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Crown living of Catterick, on the recommendation of
Lord Liverpool, to whom and to Mr. Pitt his services were
well known ; and he was made king's chaplain in the
following November. He died 24 July, 1840, aged 72,
and was buried at Ecclesneld. Dr. Scott had married,
9 July, 1807, Mary Frances Ryder, who survived only
four years, dying 20 September, 1811, on her twenty-sixth
birthday. His daughter Margaret, in 1839, became
the wife of the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., vicar of Eccles-
field, and was author of Parables from Nature, and many
other works.

1841 JOHN CROFT, son of George Croft, of Richmond, flaxdresser.
Scholar of Trinity College, Cambs.; B.A. (nth Wrangler),
1814 ; Fellow of Christ's College, Cambs., 1816 ; M.A.,
1817. Ordained, 1818 ; Senior Proctor, 1820. Buried
at Catterick, 18 January, 1869, aged 77.

1869 RICHARD GARDE. Buried at Catterick, 27 September, 1890,
aged 79.

1891 JOHN H. EVANS. Died September, 1902, and was buried at
Middleton Tyas.

1903 WILLIAM KERR SMITH, instituted and inducted 25 April, 1903.



Saint Anne, Catterick. 37

CONTRACT FOR BUILDING CATTERICK CHURCH,

18 APRIL, 1412.

ENDE'TUR ECCLESIE DE CATRIK.^

THIS endentor made atte Burgh the aghtende day of the Moneth
of Aprill the yere of Kenge Kerry ferth after the conquest of Ingland
thrittende betwix dame Katerine of Burgh somtyme the wife of
John Burgh William of Burgh the sonne of the forsaide John and
dame Katerine of the ta partie. And Richarde of Cracall mason on
the tothir partie bereth witnes that the forsaid Richarde takes full
charge for to make the Kirke of Katrik newe als werkeman-
schippe and masoncrafte will and that the forsaide Richard
sail fynde alle the laboreres and servys pertenand to the
Kirke makinge. And that the forsaide Richarde sail take
downe and ridde of the stane werke of the aide Kirke
of Katrik after the tymber be tane downe. And he sail cary and
bere alle the stane warke of the aide Kirke to the place whare
the newe Kirke sail be made. And also forsaide Richarde sail
take the grounde and ridde the grounde whare the newe Kirke
sail be made. And the forsaide Richarde sail gette or garre gette
att the quarell atte his awen coste alle the stuffe of the stane that
misters" more for the makyng of the Kirke of Katrik than that stuffe
that is found within the Kirke yerde beforsaide. And also the
forsaide Richarde byndes hym be this endentor that he sail make
the Kirke and the quere of Katrik newe als werkemanschippe and
masoncraft will that is to say the quere sail be of lenght within
with the thiknes of bath walles fifti fote. And it sail of breede w^n
that is to say within the walles twa and twenty fote. And the for-
saide Richarde sail make a wyndowe in the gauill 3 of fife lightes
accordaunt to the hight of the kirke couenabely made be werke-
manschippe and mason crafte. And he sail make apon the cornere
of the southe side of the same windowe a tranche botras 4 rising vnto

1 Unlike so many documents from time (with useful annotations) by the Rev.

to time " discovered'' from the charter James Raine in 1834. As the last is now

chest or muniment chamber where they a very rare book, it is felt that a new

have lain unregarded for centuries, the transcript may be profitably given. The

contract for the rebuilding of Catterick above is copied from the original manu-

Church has never been lost sight of by script in the possession of Sir John

antiquaries. It was known to Leland in Lawson, Bart., and has been collated

'SSS) an d to Dodsworth in 1622. A with Mr. Raine's text,

magazine, called the Northern Star, a Lacks,

printed it, though imperfectly, in 1818, 3 Gable.

and it was next noticed in Whitaker's 4 Franche free, and the term is most

Richtnondshire, 1822. The only accurate frequently applied in the text to buttresses

