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improperly washed or from badly kept beds. Austen (Trans. Soc. Trap. Med. and
Hyg., iii, No. 6, p. 221) records that in the autumn of 1907 a number of the larvae
of the common drone fly (Eristalis tena.v] were passed per rectum by a woman in
Hampshire who had recently arrived from Fiance. The patient had eaten a con-
siderable quantity of watercress before leaving Fiance. I have twice found small
Eristalis larva? clinging by their long tails on watercress served at table.

Family. Drosophilidae.

Small, rather plump flies, with short, broad abdomen, with bristles on the head
and legs. Often abundant in decomposing fruit, and may occur in dense masses.

Drosophila melanogaster, Br.

The larvae of this fly occur in over-ripe fruit and in fungi, often also in human
habitations, and live in substances undergoing acid fermentation (vinegar, decaying
fungi, rotting fruit, in damaged spots in diseased trees), much more rarely in animal
substances, and they occasionally gain access to the human intestine (for example, by
the medium of sour milk). When introduced in any quantity, they cause vomiting
or attacks resembling colic ; when taken in the pupal stage no unpleasant results
are produced.

Family. Muscidae.
Teichomyza fusca, Macq.

Syn. : Scatella tirinaria, Rob. Desv. ; Ephydra longipeivtis, Meigen.

The larvae live in the urine in privies. Several authors state they have found
them in fresh faeces or in vomited matter. Pruvot states that they continue for three
days in the stomach of rats into which they have been intentionally introduced.
(Pruvot, G., " Contrib. k 1'etude des larves de dipt, trouv. dans le corps humain,"
These de Par., 1882; Chatin, J., in Comp. rend. Soc. de Biol., Paris, 1888 [8], v,
p. 396 ; Roger, H., ibid., 1851 [i], iii, pp. 88, etc.)

Homalomyia canicularis, L., etc.

Homalomyia vianicata, Meig., live as larvae in decomposing vegetable matter or
in cultivated vegetables (cabbage) ; they are easily recognizable by their plumed
bristles, which are situated laterally on the body segments. They obtain access
fairly often to the human intestine and give rise to very uncomfortable symptoms.
Cases have been recorded from Germany, Austria, France, England, North
America (Wacker, in Artzl. Intelligenzbl., 1883, xxx, p. 109; Florentin, in Compt.
rend. Soc. de Biol., Paris, 1904, Ivi, p. 525; and other authors).

The larvae of an allied genus (Anthomyia), which, however, does not possess
plumed bristles, has been found in the external auditory meatus of a man (A.pluvialis,
according to Danthon).

[//. canicularis is common to Europe and North America, and is an'abundant
house-fly. It is the small house-fly so often seen on windows. Besides living on
vegetable matter, they have also been found in the nests of the humble bee. Larvae
of this species (fig. 405) were sent to the British Museum, taken from the faeces o


a woman suffering from cancer. 1 They were found at Shrewsbury. Hagen 2 reports
the larva} of this fly as occurring alive in the urethra of a patient. F. V. T.]

Homalomyia scalaris, Fabr.

[This is not a synonym of the above, but a distinct species.
[//. manicata, Meigen, is also distinct. F. V. T.]

Anthomyia desjardensii, Macq.

This fly, allied to Homalomyia, is the cause of both intestinal and cutaneous
myiasis at Bihe, Angola (Wellman, Joitrn. Trap. Med. and Hyg., June, 1907,
x, p. 1 86).

Hydrotaea meteorica, L.

The larvae live in decaying vegetable substances, also in dung, and have been
evacuated in some cases by man (Zetterstedt, Joseph).

FIG. 405. Larva of
Homalomyia canicularis.

FIG. 406. Larvae of
Calliphora vomitoria.

Cyrtoneura stabulans.

FIG. 407. Larva of
Chrysomyia macellaria.
4/1. (After Conil.)

Larvae in fungi, but occasionally also on larvae of butterflies and Hyiiienoptera;
occasionally introduced into the human intestine (Joseph).

Musca domestica, L.,

and M. (Calliphora) vomitoria, L., and allied species ; larvae of these have been
repeatedly found in the intestine and nose of man (Mankiewicz, etc.). 3

1 Theobald, " First Report Economic Zoology," Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.}, p. 55.

2 Hagen. Proc. Bost. See., N.H., xx, p. 107.

3 " Larvae of a Musca, probably M. corvina, were passed in numbers per rectum by a child
in Liverpool with Homalomyia larvze," "Second Report Economic Zoology," Theobald,
1903, p. 16.



Musca domestica, Linn. (Common House-fly).

