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be buried in the parish church of Hornby, if it shall happen to him
there to decease. He leaves five shillings to the vicar of Hornby
to be prayed for in his beads ; to our Lady light, us.; to the three
orders of Friars, to every one of them, 55. to sing a trental 1 for him ;
to the Prior of Mountgrace, 6s. 8d. For the repairing and upholding
of the chantry of Saint Cuthbert, founded by the parson of Rudby
and by him, in the foresaid parish church of Hornby, these parcels
following, the which are at this time remaining in the said chantry :
namely, one Messe-buke, one vestment of white bustian, 2 one
corporax, 3 3 altar cloths, one frontal, one steuened 4 cloth, and 2
linen cloths to be hung at the altar-cloth's ends. His part, that is
to say, the one half of a new ' tabule ' standing upon the same altar.
" Also to ye same my part of ye costes of making of one closet in
tymber and warkmanshipe, besyd all other recknyngs abwte ye same,
by ye vicarie of Horneby mad, as he will answer to God." Sir John
Conyers, of Hornby, is nominated supervisor of this his last will. 5

Richard Nicholson, of Hornby, by his will dated 23 July, proved
ii October, 1469, leaves to the fabric of the church of Hornby one
goat aged 2 years, and to the light of the Blessed Mary in the same
church one ewe. 6

Of stained glass, in which the church was once wealthy, only a
few specimens remain. The east window of the north or Hackforth
aisle is both charming and rare, since the glass is contemporary, or
nearly so, with the window and, indeed, with the whole aisle and
chapel. The background of diamond-shaped quarries is of a
greenish tint, with a leaf pattern running through it, traced in black.
The design of the middle light is based upon the vine, that of the
two outer lights represents the oak leaf with acorns. Each of the
three lights has a panel in its central portion, exhibiting the figure
of a saint. In the traceried head are shields of arms : Azure crucily
a lion rampant argent ; and argent a lion rampant azure. Both

l Trentall = an office of thirty masses, 3 Corporax or corporal = a cloth, usually

said either all on one day, or on several of linen, upon which the consecrated

days. (See York Missal, ii, 189, Modus elements are placed during the celebration

ceUbrandi trentale.} of mass, or with which they are covered.

* Bus(ian = * cotton fabric, of foreign (New "S >'")

manufacture, ued for certain church * Stevened or steyned = particoloured,

vestments, sometimes described as a Stained glass really means particoloured

species of fustian, but sometimes men- glass,

tioned as distinct from it. (New Eng. " Test. Ebor., iv, 41.

Dttt '} a Richmondshire Wills, 5.



Saint Mary, Hornby. 57

appear to be variations of the Mountford coat. In the eyelight
of the most easterly of the windows in the north aisle wall is an
armorial shield, which seems to belong to the early part of the
Fourteenth century. It is : Argent three bars azure, over all a
bendlet gules, for GREY of Rotherfield. John Grey, of Rotherfield,
co. Oxon., married Katherine, daughter of Brian FitzAlan, of
Bedale, before 1317, and he subsequently married the heiress of the
Marmions of Tanfield, and died in 1359.

The west window of the south aisle is also filled with painted
glass, which belongs to a period quite early in the Fifteenth century,
and, therefore, is probably contemporary with the aisle. The
main features are a Saint's head, most likely that of the Blessed
Virgin, to whom the church is dedicated, with the head of an aged
Saint above, doubtless intended for St. Anne. These are disposed
between smaller figures enclosed within circles, viz.: (i) A trefoil,
stalked and slipped, the ancient crest of the Conyers ; (2) A lion's
head affronte ; and (3) A sun in splendour. The background is
composed of semi-transparent diapered quarries, and the window
is bordered with a fine bold design of oak leaves in gold and white,
twisted round a staff.

At the west end of the aisles are two very perfect thirteenth-
century grave-covers, and a third, which is broken, but of unusual
design, is preserved near the Holdernesse chapel.