copy of it, however, is that published at corners, which thus occupy a free and



38 Richmondshire Churches.

the tabill y* sail here the aloring. 1 And he sail make a wyndowe
of twa lightes atte the awter ende couenably made be werkman-
schippe and mason crafte and a botras risyng vnto the tabill als
it is before saide. And he sail make a wyndowe on the same side
of twa lightes and a botras acordaunt thareto on the same side.
And the forsaide Richarde sail make then a quere dore on wheder
side of the botras that it will best be and a windowe of twa lightes
anense the deskes. And on the cornere of the northest ende of the
forsaide quere he sail make a franche botras acordaunt to the hight
before saide. And the forsaide Richarde sail putte oute tusses
for the makyng of a Reuestery. And he sail make a dore on the
same side for a Reuestery and a botras acordaunt to the hight befor-
saide. And the forsaide Richarde sail sette a wyndowe of thre
lightes anens the deskes the whilke standes nowe in the old quere
on the southe side. The hight of the walles of the quere beforesaide
sail be aboue the grounde twenty fote with an aluryng abowne that
is to say with a course of aschelere and a course of creste. And
also the forsaide Richarde sail make with in the quere a hegh awter
ioynand on the wyndowe in the gauill with thre greses 2 acordaunt
thare to the largest grese begynnyng atte the Reuestery dore with
thre Prismatories 3 couenably made be mason crafte within the same
quere. And the forsaide Ric' sail make the body of the Kirke
acordaunt of widenes betwene the pilers to the quere and the lenght
of the body of the Kirke sail be of thre score fote and tenne with the
thicknes of the west walle. And at aither side foure arches with
twa eles acordaunt to the lenght of the body. And aither ele sail
be made of breede of elleuen fote within the walle. And the forsaide
Richarde sah 1 make a windowe in the southe ele, that is to say in
the este ende of thre lightes accordaunt to the hight of the ele, with a
franche botras risand vnto the tabill couenably made be mason crafte
And a wyndowe of twa lightes atte the awter ende apon the southe
side with a botras dyand vnder the tabil. And then a wyndowe
of twa lightes with a botras and a dore. And also the forsaide
Richarde sail make a windowe of twa lightes with a franche botras
in the southewest cornere acordaunt to the botras be foresaide.
And he sail make a windowe of a lighte in the west end of the same

{.seriated position. But its significance is castles the ladies then stood." (Robert

not restricted to " set diagonally," for the of Gloucester.}

buttress on the north wall is described as 2 Steps.

"a Tranche^ botras atte the mydwarde of ;1 Probably a mistake for "presbyteries, "

the elyng." signifying the three seats for the priests,

Parapet. " Upon the alurs of the n ^ south walL T L here does not seeni

to be any ancient authority for sediha. ;



Saint Anne, Catterick. 39

ele. And the ele sail be alourde acordant to the quere with an
awter and a lauatory 1 acordaunt in the este ende. And also
the forsaide Richarde sail take the wyndowe that standes now
in the north side of the aide Kirke and sette it in the este side of
the north ele ouer the awter with a franche botras on the cornere
dyand vnder the tabill. And the forsaide Richarde sail make a
window of twa lightes atte the awter ende with a franche botras
atte the mydwarde of the elyng and a dore and a botras on the north
west cornere. And also the forsaide Richarde sail make a windovve
of a lighte in the west ende of the same ele and a awter in the same
ele and a lauatory aeordaunt thareto, the ele alurde acordaunt to
the tother. The heght of the walles of aither ele vnder
the tabill abouen the grounde sail be made of sextene
fote hight. And the forsaide Richarde sail make the pilers with
the arches and the clerestory of the hight of sax and twenty
fote abouen erth vnder the tabill. And also forsaide Richarde sail
schote out tusses in the west ende for makyng of a stepill. And
also forsaide Richarde sail make tablyng of the endes of the forsaide
Kirke of a Katrik with seueronne' tabill. And also the forsaide
Richarde bindes hym and his executors and assingnes be this
endentor that the Kirk of Katrik beforsaide and neunde* sail be
made suficiauntly and acordaunt to the couenauntez beforsaide
fra the fest of seint John of Baptist next folowand after the makyng
of thes endentors safand the aloryngs vnto the same fest of seint
John of baptist be thre yere next folouande after that and fully
fullmled bot if sodayne were or pestilence 4 make it the whilke
may be resonabill excusacon for the forsaide Richarde. And
forsaide dame Katerine and William sail cari alle the stane that
misters ouer the stuffe more then is fon in the aide Kirke and in the
Kirke yerde atte thare awen coste. And also the forsaide dame
Katerine and William sail finde lyme and sande and water and scaf-
faldyng and Synetres" be houely 6 to the same Kirke atte thaire
awen coste. And when the Kirke of Katrik beforesaide is fully
made and endid the forsaide dame Katerine and William sail hafe
alle the scafaldyng and Synetres vnto thaire owen vse. And
the forsaide dame Katerine and William bindes thame be thes
endentors their executoures and assignes for to pay vnto the for-
saide Richarde and his assignes for the makyng of the forsaide

1 Piscina. ;i Named.

4 except if sudden war or pestilence.
'- Overhanging. Fr. S0r0#ae=\>art of a 5 Centres

roof which projects. o fachovdy = fitting.



