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to the Fifteenth century. But the aisle was constructed at the
commencement of the century ; the other features towards its
close. The original contract for building the south aisle exists,
and is printed in full at the end of this account of the church. The
bargain is made between John Conyers of Hornby and Richard,
mason at Newton, in Patrick Brompton parish, 28 January, 1409-10.
The aisle was 'to be as full broad as the already-existing north
aisle, with two whole pillars and two half pillars. A con-
venient window of three lights is specified for the east end,
with two two-light windows on the south side, and a con-
venient window of one light at the west end. The materials
of stone, lime, and timber would doubtless be provided, as well
as lead for the roof and the carriage thereof, which Conyers
undertook to supply ; and the contractor was to have 51?,
marks, or 34 6s. 8d., for his labour. John Conyers was edu-
cated in the household of Richard, Lord Scrope of Bolton, who
bestowed upon him, in marriage, the hand of Margaret, daughter
and sole heir of Anthony St. Quintin, of Hornby.

' Richard, mason of Newton,' is, without doubt, the same man
who, in 1412, covenanted with Dame Katherine de Burgh for the
building of Catterick Church, though in the latter contract he is
designed Richard of Cracall, mason. 1 The piers and responds are
plain octagons, with caps and bases of simple character, and the
arches, of two-moulded orders, are acutely-pointed with but slight
curve, exactly similar to those at Catterick. Another peculiarity
common to both churches is the single light at the west end of the
aisle. This has plainly-moulded jambs and an ogival cusped head
worked out of one stone. The two windows in the south wall are
each of two lights, with Perpendicular tracery above. It is singular
that no provision is made in the contract for a door, but there is no
reason to doubt that the existing south doorway is contemporary
with the rest of the work. It is of two orders, with continuous
mouldings and a hood on its exterior face. Towards the eastern

1 Newton-le-\VillowsandCrakehall are volume of Test. Ebor. treats him as Mr.

adjoining townships. In his monograph Mason! The similarity of Richard's work

on Catterick Church, the Rev. fames in the two churches is sufficient to estab-

Kaine speaks of the contractor as Mr. lish his identity, apart from the terms and

Cracall, and the editor of the fourth even the orthography of the contracts.

Saint Mary, Hornby. 47

end of the aisle wall a piscina is inserted in the wall beneath an ogee-
headed and cusped recess, indicating the position of an altar, and
this aisle became the chapel of the Conyers family as the north aisle
was that of the Mountfords, lords of Hackforth.

By a will, which he made at Hornby, 13 January, 1494, William
Conyers devised certain lands for two priests, and directed
that all such statutes as his grandfather, Sir John Conyers,
and his great grandfather, Christopher Conyers, did found
should be kept. 1

The next building epoch was about 1480, or shortly there-
after ; the tower now received its belfry stage, and the nave
its clerestory. There are flat-headed openings on all four sides
of the belfry, having two cusped lights with four lesser lights,
uncusped, in the heads. A corbel table, by which the wall
is capped, consists of a series of mask-heads, and carries an
embattled parapet, at the angles of which modern pinnacles
are set. The clerestory has also flat-headed windows, three on
each side, corresponding to the bays beneath ; but the two
most easterly windows, north and south, are of three lights
each, the rest have two lights only. All are of the ogee form,
and with tref oiled heads.

At the same period that the clerestory and belfry were
constructed, a further addition was made to the church by
an eastward extension of the south aisle, forming a chapel
on the south side of the chancel. This and the clerestory
are parts of one consistent work, and both are carried out
with squared stone procured from the same quarry which fur-
nished the material for the chancel 300 years before. The rest
of the building is composed mainly of cobbles and rubble.

The arch opening from the chapel to the chancel differs
materially from Richard's work of seventy years earlier. It is
of two plain chamfered orders, and springs from semi-octagonal
responds at either end, and it is also lower in the apex and of
quite different centring from the arches of the pier arcade. No
arch was inserted between the aisle and the chapel, but the
east wall of the former was entirely removed and Richard's three-
light window reset in the south wall of the chapel. The east
window is of the same date as the walls of the chapel, and is
of three ogival-headed lights with tracery of late character, the
central part of which is divided by a transom. It would
appear that a subsidence of the ground was feared either at

1 Test. Ebor., iii, 291,

48 Richmondshire Churches.

the time when the chapel was erected, or at some subsequent
period, for two very large buttresses have been constructed
at the south-east angle, and a third of equal dimensions built
against the former aisle wall near to where the two sections of
the work join.