The tower contains four bells. The treble has the inscription,
"VENI EXULTEMUS DOMINO, 1695 " ; the second has the name of
Rev. Thomas Kirkby, vicar, indicating a date between 1783 and
1800 ; the third was originally provided by William, Lord Conyers,
who was born 21 December, 1468, and died in 1524. It has, however,
been twice recast. 1 The tenor was also recast in 1793.

The font, as an inscription upon it bears, was " The gift of Mary,
Countess of Holdernesse, 1783."

Apart from the noble family of the castle, the parish has given
birth to a distinguished man, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of London,
who was born at Hackforth in 1475. Educated at King's College,
Cambridge, he became Vicar-General to Archbishop Warham in
1508, Master of the Rolls 1516, and Lord Privy Seal 1523. He was
successively Bishop of London and of Durham, and he died at
Lambeth Palace in 1559.

The church possesses two fine chalices bearing the London

1 Recast in 1656 and 1793. The When I doe ryng, God's prayses syng.
original bell had the following inscription : When I doe tole, pray heart and soule.



58 Richmondshire Churches.

hall-mark, and having the arms of D'Arcy impaling those of Sutton 1
engraved upon them in a lozenge, with the inscription : For ye
Use of Hornby Parish. There is also a modern flagon and paten.

The parish registers commence in 1582 ; the churchwardens'
accounts dating from 1703 only, though items of expenditure appear
amongst the records of baptisms, etc., from 1587 onwards. Many
interesting extracts have been printed in Mrs. Boultbee's work. 2

The church is dedicated to the B.V. Mary, and is mentioned by
that name in a licence in mortmain in 1332. 3

The church of Hornabi, with one carucate of land there, was
bestowed upon Saint Mary's Abbey, York, by Wigan Fitz-Landric,
which was confirmed by Stephen, Earl of Richmond, who was
Earl from 1093 till 1137. 4 On the nones (5th) of September, 1220,
it was granted by the Abbot and Convent to Archbishop Walter
Grey, who gave it to the Common Fund of the Church of York
by deed dated at Berwyk, xj kal. June, in the sixth year of his
pontificate (22 May, 1221). 5 It thus became one of the many
Peculiars of the Dean and Chapter of York, exempt in many matters
from archidiaconal jurisdiction, though it possessed no ecclesiastical
court of its own, like that of Masham or Middleham.

Complaint was made 8 March, 1317, by Master Robert
Pykering, dean of York, that certain persons had entered his
manor at Hornby, broke the doors of his houses there, and carried
away his goods. 6

A curious entry, partly in Latin and part English, occurs in the
York Fabric Rolls for the year 1495 :

Horneby. Presentant chorum ruinosum et defectivum in fenestris
vitriis, in mason wark, in plumbo, in hostiis chori, item unum redose ex parte
australi et eciam in pavimento et celura supra summum altare. Inveniunt
magnos defectus de libris, as a legend and j antiphoner for w'owt yay be had,
yay can syng nother matyns ner evenssong. Capella de Hakford 7 non
bene reparatur ob carenciam plumbi. Navis ecclesiae est defectiva in thekyng.
Porticus ante hostium ecclesirc oportet de novo tegi Anglic? thekyd. K

1 Bridget, daughter of Robert Sutton, Cat. Pat. Nolls, 6 Edw. III.

Lord Lexington, was the widow of John

D'Arcy, Esq., M.P., who died in 1689, Dugdales Menasttcon, in, 534.

and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 3 A'fg . of Archbishop Grey, p. 139.

She survived until I7l6.

6 Cal. of Patent Rolls, 10 Edw. II.
* Gleanings from an Iron Chest in the 7 .,

Church of St. Mary, Hornby, 1901. l ' e ' the north alsle '

s York Fabric Rolls, p. 264.



To face page 58.



PLATE XIII.




o o b u u Z



Saint Mary, Hornby. 59

LIST OF THE CLERGY OF THE CHURCH OF HORNBY.

1274- RICHARD DE MILEFORD is mentioned as vicar of Hornby
when a visitation of the church was made by Archbishop
Giffard, xij kal. October (20 September), 1274. (Reg.
Giffard, p. 196.)