40 Richmondshire Churches.

Kirke of Katrik newe als it is rehersede and beforesaide within the
terme of thre yere eght score of markes. And if the Kirke be endid
atte the terme before neuende the forsaide dame Katerine and
William sail gif vnto the forsaide Richarde tenne markes of mone
and a gowne of William werings to his reward. And also the
forsaide Richarde byndes hym bi this endentourez that the quere
of the Kirke of Catrik sail be made newe fra the ffeste of seynt John
of baptist next folowande after the makyng of thes endentoures
vnto the same ffeste of seynt John of baptist next folowand als be
a yere. And also the forsaide Richarde byndes hym be thes enden-
tors that he sail make the aloryng of the Kirke of Katrik new be
mysomer next folowand after the ffest of seynt John of baptist
before neuend that the forsaide Kirk of Katrik sail be fully made and
endid and that alle thes couenaunte beforesaidez and neuende sail
wele and trewly be fullfyld and done that forsaide Richarde falles
for to do be any mason crafte or any other thyng before neuende the
forsaide Richarde byndes hym his heires and his executourez vnto
the forsaide dame Katerine and William thaire heires and thaire
executoures in fourty poundes of gude and lawfull mone of Ingland.
And that all the couenauntez beforsaide and neuende sail wele
and trewly be done and fullfilde of the forsaide dame Kateryn
and William behalfe that tham falles forto do the forsaide dame
Katerine and William byndys thame theire heires theire executoures
vnto the forsaide Richarde in fourty poundez of mone be thes enden-
toures Writyn atte Burgh the day and the yere beforesaide.



CHAPTER III.



SAINT MARY, HORNBY.

THE parish church of Hornby, overshadowed as it is by the
ivy mantled walls of the extensive ancient castle, is of extreme
and unusual interest. It lies in the lower part of beautiful
Wensleydale, six miles south-east of Richmond, and five from
the quaint old market town of Bedale.

The church consists of a clerestoried nave with north and
south aisles, a chancel with a spacious chapel on its southern
side, and a western tower ; and it embodies work of no fewer
than four distinct periods of English mediaeval architecture.

The three lower stages of the tower constitute the oldest
remaining portion of the fabric, and these must be placed very
early in the Norman period, not after noo. The ground stage
has flat pilaster buttresses enclosing its western angles, and
portions of two similar buttresses of shallow projection appear
at the eastern angles ; but these are almost obscured by later
work. A chamfered plinth is carried all round the base of the
walls and buttresses. In the west face is a square-headed door-
way without any arch ornament. It has a large and deep
lintel, the upper edge of which is slightly higher in the centre
than at the ends, and above this is placed a semi-circular
relieving arch, formed of ten stones, the tympanum being filled
with rubble work composed partly of boulders, similar to the
material of the walls generally. The windows to the north and
south of this stage are modern. The next stage is marked by a
weathering, and at this point the buttresses die into the wall.
Although we have used the term buttresses, these projections
really amount to no more than a slight thickening of the wall,
to the extent of j\ inches, for a distance of four feet each way
from the angles. A small round-headed window appears on the
south, the jambs of which consist of single upright stones, whilst
the head is similarly worked out of one stone. The third stage
is the belfry stage, of the Norman period, and has on all its
four sides double openings, divided by mid- wall shafts. These
have plain bases and heavy cushion capitals carrying through
imposts ; and the openings are covered by semi-circular heads, each



42 Rickmondshire Churches.

worked out of one stone. They are similar in general treatment
to those at Masham, though earlier in date ; but they closely
resemble the belfry openings in the early Norman tower of Jarrow-
on-Tyne, which was erected after the arrival there of the
Mercian monks in 1075, subsequent to the Danish wars. The
tower of Hornby has been mistakenly attributed to an earlier
period ; but there can be no question whatever that it is of post-
Conquest date, though carrying on the earlier tradition. The
buttressed angles and the substance of the walls, which are about
three feet in thickness, forbid the suggestion that the work is pre-
Norman. Indeed, Professor Baldwin Brown quotes the tower
of Hornby as a proof that this form of double belfry-opening, divided
by a shaft, continued into post-Conquest times. 1 The tower meas-
ures lift. gin. xn ft. 6 in. internally, and it opens to the nave
by a tall semi-circular arch, which has plain jambs and archi-
volt springing from an impost carried across the reveals, but
not returned on either wall face. The arch and jambs are
square-edged, and the quoins only are of worked stone, the
intervening space being plastered. The impost is chamfered
on its lower side, and with the intervening groove above, which
is characteristic of Early Norman work. The tower arch is
an example of what Prof. Baldwin Brown shows to be the
Norman technique of a plain arch as distinct from that of one
of Saxon character, as proved by comparative illustrations. 2