The chapel is fenced from both chancel and aisle by a parclose
screen of late fifteenth century character, enriched with carving,
and with painted panels, which are both curious and rare.

.Roger Dodsworth, who visited the church in 1622, says that the
following inscription then existed in the ' South quyer Est
window' :

Orate pro animabus Johannis Conyers militis et Domine
Margerie uxoris sue filie et unius heredum Philippi nuper
Domini Darcy et De Menell.

The Sir John Conyers here commemorated was elected a K.G.
in the time of Richard III, and he died 14 March, i^Scr-go. 1

Dr. Whitaker suggests that he was the founder of what is now-
known as the Holdernesse Chapel. It is clear, however, that the
Mountfords of Hackforth had also much to do with the foundation,
for amongst the Chantry Surveys prepared in 1548 is one for the
chaunterye of our Lady in the Church of Hornbye, which is stated
to be of the foundation of Thomas Mountford in 1489. This chantry
was almost certainly associated with the south chapel, as that
of St. Cuthbert was situated in the north aisle. So late as the
Restoration it was still called the Hackforth chancel, although
controlled by the noble family of the castle.

1662, March 31. The Rt. Hon. Conyers, Lord D'Arcy and Conyers,
gave leave that the servants of Capt. Henry Harrison, of Holtby, and his
nephew should sit in one of the seats behind the Ainderby seats in the
Hackforth Chancel, during the pleasure of the said Lord D'Arcy and no
longer. 2

The great families connected with the parish were the St.
Quintins, Conyers, D'Arcys, and Osbornes, successively Lords of
Hornby ; and the De Burghs and Mountfords successively Lords
of Hackforth. The burial-place of the Conyers in the Fifteenth
century was probably the south aisle, and the De Burghs and
Mountfords appear to have been buried at the east end of the north
aisle. On 16 March, 1672, Lord D'Arcy granted to Mrs. Robinson
and her family " the right to sit in the pew behind the pulpit, over
the Mountford tombs." 3

1 Test. bor.,m, 289.
2 Parish Registers, * Jbid.

Saint Mary, Hornby. 49

As no authentic pedigree of the Mountford family has
appeared, the following may be useful :

of Hackforth I


_J will dated 1352


will dated 1379 I Gilbert de Sothehy,
J 1st wife


living 1352 SWYNNF. | ST. QUINTIN




| Conan Aske



| Jas. Strangways


THOMAS MOUNTFORD ; = AGNES, dau. and heir of
d. 1489. See brass John Kyllom

| John Norton


d. unm.

The church contains five effigies, and there is a sixth, much
decayed, in the churchyard. The oldest, which are in a very
perfect state of preservation, are undoubtedly those of a knight
and his lady worked in rather fine-grained sandstone, and lying
within a recess in the north aisle wall. There is no reason to think
(as has been suggested) that these figures are not in their original
position. The armour and costume is that of the closing years
of the Thirteenth century, which agrees with the character of
the arch beneath which they repose, as well as with all the details
of the aisle. Dodsworth (1622) says : In the north quyer, in an
arch, ther lyeth a knight crossleg'd, his shield on his arme, his wief
by him ; very antient, thought to be one Burgo antiently lord of
Hackforth. 1 The knight reclines upon a flat slab, and the head,
which is without cushions or support of any kind, is surmounted
by a gable, trefoiled and cusped, and enriched with crockets and a
finial of the hawthorn leaf. His feet rest upon a lion. The body is
clad in complete mail, over which a long and sleeveless surcoat,
divided down the front, extends almost to the ankles. It is gathered

1 Church Notes, p. 232.

50 Richmondshire Churches.

into slight folds by a buckled girdle about the waist. The arms
and legs are likewise covered with chain-mail, the gauntlets being
unfingered, but with thumbs separate. Narrow straps surround the
wrists, and the hands are elevated in the attitude of prayer. He
wears prick-spurs, which, with their straps, are very perfect. A
shield, but without cognizance, is on his left arm, suspended by a
broad strap passing bendwise over the right shoulder ; and on the
same side of the person the sword is attached by a broad oblique
belt round the thighs, the ends of which hang down. The head-cap
and coif are in one piece of mail, with a narrow band round the

The lady by his side is also placed without support to the head,
but the feet rest upon a dog. The head-dress, which is the most
distinctive feature in her attire, is executed with much skill, the
wimple and coverchef being caught up to points on either side of
the brow, so as to display the face in a triangular form. In this
respect the figure may be said to be a parallel to that of Aveline,
first Countess of Lancaster, in Westminster Abbey, 1273. Her long
and ample mantle falls in graceful folds to below the feet, and for
the most part envelops the person, disclosing only the tight-fitting
sleeves, which are buttoned all the way up the forearm. The effigy
is remarkable no less for the dignified simplicity of the costume than
for the sweet expression of the countenance.