It is not only on account of a few larva? of the common house-fly (Musca
domestica} being found in the intestines of man that it is of importance medically.
It is far more important on account of the part it plays in the spread of diseases
of the intestines, such as typhoid fever and cholera, infantile diarrhoea and


Howard and Clark (Journ. Exp. Med., 1912, xvi, No. 6, pp. 850-859) have shown
that the house-fly is capable of carrying the virus of poliomyelitis for several days
on the surface of the body and for several hours in the gastro-intestinal tract.
The house-fly may also distribute the ova of Tcenia solium and the white worms
(Oxyuris and Ascaris). It has also been proved that they may carry the germs
of tuberculosis, and it is said that they play an important part in the spread
of infectious ophthalmia in Egypt.

This insect is found in all parts of the world. In warm countries it breeds
all the year round, and it may do so even in temperate climates in warm places,
such as stove houses. Most, however, die off in the autumn ; but some survive the
winter as adults, in such places as kitchens, restaurants, and warm houses. I have
never failed to find a few Musca domestica in houses during the winter. The
majority, however, hibernate as puparia.

The females deposit from 120 to 150 eggs in a batch in stable manure, rotting
vegetation, house refuse, spent hops, old soiled bedding, etc. A single female
may lay as many as six batches of ova during her life. The eggs are shiny white,
and hatch in from eight to twenty-four hours in warm weather to three or four
days in cool weather. The white footless maggots are cylindrical, tapering to
a point at the head end, truncated posteriorly. The head consists of two dark
mandibular hooks and two short antennas. ,On the tail end are two plates, the
stigmata, in which the main tracheal trunks open ; in the second segment are
a small pair of projecting stigmata. The larval stage lasts from seven to five
days in hot weather ; but in cold weather in temperate climes it may last six or
eight weeks.

The larva on reaching maturity becomes a barrel-shaped puparium of a dark
brown to black colour, and in this case changes to the pupa. This stage lasts from
three days in the tropics to four or five weeks in cold weather, the life-cycle thus
varying from ten days in the tropics to fourteen in warm weather in Europe up to
three or four months under unfavourable conditions.

All breeding grounds should be burnt or otherwise done away with, such
as stable manure, house and kitchen refuse, human excrement and soiled substances,
also decaying vegetation as soon as possible, certainly by every sixth day. Stable
manure should be kept in closed receptacles and should be removed by every sixth
day to at least one mile from habitations and sprinkled with chloride of lime.
All kitchen and household refuse should be burnt at once or buried in pits and
covered with soil. Latrines should be as far as possible from hospitals, mess rooms
and tents. Food especially milk, sugar and fruit should be kept screened with
muslin when house-flies are about. Mess rooms and tents and hospitals should
have doors and windows screened with fine wire gauze during the fly season.
All possible steps should be taken to prevent them contaminating man's food and
from breeding in human excrement and from entering hospitals. When present
in dwelling-houses in numbers they may be killed by fumigation with pyrethrum
or sulphur.



Genus. Chrysomyia, Rob. Desv.


Chrysomyia (Compsomyia) macellaria, Fabr. ;
Lucilia macellaria, Fabr.

Syn. : Lite ilia hominivorax, Coq. ; Calliphora infesta, Phil. ; Calliphora
anthropophaga, Conil.

A species distributed from the Argentine to the south of the United States
which deposits its ova on ulcers, in the aural meatus or in the nasal cavities of
persons who sleep in the open air. The larvae are yellowish white, 16 mm. long, are
armed with two strong mouth hooks, and provided with spinous rings (screw-worm) ;
they lie hid in the nasal and frontal sinuses, in the pharynx, larynx, etc.; they per-
forate the mucbus membranes, even cartilage, migrate into the eyes, the cranial
cavity, middle ear, and cause severe disturbances ; after the mature stage, in which
the larvae leave the host to enter the pupal state, these symptoms often spontaneously

FIG. 408. The screw-worm fly (Chrysomyia macellaria}.

abate after a lapse of eight days, leaving behind greater or less cicatrices, and con-
sequently also defects in function of the organs attacked. Very often, however,,
sepsis sets in, usually with a fatal termination.

(Coquerel in: Arch. gen. denied., 1858 (5), p. 513; 1859, xiii, p. 685; Ann. Soc. enl.
France, 1858 (3), vi, p. 171 ; 1859, vii, p. 234. Weber in : Rec. de mem. de mid. milit., 1867
(3), xviii, p. 159. Francius, A., in: Arch. f. path. Anat., 1868, xliii, p. 98. Conil in :
Bol. Acad. nac. dene. Cordoba, 1881, iii, p. 296. Humbert. Fr., in : Proc. U.S. Nat.- Mies.,.
1883, vi, p. 103; Amer. Nat., 1884, xviii, p. 540. Lindsay in : Journ. Trap. Med., 1902,
v, p. 220, and other authors.)

[This species is known as the screw-worm fly. It attacks animals as well as.
man, especially laying its eggs on wounds formed by barbed wire. It may also be
found on dead flesh. Dr. St. George Gray sent me specimens from St. Lucia, from


the nose and mouth of a patient in Victoria Hospital. Others were found in the
vagina of another patient. Out of the four patients attacked, two occupied the
same bed, one after the other, and a third the next bed to it. The other case was
in a more remote part of the hospital. There are numerous records of this fly
attacking man. It occurs from the Argentine to Texas. F. V. T.]