It is probable that this tower was added, towards the close
of the Eleventh century, to a pre-Conquest church of narrow
dimensions. 3 After an interval of about a hundred years, the
present nave and chancel were built, an aisle, which was
narrower than the present one, being added on the north side.
The arcade is of three bays, each one of which differs from
the other two a form of treatment frequently met with, and
which may be considered characteristic of the end of the
Twelfth century. The isolated piers consist of clusters of four
semi-circular shafts ; but the responds have in each case a

1 Arts in Early England, ii, 287. erection of the present nave. A western



2 Ibid., ii, 96. figs. 46 and 47. tower was a '"""ry. and such embellish-

ments are rare in this district before the

J Mr. Micklethwaite has laid it down Fifteenth century. At Masham indeed

that a western tower, however early in a twelfth century tower occurs, and a

character, is invariably, or almost in- very fine fourteenth century example at

variably, an addition to a previously Bedale. Of the churches dealt with in

existing church (Arckaol, Journal, xxxvii, this volume, however, Burneston, Cat-

369) ; and such was doubtless the case terick, Kirkby Wiske, Kirklington, and

here, because the two eastern buttresses Tanfield, all have fifteenth century towers

have been partially enclosed by the and that of Pickhill is still later



PLATE IX.



To face page 43.




Saint Mary, Hornby. 43

large pointed shaft, flanked by smaller shafts of the same form,
engaged in square recesses. The bases of both piers and
responds are of unusual height. The lowest member is a per-
fectly plain square pedestal twelve inches high ; the next an
octagonal plinth nine inches high, moulded on its upper angle
with a quirked roll. The upper member is a slightly smaller
octagon, five inches in height, and capped by the twelfth
century "attic" base, with a very flat and wide-spreading
torus, of elliptical section. The capitals are all of them interest-
ing examples of the water-leaf, characteristic of this transitional
'period, and very similar to those in the Galilee chapel at
Durham. They carry moulded abaci, octagonal on plan, having
a flat upper- face, a quirked hollow and a roll. The arches,
which are of the semi-circular form, are of two orders, sur-
mounted by a hood-mould on the nave side only. The western
arch is of two orders, plain chamfered, but in the inner order
the chamfer is stopped immediately above the capitals a Bur-
gundian Cistercian feature. The two eastern arches are extremely
interesting examples of the development of ornament at this period.
The one next to the chancel has its outer order decorated with
an unusual arrangement of acutely-pointed chevrons projecting
from the arch. These chevrons all point one way, and the
points stand out so boldly from the wall that many of them
have been broken off. The soffit order of this arch consists of
pointed rolls and hollows. The central arch of the arcade has
two motives of decoration on its outer order. Beaded chevrons
are worked all round its wall and soffit planes, but the treat-
ment of the angle differs in the western portion of the arch
from the treatment of the same angle on its eastern side.
Towards the west the chevrons meet against a bold projecting
bead, whilst in the eastern portion of the arch a third series
of chevrons occurs. These last are so disposed as to form
lozenge-shaped spaces with the chevrons on the wall and soffit
faces ; and in the voids of the middle row of lozenges pellets
are worked. The inner order of this arch displays a roll set
between two chevrons.

An interesting comparison is afforded by the detail of this
arcade and that of the north arcade in the neighbouring church
of Patrick Brompton, which is of about the same date. The
arches there are, indeed, of the pointed form, but it is a popular
mistake to suppose that round-headed arches are always " Nor-
man" work, or are necessarily earlier than those which are



44 Richmondshire Churches.

pointed. The expression here is just as truly " Gothic" as at
Patrick Brompton : the detail at Hornby is, in fact, rather
the more advanced of the two. Whatever the origin of the
pointed arch may have been, there can be no doubt that it
was extensively employed, for the main arches of construction,
by the monks of the Cistercian Order, whose home was in
Burgundy, long before its general adoption in Normandy or
England. They made it the structural motive at Fountains
c. 1145, at Kirkstall c. 1152, and at Roche c. 1165 ; although in
churches outside this influence, and continuing the Anglo-Nor-
man tradition, semi-circular arches continued to be used right
on till 1200, and even later.