The figures of a knight and lady wrought in Derbyshire alabaster
of the usual type have been removed from the tomb they once
adorned, and are laid upon the floor of the south chapel. The former
is portrayed in plate armour consisting of cuirass and taces, beneath
which a skirt of mail shows at the loins. The shoulder-plates and
elbow-pieces are articulated, and there are gussets of mail at the
arm-pits ; the thighs and legs are also clad in plate, but the latter
are broken off at some distance below the knees. The hands are
raised in the usual attitude, and the gauntlets, which always afford
valuable evidence of the date of an effigy, have divided fingers
with lozenge-shaped ornaments on the knuckles. Encircling the
wrist is a small band of ornament, which is repeated on the edge
of the cuff ; and the gauntlets are so contrived that the inside of
the gloved hand can be seen. The brassarts are fastened by two
buckles on either arm, and upon these and the vambraces, as well
as upon the defences of the lower limbs, an ornamental riband is
chased. The head reclines on crossed cushions, the lower one
tasselled and supported by angels on either side ; and it is covered
by an acutely-pointed bascinet from which the camail depends,


To face page 51.

[G. W. Thornton, phot.


Saint Mary, Hornby. 51

terminating in a straight edge across the chest. An orle, or wreath
of berried laurel, encircles the bascinet, which is enriched by a
border having strawberry-leaves above and feathers below, and
by the motto: ft fj na^avf (Jesus of Nazareth), over the
forehead. The inscription has been to some extent obliterated
by rough usage, but there can be no doubt of the correctness of
the reading. 1

The knight has no jupon, but a horizontal belt of square paterae
is worn low down upon the thighs. A misericorde and the cords by
which it is attached to the wearer are well executed on the right
hand ; and the sword was worn upon the left side. The last has
entirely disappeared, but the narrow belt which supported it, and
which is decorated with square flowers, loosely encircles the body.
There is no shield.

The figure of a lady, beside the effigy last described, is
also executed in alabaster, and the costume belongs to the same
period, namely the first half of the Fifteenth century. The
arrangement of the cushions supporting the head is exactly
similar to that in the knight's effigy, but the feet rest upon
two dogs seated, and facing each other, with ruffs round their
necks ; but their heads are gone. She wears a long and
ample garment, which falls in many folds clear from the neck
and shoulders to below the feet, but the pointed toes of the
slippers may be plainly distinguished beneath the dress. There
is no girdle or gathering of any kind to mark the waist. The
sleeves are tight-fitting to the wrists, and a rosary depends

1 Attempts have been made to identify Sir Robert Hilton, died 1429, in Swine
this inscription with the name of a John Church (. R. Antiq, Soc. Trans., iv,
de Mawre, seneschal to the Earl of xxii). Another effigy in Swine Church,
Richmond in 1285 (Longstaffe's Rich- of the early part of the fifteenth century,
mondshire, p. 58); or with John de la bears the inscription, IHC NAZAR
Marre, living in 1339 (Speight's Romantic (Ibid.,iv,\\n\); and in each of the follow-
Richmondshire, p. 158). Neither date, ing. cases the bascinet is inscribed IHS
however, approaches anywhere near to NAZAREN : Sir Thos. Wendesley, died
the period of the armour, which is of 1403, in Bakewell Church ; and an
post-Agincourt character. Also the bear- unknown effigy in Tideswell Church
ing of a proper name is a thing unknown, (Hewitt's Ancient Armour, iii, 417); a
whether upon actual helmets or monu- knight of the Marney family, c. 1400, at
mental effigies, whereas the use of religious Layer Marney; Sir Fulk Pembrigge,
mottoes is frequent upon both. (See 1409, at Tong, Salop; Ralph Green,
Hewitt's Ancient Armour, ed. 1876, 1419, at Lowick, Northants (Antiquary,
p. 128; and Stothard's Effigies.} A large xxv, 99) ; and the Wilcote effigy at North-
number of parallels could be quoted. leigh, Oxon. (Skelton's Oxfordshire). At
The following effigies have the single sign Elford in Staffordshire, the motto AVE
I H C on the bascinets : Wm. Phellip, MARIA occurs in a similar position
Lord Bardolf, in Dennington Church (Hewitt, iii, 417), and the bascinet of the
(Stothard's Effigies, pi. 1 10) ; Ralph Duke of Somerset at Wimborne Minster
Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, died 1426, bears the words IESV MARCI (Cough's
in Staindrop Church (Ibid., pi. 89) ; and Monuments, ii, 131).