1349 RALPH HARPUR, of Fangefosse, instituted i November, 1349,
on the presentation of the Dean and Chapter of York.
Died 1353. (Torre's MS.)

1353 ROBERT DE HAMERTON, instituted 14 December, 1353.

Resigned the benefice. (Ibid.)
ROBERT DE KILLUM, vicar. Died 1358. (Ibid.)

1359 WILLIAM GOUSHANKS, instituted 30 January, 1358-9.

1399 JOHN DE LAYSYNGBY, instituted 8 November, 1399.
JOHN ORRE. Died 1440.

1440 JOHN SHIREWYND, instituted 18 November, 1440.

1475 JAMES HOGESON, instituted 26 May, 1475.
THOMAS SHYERWYND. Resigned in 1482.

1482 PETER Cou, instituted 31 May, 1482.

1503 SIMON WELDEN, instituted 15 Sept., 1503. Resigned 1508.

1508 RICHARD FYSHER, instituted 2 December, 1508. Resigned



1516 RICHARD ATKINSON, instituted 15 January, 1515-16. A
witness to the will of Henry Conyers in 1522. l Vicar in
1535, when the mansion was worth 2s., and tithes payable
by the cathedral church of York, 6 135. ^d.-

1548 WILLIAM FILDESHENDE, instituted 12 November, 1548.
Died within a few months.

1549 PETER GLENTON. Resigned.

1558 GEORGE LUMLEY, instituted 7 September, 1558. Resigned.

c 1560 NINIAN HUNT, Vicarius ecclesise de Hornby'; buried at

Patrick Brompton, 3 August, 1562. (Par. Reg.)
JOHN JOHNSON. Resigned 1581.

1581 WILLIAM SEWELL, instituted 3 May, 1581. Died 12 April,
1626, aged 82.' In 1614 he caused a stone to be engraved
commemorating his benefactions, 'not because he desired
the applause or praise of people.' 20 for the little bell,

1 Kipon Chapter Aits, p. 357. - Valor Eccletiasticus.



60 Richmondshire Churches.

that the ring of four bells might remain ; 10 for a preacher,
and 10 for the poor of Hornby ; 10 for the poor of Rich-
mond ; 5os. for the poor of Hudswell ; and 10 for the
poor of Skelton, co. Cumb., his birthplace. The stone is
now in the Holdernesse chapel, and is nearly all legible.
Roger Dods worth met Mr. Sewell in 1622, and the best
published copy of the inscription is in his Church Notes,
p. 231.

1626 LAURENCE NEWTON, instituted 26 April, 1626, was vicar
until 1649. He was also perpetual curate of Patrick
Brompton, to which he was inducted 6 January, 1625-6.
(Par. Reg.)

1650 THOMAS BROCKHALL, 'minister,' had a son, Thomas, baptised
here 24 Aug., 1650. He was son of John Brockhall, of
Richmond, where he was born about 1617. Headmaster
of Richmond School in 1642 and 1645, but his successor
was in office in 1647. Rector also of Tanfield 1664-9,
where he was buried 13 April, 1669. Susanna, his wife,
was buried 15 April, 1666. (Hornby and Tanf. Par. Reg.)

1670 NICHOLAS FINDER. Buried at Hornby, 27 January, 1676.
(Par. Reg.)

1677 HENRY LIGHTFOOT. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; B.A..
1671 ; M.A., 1675. Instituted n April, 1677. Resigned
1684. (Ibid.)

1684 CUTHBERT ALLEN. Of Christ's College, Cambs.; B.A., 1672 ;
M.A., 1676. Instituted 6 November, 1684. Resigned
1716. (Ibid.)

1716 JAMES HAYTON, nephew of the preceding vicar. Of St.
John's College, Cambs.; B.A., 1710. Held the benefice
54 years, and was buried 17 January, 1770, in his 82nd
year. (Ibid.; Tombstone.)

1770 JOHN PIGGOTT, son of John Piggott, of Chaworth, co. Berks.
Of Magdalen College, Oxford ; matriculated 12 March,
1751, aet. 18 ; B.A., 1754. Vicar also of Gilling. Resigned
1774, on his appointment to Oswaldkirk. Died August,
1812.