At the same period that the north arcade was constructed
(1180 or 1190) the present chancel was built, but it has been
much altered, and the chief original features remaining are a
north door, opening into the vestry, and two windows in the
south wall. The vestry door has a bold continuous roll-mould-
ing to its jambs and semi-circular arch. Well-cut banker
marks in the form of arrowheads appear on both jambs. The
windows on the south of the chancel have plain rolls internally,
at the angles, carried over the arches, similar to those at
Houghton-le-Spring and the chapel of Sherburn Hospital,
in the county of Durham. Externally, the windows are treated
in a manner quite characteristic of the period, the opening
being set in an inner plane, recessed from the wall face. They
have plainly chamfered outer arches with moulded hoods, the
same mould being carried along the south and east elevations
in the form of a string-course, breaking around each buttress.
The chancel has a plinth with two set-offs, surmounted by a
bead-mould. The buttresses are of pilaster form, and those
at the east end enclose the angles. Beneath the windows
is a moulded string-course, which passes over the buttresses.

A five-light window, with " Perpendicular" tracery, was,
at a later period, inserted in the east wall, doubtless to afford
more light to the chancel ; and, according to Sir Stephen
Glynne, who visited the church in 1869, the chancel had then
a flat modern ceiling. " The chancel arch," he adds, "is nearly
round, on octagonal shafts, and has a debased look." 1

Mr. Pearson's restoration, in 1877, brought the chancel back
to something more like its original appearance. Yet we Venture

1 Our illustration of the church at this photograph, kindly supplied by Mrs.
period is produced from an excellent Boultbee.



To face page 44.



PLATE X.




Saint Mary, Hornby. 45

to think' that it would have been better to have let the fifteenth
century window remain. It is not necessary that a church
should be all of one period or all in one style. Rather, its
very charm consists in that composite character which expresses
the ideals and aspirations of many successive generations,
and forms for us a sermon in stone upon the continuity of
the Church's history. 1

At this restoration, in 1877, three semi-circular-headed windows
were constructed in the east wall, and a rose window placed above.
The last is divided into seven compartments by a like number of
capitalled shafts which spring radially from an inner circle ; and
the segments are trefoiled in the heads. This resembles a circular
window at Barfreston, Kent, c. 1180, and is not unlike the
rose window at Beverley Minster, c. 1220.

The next alteration was the widening of the north aisle,
and this took place scarcely much later than the year 1300,
and possibly a few years earlier. The rubble walling at the
west end indicates the width of the original aisle, as distin-
guished from that of the extension. The reconstruction of the
aisle seems to have been the work of one local family, for all
the details connected with it are consistent and contemporaneous.
It is lighted by three windows to the north and one each at
the east and west ends. The former are of two narrow lights,
with acutely-pointed trefoiled heads with quatrefoils above,
and the rear-arches have double chamfers. The latter are of
three lights, the intersections producing three cusped eyes in
the heads. A monumental recess towards the east end of
the wall is enclosed within a plain pointed arch of two cham-
fered orders, of the same section as the window arches. Immediately
to the east of this is a niche, probably for containing an image.
This has an ogee and cusped head, and it may possibly be an
addition at a rather later period than that of the aisle wall.
Further east again is a square-headed aumbrey, and immediately

1 " Here a window or a door was window there knew far better what he
inserted, or a wall or an arcade raised was doing than he who would now take
higher, nearly always for a good reason, it away. And those who can see and
and to the improvement of the building understand more in our old architecture
both in appearance and historic interest. than the profile of a moulding or the
It requires no great skill (o discover that twisting of a tracery bar, know that it
a fifteenth century window in a thirteenth helps to give life and human interest to
century wall is an ' innovation on the the building, and cannot find language
original design,' or to devise another strong enough to condemn the mis-
window having a specious resemblance to chievous folly which would deprive them
what may have been there before. But of it." (The Growth of English Parish
the man who put that fifteenth century Churche s, by J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A.)



46 Richmondshire Churches.

to the right of the east window of the aisle is a piscina recess with
tref oiled head.

The whole of the rest of the work, embracing the erection of
the south aisle with its eastern chapel, the addition of the clerestory
to the nave and the upper stage of the tower, may be consigned



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