52 Richmond shire Churches.

from the hands, which are raised in prayer. A cloak or mantle,
with a small roll-back collar, falls over the elbows at the back
of the wearer, so as not to cover any part of the front of the
person. The head is shrouded with kerchef and wimple, crimped
at the fringes.

These two figures have, of course, been removed from the
position they originally occupied, as they are older than the
chapel in which they now have a resting place. The figure
of the knight is very similar in general treatment to that of
Sir John Marmion, in Tanfield Church, who died in 1387 ;
but the style of the armour is distinctly more advanced. We
think these effigies are certainly not earlier than 1415, and
may well be ten or twenty years later. They quite possibly
represent the founder of the Conyers aisle, namely Sir John
Conyers, who died in 1422, and Margaret, his wife, sole heiress
of the St. Quintins of Hornby, who survived him. 1 That a
monument of some kind to Sir John Conyers existed in the
church is certain ; for his son Christopher, by a will which
he made on Wednesday next after St. Hilary, 1426, desires
to be " buryed in the Kirk of Hornby beside my fader's toumbe,
whose saule God assoyle." 2

Also preserved in the chapel, though no longer in situ, is a
sandstone effigy of a woman, which appears at some period to
have been exposed to the action of the weather, and is much decayed.
The head-dress and wimple seem to determine her sex ; but
for these the figure might be regarded as that of a priest or
friar. The left hand holds on the breast a jewel, or some
other object suspended by a cord round the neck, whilst the
right hand is placed on the front of the person, over a plain
girdle which encircles the waist. The folded skirt is short
to the ankles, the feet showing beneath. Over the head is a
crocketed canopy, of which a scallop shell on the left side of the
head appears to form a part It is not now possible to assume a
date for this figure with any degree of certainty perhaps
about the middle of the Fourteenth century.

On the south side of the chapel is a handsome mural monu-
ment in the style of the renaissance, commemorating Elizabeth,
one of the co-heiresses of John, Lord Conyers, and wife of
Thomas Darcy, who died 6 June, 1572, aged 27.

On the floor of the chapel are brasses to the memory of
members of the Conyers and Mountford families, mounted on

1 Cat. Pat. Kails, i Henry VI. * Test. Ehtr., iii, 288*.

Saint Mary, Hornby.


two large blue stones. The older brass commemorating Christo-
pher Conyers and Ellen, his wife, if laid down after the death
of the latter in 1443, cannot be in its original position. The
inscription is very clear, and reads :

i^tr tarmt (Ctjiistofoms Congers &rmtjj' qui obttt bit me's'

31 fc'iu i-BC <t (Elena uioc due quc obiit fri tiic

iur'0' Hugusli .31 fc'ni iti .rltij quor' ai'afaj p'pictet' Vs 3men

The lost devices appear to have consisted of pairs of shields,
and Mr. Mill Stephenson conjectures that there were hands holding

(About one-ninth full size.)

hearts above. The scrolls, which issue from the hearts, contain
words from the Creed and the Burial Office :

pcto'n vcmisstonc' rarnts ifsurrfcro'rm intam rtcrnam, and rrtif'ptor
mf'bffait in notiisstnto lite lit t'ra surrectur' su'.

According to the Visitation of 1563-4, Ellen was a daughter and
co-heiress of - - Ryleston, and she was survived by her husband.

The brass of Thomas Mountford and Agnes, his wife, is also in
a good state of preservation, excepting that the lower part of the

54 Richmondshire Churches.

male effigy and three armorial shields 1 with four quatrefoils, which
probably contained symbols of the Evangelists, are lost,
the two full-length figures, Thomas is represented bare-headed and
in armour. There is a collar of mail, but the figure is otherwise
clad in complete plate armour, with large articulated pauldrons and
elbow pieces. The hands, which are raised in prayer, have gauntlets
with long pointed cuffs. The sword is suspended by a narrow
belt, which passes loosely round the waist, and falls diagonally
across the left leg, whilst the handle of a misericorde, or dagger,
is just discernible on the right of the taces. The feet appear to
have been supported by an animal of some kind.