1774 JOHN EYRE. Of St. John's College, Cambs.; B.A., 1772.
1783 JAMES NORRIS. Died 1783.

I7 8 3 THOMAS KIRBY, had been curate-in-charge since 1770. Died
suddenly 19 July, 1800, and was buried at Catterick.



Saint Mary, Hornby. 61

1800 WILLIAM ALDERSON. Of Pembroke College, Cambs.; B.A.,
1795 ; M.A., 1804. Died in 1804, when he was succeeded
by his son.

1804 JONATHAN ALDERSON. Of Pembroke College, Cambs.;
B.A., 1792 ; M.A., 1795. Also rector of Langton-on-Swale,
to which he was presented by the Duke of Leeds in 1793,
and which he exchanged, in 1812, for the rectory of Harthill
in the West Riding, holding both in conjunction with
Hornby.

1829 GEORGE ALDERSON, nephew of the last incumbent. Of
Pembroke College, Cambs.; B.A., 1822. Previously for
ten years assistant-curate, became vicar in 1829. He died
9 September, 1879, a g e d 80, and was buried at Hornby.

1880 HENRY DAWSON MOORE. Died 26 July, 1894, aged 65
1894 HENRY TRAVIS BOULTBEE. Resigned 1903.
1903 WILLIAM FREDERICK DRURY.



62 Richmond shire Churches.

CONTRACT FOR BUILDING THE SOUTH AISLE OF
HORNBY CHURCH, 28 January, i^g-io. 1

This indenture made betwix John Conyers of Hornby of the
ta party and Richard, mason of Newton in the parish of Patrick
Brompton, on the tothir party witnesses that the foresaid Richard
hase undirtaken for to make the south eill of the parish kirke berand
alius [bearing always] fall brede as the north eill of the same kirk
beres ; the whilk south eill sail be of twa hale pillers and twa halfe
pillers. And in the end of the same south eill sail be a couenable
windowe of thre lightes ; and in the syde twa couenable windowes
of twa lightes ; and in the west a couenable windowe of a lighte.
And the walles of the same south eill sail be twa fote hegher than
the walles of the foresaid north eill, if it like to the foresaid John.
And the same south eill sail haue thre boteras, yat is for to say, at
aithir end of it a boteras, and a boteras in the syde betwix the tother
twa, where it will fall best ; and ye foresaid south eill sail be
ailled and tabled couenably with stane. And the foresaid
Richard sail gar theke the same south eill couenably with
lead, savand that the foresaid John sail gif thareto a fothir 2
of lede and the cariage of the same fothir. And alsa the
foresaid Richard sail gar glassyn and gryn a windowe in the
syde of the same south eill and a windowe in the w r est end
of the same south eill at his own costages. And all this werk
beforesaid sail be done weele and couenably in the forme
beforesaid at the costages of the foresaid Richard, outaken the
gift of the foresaid fothir of leade w* the cariage of it gifen
be the foresaid John, betwix this and the fest of Saynt Mighell
next comand after the date of this indenture. For the whilk
werke the foresaid John sail gif the foresaid Richard, at times
and dayes to the foresaid Richard agreables, li marks and a
halfe. To the whilk covenant wele and leelely to be done
in the terme before said, the partys before said, atthire party
on yair part, bindes yaim till othirs, yair hairis and executors
be these present endenters in xl pound of leele monee of Ingland.
In witnes of whilk thinge the partis beforesaid to this endenters
entrechaungeably have set yair seles. Gifen the xxviij day
of lanuer the zere of o r lord the kinge Henry fourt eftir the Conquest
of England the ellevent. (Penes The Duke of Leeds.)

1 The contract is drawn up in English, by the mason, for whose convenience the

which is very unusual in documents of vulgar tongue was, contrary to the custom

that time. The reason doubtless was of the period, adopted,
that its terms might be freely consulted 2 About 19$ cwt.



PLATE XIV.



To face page 63.




KIRKBY WISKE, C. Il6o.



[/. /. Rutherford, phot.



CHAPTER IV.



SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST, KIRKBY WISKE.

THIS church appears to be first mentioned in the year 1182, when
Henry II confirmed to the prior and convent of Guisborough a grant
of the church of Kirkeby-super-Wisc, with all its belongings, both
in chapels, in lands and tofts, which William of Kirkeby had formerly
made to them. 1 From the evidence of the structure, it is certain
that there was a church of good character here in the Twelfth century,
though no work of that date is left actually in situ. The
remains of this early fabric consist of a very fine Norman
doorway, which has been reset, probably, more than once. It
is of two orders. The jambs of the inner member have engaged
shafts, carrying capitals carved with looped knot-work, a
survival of pre-Conquest motive, which is met with also in the
north transept of Kirkstall Abbey, Barholme, Lincolnshire, and
other places. The outer member has detached nook shafts, one on
either side, the capitals of which are enriched with foliage in a stiff
scalloped form. There are no abaci. The arch is semi-circular,
its soffit order ornamented with eleven beak-heads grasping a roll ;
the outer order carved with the chevron pattern on both its plane
and soffit surfaces. There is a heavy hood-mould, with a roll on
the angle, and a series of horse-shoe ornaments on its face. This
terminates in sculptured corbels, that on the east side being a
grotesque head, with protruding tongue and eyes. That on the
west exhibits two faces under one hood. A doorway so richly
decorated as this was, doubtless, originally on the south side of the
church, but it was banished at some period and fixed in the north
wall, where it remained until 1870. In the course of alterations
then made in the fabric, this doorway was brought back to the south
side, and now occupies a position in the aisle wall near its western
end.

There are also numerous detached and various sculptured
stones, some of which are built into the modern walls, and
others lying loose in the churchyard. These comprise arch-
stones with the chevron moulding cut upon them, and others
of Twelfth century character carved with grotesque heads, which

1 Gniskoi-ough Charlulary, i, p. 16.



64 Richmondshire Churches.

appear to have come from a corbel-table. Three of the last
have been built into the walls of the modern heating chamber
at the north-east angle of the church, and many are lying
loose in the churchyard. Other detached stones, some of
which are in the rectory garden, include what appears to be a
fragment of an Anglo-Danish hog-back grave-cover ; another is a
Norman sundial, with a semi-circle divided into twelve, and the
remains of the lead which fixed the gnomon. This has been built
into the western buttress of the south aisle.

These features, so far as we may judge, indicate a date about
1160. The church at that period probably consisted of an aisleless
nave, with a small chancel, as at Adel and other places. Apparently
a narrow aisle was added to the south side in the first half of the
Thirteenth century, for the west wall of that aisle, with its single
lancet window, is of that period, and seems to be in its original
position. A glance at the plan, at page 76, is enough to show
that the present nave, which measures 42 ft. by 22 ft., represents
the extent of the aisleless Norman nave.

The fabric underwent entire reconstruction during the second
quarter of the Fourteenth century, which may have been in part due
to the ravages of the Scots during Edward IFs reign, for the men of
Kirkby Wiske were excused from payment of certain taxes in 1319,
by reason of the damage they had sustained at the hands of the
Scots. 1 But to whatever cause it may have been due, there is no
doubt that the early years of Edward Ill's long reign were marked
by very extensive church building in this district. Masham and
Well afford parallel instances of churches almost entirely re-
constructed between 1330 and 1350.

The magnificent chancel was the first section of the work, and
may be referred to about the year 1325, or very shortly thereafter.
In its dimensions, details, and general arrangements it is very similar
to the chancel of Patrick Brompton, which is of about the same
date ; but if the mouldings in this church are inferior to those
at Patrick Brompton, the carving especially of crockets cannot
be subjected to the same reproach. Externally, each of the angles
is flanked by two plain buttresses of a single stage only, placed
square, and terminating in sloping heads which die into the
walls beneath the cornice. Three similar buttresses on the
south wall break up the flank into a like number of compart-
ments or bays, each of which contains a pointed window
of two lights, with nicely - moulded jambs and arches. The

1 Calendar of Close Rolls, Edw. II.



To face page 64.



