandes-
ford, Lord Deputy of Ireland, and aunt of Thomas, afterwards
Duke of Leeds, who died at Hipswell, 10 December, 1659.

Our attention now centres in the north aisle. The eastern
end of the aisle proper is called in the records Our Lady's porch,
and beneath it lie the ashes of the members of the De Burgh family. 1
The eastward extension of this aisle was, apparently, made about
1490, to form a chapel for the chantry of St. James, founded at
that time, jointly, by William de Burgh, who died 17 August, 1492,
and Richard Swaldall, who died 20 May, 1489. It is of larger
dimensions than the south chapel, being 24 feet in length,
and it is well lighted by two square-headed windows in the
north wall, each of three lights, with pointed trefoiled heads.
A niche, which may have once contained an image of the Saint, is
recessed in the wall between these windows. Beneath this chapel,
or 'porch,' are buried William de Burgh, 1492 ; Elizabeth, his wife,
daughter of Christopher Conyers, of Hornby, who survived him ;
and William de Burgh, their son, died 12 April, 1508.

The chapels and chancel were formerly fenced with oak screens
of good fifteenth century design, of which fragments only have
survived. These now separate the south chapel and that of St.
James from the respective aisles. The former is shown in the
measured drawing (Plate V) ; the screen in the north aisle is of
rather simpler character.

The entrance porch on the south side of the church is probably
coeval with the tower. It had formerly a semi-circular outer
arch, doubtless brought from the old church. The porch is, however,
chiefly interesting for the recess in its eastern wall, which has, at
one time, contained a receptacle for holy water ; and for the three
sculptured armorial shields on its southern face. These are each
worked out of a single slab of limestone, and represent

1. A cross flory, for LASCELLES of Sowerby.

2. Three bars, for ASKE.

3. On a saltire five swans, for DE BURGH.

Katherine de Burgh, who contracted for the rebuilding of the
church, was an Aske ; and Matilda, her daughter-in-law, a Lascelles.

1 The following were buried in the wife, daughter of Lascelles of Sowerby,

Lady Chapel: (i) John de Burgh, d. d. 12 Nov., 1432; (5) William de Burgh,

10 Jan., 1412; (2) Catherine, his wife, d. 31 Dec., 1462; (6) Helen, his wife,

laughter of Roger Aske; (3) William de daughter of John Pickering, d. 20 June,

Burgh, d. 4 Nov., 1442; (4) Matilda, his 1442 or 1443.



24 Richmondshire Churches.

Effigies of both these ladies formerly appeared in painted glass in
the east window, their armorial ensigns depicted upon their robes,
and the following quaint verses commemorating their husbands
and themselves :

Perpetuis annis, ductor Burgh esto Johannis
A mundi spina, conservetur Katerina
Sancte luce micas, Willelmum Burgh benedicas
Sanctum spiramen Matilde sit relevamen. 1
The font is of much interest, and appears from the lettering
and shields of arms with which it is enriched to have been provided
in the Fifteenth century. It is worked out of a solid block of grey
marble ; the shields upon the faces of its octagonal bowl bear
i. The arms of BURGH, On a saltire five swans, with the initials
HE B in shields, on either side, for William Burgh.

4. A chief, with three chevronels embraced for FITZHUGH of

Ravenswath.

5. A bend, with a label of three points, for SCROPE of Masham.

6. A ragged staff, which appears to be a badge, and may denote

a connection with the Earls of Warwick.''

7. Three roses, two and one, for D'ARCY of Colburn.

8. A saltire, for NEVILLE, or CLERVAUX.

Around the stalk of the font the following letters occur, one
on each face, C I a t f 11 ; and it has been suggested that
these may be two old French words, indicating 'clear fountain.'
On the base or foot there is a series of shields, displaying
various characters from a Gothic alphabet : S I fa) f C T. The
explanation that these are the initials of churchwardens does not
seem satisfactory ; and we cannot say what the meaning is.

The tower contains a ring of eight bells, which are all
modern.