Agnes, the wife, who was daughter and heiress of John de
Kyllom, is attired in widow's costume, consisting of the veiled head-
dress with barbe, kirtle, and mantle. The inscription reads :

^ere Itetfj Cfjom's fflountforti Esquier & ^gnes ijt's togff fofjt'rij
Afro's tjEceggeti gc rctl) fcag of 3anttarg tfje gere of cure lort @ol)
I fHClmix anto tije fa gra of tf)e Ifogtrnr of oute jsau'aggnr
lort lung fjerrg tfjc bu on torjoos soults tb'u fjauc in'cg

Beneath the inscription are the effigies of eight sons and seven
daughters, arranged in groups according to sex. These are of great
interest, and they agree in numbers and condition with the pedigree
in Flower's Visitation, 1563. The sons are there said to be Thomas ;
Henry, a priest ; John and John, died in infancy ; William ;
Edmond, died young ; Christopher ; and George. The three who
died young are figured small on the brass. Of the remaining five,
the first, second, and fourth are portrayed in armour like the father,
the last is Henry in academical costume, whilst the third, a civilian,
has a large pouch attached to his girdle. The daughters, according
to Flower, were Cecily ; Margaret, married to John Dodsworth ;
Jane, married to Christopher Conyers ; Eleanor, married to William
Tankard ; Ann, married to John Swale ; Margaret, married to
Thomas Layton ; and Elizabeth, married first to Thomas Thornton,
second to Peter Aykrig. The first five are dressed all alike, with
butterfly head-dress ; the sixth is habited as a nun, and doubtless
represents Cecily, the only unmarried one ; the last wears a
different head-dress, and was, perhaps, a maiden when the brass
was executed.

Another brass on the floor of the chapel commemorates Henry
Harrison, youngest son of Sir Thos. Harrison, of Allerthorpe, kt.,

1 Dodswotth (1622) says that one of Three cups covered [for KvLi.OM](C/*wr/<
the shields bore : Per pale, Crucily a lyon Notes, \>. 232).
rampant [f r MOUNTFORD], impaling

To face page 54.


/aiiappf bnn tang- nnrrp


(About tne-nintk full site.)

Saint Mary, Hornby. 55

by Margaret, daughter of Baron D'Arcy and Conyers, his wife
Henry married Elizabeth, only daughter and heiress of D'Arcy
Conyers, of Holtby, Esq., by whom he had two sons and four
daughters, and died in 1668, in his 35th year. For his pedigree,
see under Burneston, at page 9. The brass was executed in the
same year, and evidently by the same hand, as the brass of Eleanor
Harrison in Burneston Church. The inscription is :

Henricus fdius natu minor Thomce Harrison de Allerthorpe
Militis et Margarita filice hon tiss '"" Baronis D'arcy et
Conyers. Qui duxit in uxorem Elizabetham filliam unicam
et Hceredem D'arcy Conyers Armig : de Holtby in hac
I'nrochia : Ex qua genuit, et cut reliquit duos filios et quatuor
fillias, et obiit 35 Anno cetatis sua 1668. Quam tran-
siens cetas, quam p'manens ceternitas.

\Yhen the Chantry Surveys were made in 1548, there were two
chantries in this church, in honour of Saint Cuthbert, and of Our
Lady. The former the Chauntereye of Seynt Cuthberte in the
Parysshe of Hornbye was founded in 1332 by Thomas St. Quintin
and Margaret, his wife, and Christina, widow of Robert of Hornby,
who had licence from Edward III to alienate in mortmain a messuage
and three tofts, six bovates of land, and three acres of meadow
in Horneby and North Otryngton to endow a chantry in the church
of the Blessed Mary of Horneby, that a chaplain may celebrate
divine service there daily, for their souls and those of their ancestors,
9 November, 1332. l It is clear that this chantry must have been
associated with the altar in the north aisle, for the south aisle and
chapel were not then built. The niche for containing an image, in
the north wall, appears to belong to this period rather than to that
of the aisle itself. Christopher Becwyth was stipendiary in 1535,
and was still so at the Dissolution.

The Chauntereye of our Ladye in the said church of Hornbye
is stated to have been founded by Thomas Mountford in 1489,
and, as we have already pointed out, the south chapel was doubtless
devoted to the functions of this chantry. Anthony Smythe was
Priest in 1548, being then 36 years of age, not learned nor meet to
serve the cure, and not remaining in the parish.

It would appear that the older foundation, that of St.
Cuthbert, was rehabilitated and further endowed some time before
1483, by Robert Pynkney, priest, and by Christopher Conyers,
parson of Rudby. The will of the former is dated 7 August, 1489,

1 Patent Rolls, 6 Ed\v. Ill, memb. 9 and 10.

56 Richmondshire Churches.

and was proved 17 March following. It is a picturesque document.
Robert Pynkney had been vicar of Kirkby Fleetham, but at the time
of making his will was chantry-priest at Hornby. His body is to

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