PLATE XV.








PLATE XVI.



To face page 65.




KIRKBY WISKE, C. 1330.



[/. J. Rutherford, phot.



Saint John the Baptist, Kirkby Wiske. 65

quire door, which is skilfully grouped with the window in the
centre compartment, has a continuous moulding carried round its
arch, consisting of a filleted roll set between hollows. It has
a hood-mould terminating in carved heads. The interior of the
chancel is even more striking than its outward appearance. The
rear arches and jambs of the windows are no less elaborately moulded
than are their external faces. The tracery of the east window
was demolished in 1811, when a flat ceiling was placed over the
chancel, leaving nothing of the window but the five lower .lights
with their trefoiled heads. The original form of the window was,
however, reconstructed by the late Mr. G. E. Street, R.A., who
carried out the restoration of the church in 1870-1. The lights
are ogee-headed, and the mullions continued right and left until
they meet the window arch. Five tiers of tracery compartments
are thus formed by their intersections. Pointed trefoils occupy the
lowest tier, whilst the upper compartments are filled with quatre-
foils. This is, indeed, the same motive which occurs in the south
windows of the chancel, merely extended to adapt it to the larger
window at the east end. In the History of Richmondshire, the
most careless and inaccurate of all the writings of that very
able, learned, and industrious antiquary, Dr. Whitaker, is an
illustration of this window showing reticulated tracery in the
head ; but that is purely a fancy picture made in 1822, whereas
the tracery was taken down in iSn. 1 The windows in the
south wall are original ; the lights are ogee-headed, with pointed
trefoils above, and the eye-light contains a pointed quatrefoil.
East of the quire door are sedilia of good character, though renewed
to a considerable extent. The arches which enclose the three
stalls are pointed and cusped, their mouldings being carried
down the jambs ; and the group is surmounted by a hood-
mould, terminating at either end in a sculptured head, and
enriched with crockets of the hawthorn leaf. Over each arch
a short pinnacle is set with a richly-carved finial of the same type ;
and the remains of colours and gold, with which the canopies were
formerly adorned, may be traced on these pinnacles. A recessed
piscina occupies the usual position next to the sedilia, and is simi-
larly treated. The basin is circular, and projects slightly from the
wall face. A bold string-course runs all round the chancel below

1 " Mr. Street went carefully into the architect (certainly so to Mr. Street) that

question of the tracery of the east window. the original tracery consisted of interlacing

We had Whitaker'^ picture before us. mullions, as at present restored " (Note by

Every stone of the old window was pre- /./. P., Bishop of Richmond).
served, and it was quite obvious to an



66



Richmondshire Churches.



the sills of the windows, but it is carried over the quire door, sedilia,
and piscina in the south wall, and over the tomb recess and vestry
door on the north side ; and the wall heads are crowned, inside
as well as out, by a moulded cornice. On either side of the east
window there has been a tabernacle with a boldly-carved corbel for
supporting the figure of a saint. On the south side of the altar
the image block consists of a finely-sculptured head with very
dignified expression. The niche itself is only very slightly recessed
in the wall, and is flanked by small shafts rising from moulded bases,
and crowned by what has been a magnificent gabled canopy, en-
riched with crockets of the hawthorn leaf. The tabernacle on
the north side has projected further from the wall. The corbel
consists of the head and arms of a grotesque monster, whose







ORNAMENT ON CHAMFER BELOW TOMB RECESS.

hands clasp the sides of his head ; and the moulded sides of
the niche are in part preserved, but the canopy has entirely
disappeared.

The north wall contains a fine tomb recess, thus further carrying
out the parallel with Patrick Brompton. The recess is covered by a
pointed arch, moulded and having cusps and a hood-mould ; and
a pedimental inclosing canopy above is richly crocketed with haw-
thorn leaves, and terminates in a very fine finial. There are
flanking shafts with sunk panels, carrying pinnacles. A plain
slab forms the base of the tomb, the chamfered edge of which is
admirably carved with the vine leaf. It is incorrect to speak of
these recesses as Easter Sepulchres, though they may have come



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