Within a sepulchral niche, recessed in the south aisle wall, lies
the effigy of Sir Walter Urswick, to whom John of Gaunt granted
an annuity of 40 out of the manors of Catterick and Forcet, 22 Nov.,
1367, for his good services at the battle of Navarre." He was

1 Dodswortti's Church Notes, p. 235. '* The Dacres also displayed a ragged

Translation : staff in their badge, alluding to their

Be Thou the guide of John Burgh office of foresters of Cumberland. They

through all eternity. lost this office for siding with Simon

May Catherine be preserved from the de Montfort.

thorn of the world.

Oh holy One who shinest in light, bless , J ha T n - filz du n t> le R y d Engleterre.

William Burtih uc e Lancaster, Conte de Richemond,

May the Holy Spirit be a comfort to etc -> a touz ceuz qi cestes letlres verront

Matilda. ct orron t salutz. bachez vous pur le bon



To face page 24.



PLATE VI.




[Drawn by Anthony Salvin, F.S.A.

FONT AT CATTERICK, I5TH CENT.



Saint Anne, Catterick. 25

chief forester of the New Forest, and ^constable of Richmond
Castle in 1371 ; and Longstaffe says he died in or shortly after that
year. From the character of the effigy and its canopy, it is quite
evident that his monument and bones must have been brought from
the old church and re-deposited here. The stone of which the
effigy is carved resembles more closely that of Bramham Moor
than of any other quarry in this part of Yorkshire. The knight
is depicted in the recumbent position and in armour. The head
reposes upon a helmet, surmounted by a ram's head for crest, and a
hound has supported the feet. The legs are, however, broken
off below the knees, and a part of the left foot only remains. He
wears a corselet of plate covered by a close-fitting jupon, with a
fringed edge at the bottom. The brassarts and vambraces are
furnished with hinges, and the shoulder and elbow plates are articu-
lated ; the gauntlets are also of plate, but are damaged. The
thighs are clad in plate, with jointed and flanged knee pieces. A
skirt of mail shows at the loins below the jupon, and the usual
horizontal belt, composed of finely-wrought squares of metal work,
richly diapered with quatrefoils, is worn low down on the thighs.
The warrior is unaccompanied by a sword or weapon of any kind,
which is unusual. He wears a conical bascinet, laced to which
is an extensive gorget of mail, protecting the throat and neck,
and terminating in a straight edge across the breast. The mail of
the gorget is formed not of rings but by a series of interlacing
loops. The enclosing canopy consists of an obtusely-pointed arch
of two orders, separated by a hollow ; and the orders are enriched
upon their chamfered faces with quarter-rounds. The hood-
mould is a very fine one, and has a deeply-cut hollow on its inner
side, the apex being crowned by an armorial shield depending from
a lion's head, affronte, and with protruding tongue. The device is :
Argent on a bend sable, three voided lozenges, or, for URSWICK.
The extremities of the hood-mould are likewise supported by shields,
that on the dexter bearing : Azure a bend or with a label of three
points, for SCROPE of Masham. The shield on the sinister side
displays Urswick and Scrope of Masham impaled.

In the Lady Chapel two similar canopies have been built into

ei rateable seruice quo nostre bien amez ot Forcet deinz uustre signuere de Richo-

bacheler Walter de Urswyk nous ad fait mond. Et si la elite rent de xl 1 ' soil a

es parties d'Espagne el meament pur drier par deux mois apres nul des ditx,

iniels maintener 1'ordre de Cheveler quel terns bien lise au dit Mons. Wautre

il prist de nous le jour de la bataille de distreindes es ditz manoirs. Don. le xxij

Xazarre avoir done t grante a lui jour de November Tan du regne nostre

ijuarantes livres per ann. a ternie de son .sire et pier le Roy xli or 1367. (Jfjrmer,

vie des issues de nos manoirs de Katrig T.V., p. 557.)



26 Richmondshire Churches.

the north wall, which probably once contained, or were intended
to accommodate, sepulchral effigies. They are ogee-headed,
and are moulded with filleted rolls and hollows, similar to two
at Kirklington, except that the arches are uncusped and there are
no finials. We think these canopies can scarcely be later than about
1370, and that they are, consequently, older than the existing church.



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