Chrysomyia viridula, Rob. Desv.

[This species is somewhat larger than the former; the body is metallic bluish-
green, the dorsum of the thorax with three blackish, longitudinal stripes, and the
face ochraceous ; about 10 mm. long. Austen records this species from man,
Dr. Daniels having bred it from larvae from a sore on a human being in New
Amsterdam, British Guiana. Dr. Laurence also bred it in Trinidad. In the latter
case between 100 and 150 maggots were discharged from the nose of a woman
suffering from facial myiasis (Brit. Med. Journ., January 9, 1909, p. 88 + fig.).
F. V. T.]

Genus. Lucilia, Rob. Desv.

Lucilia nobilis, Meig.

The larvae were observed by Meinert in Copenhagen in the auditory meatus
of a person who, after taking a bath, fell asleep in the open air, and on waking
felt singing in the ears, and had a sensation as if there were water in the auditory
canal. During the next days severe pains set in, and there was a discharge of
blood and pus from both ears, as well as from the nose. On washing out the
meatus the maggots made their appearance.

Lucilia cccsar and L. sericata have also been observed in the larval state in
man (Thompson, Hope, Henneberg and Calendoli, Napoli, 1907).

[This golden-green fly usually lays its eggs on decomposing organic matter ;
now and again it lays its eggs in wounds on man. F. V. T.]

Genus. Pycnosoma, Brauer and v. Bergenstamm.

The species of this genus have a general resemblance to the Lucilias and
Chrysomyias, but the body is stouter and the abdomen banded. The genus can be
distinguished from Chrysomyia by the absence of the three thoracic stripes and
by the eyes of the male, in which the facets forming the upper portion are much
enlarged, whereas in Chrysomyia they are not noticeably larger. Austen also points
out that the sterno-pleural bristles in Pycnosoma are I : I, in Chrysomyia 2:1.
The genus is found in tropical Asia and Africa only. All records of Chrysomyia
(Compsomyia) in India must be referred to this genus. Bezzi and Stein (" Katalog
cler Palaarktischen Dipteren," 1907, iii, p. 543), however, regard the two as

The larvae are frequently found in the nostrils of man and burrow into the sinus,
but normally they live on decaying animal matter.

Pycnosoma forms the so-called Indian screw-worm. Patterson (Ind. Med. Gaz.^
October, 1909, xhv, No. 10) records the case of a woman at Tezpin, Assam, from
whom as many as 100 larvae were removed at one time, and later the left orbital
cavity was found packed with hundreds of maggots; eventually the patient died.
It is possible that this, however, was due to a species of Sarcophaga. Austen
undoubtedly records this genus causing nasal myiasis in India (Trans. Soc. Trop.
Med. and Hyg., iii, p. 235). At Dehra Doon, U.P., a woman discharged 100
larvoe from her nose, with great pain in the nasal region and frontal sinuses.

The so-called " peenash," a common malady in Rajputana, is a true nasal myiasis.


Genus. Sarcophaga, Mg.
Sarcophaga carnosa, L., 1758.

Larvae of flesh-flies provided with two claws at the anterior end, which settle
on raw or cooked meat, and in the open on carcases of animals ; they are often
observed in man, both in the intestine (introduced with food) and in the nasal
cavities, frontal sinus, conjunctiva, aural meatus, anus, vulva, vagina, prepuce,
and open ulcers, often migrating further from the regions first attacked. (Gayot
in Conipt. rend. Acad. Set., Paris, 1838, vii, p. 125. Grube in Arch. f. Naturg., 1853,
xix, i, p. 282. Legrand du Saulle in Compt. rend. Acad. Sci., Paris, 1857, xlv, p. 600,
and other authors.)

[This fly is viviparous. The fly varies from 10 to 30 mm. in length, and is
of a general ash-grey colour ; the thorax with three dark stripes, the abdomen
light grey with three black spots on each segment ; legs black ; base of wings
yellow. It also attacks animals and birds, especially geese. The genus Sarcophaga
is universally distributed. The maggots are whitish or yellowish footless larvas
of twelve segments, tapering to a point in front, broadened posteriorly. There
are two mouth hooks, by means of which they rasp their food. The breathing
pores are at the end and consist of two groups of three slits, each surrounded by
a hardened area. They pupate in their old skin, which turns brown. F. V. T.]

Sarcophaga magnifica, Schiner, I862. 1

Syn. : Sarcophaga wohlfahrti, Portschinsky, 1875.

A species widely distributed over the whole of Europe, occurring especially in
Russia (Mohilew) ; the presence of the larvae in man was first observed by
Wohlfahrt (1768). The larvas settle in the pharynx, in the nose, the aural meatus,
the conjunctiva, and in other regions of the human body ; they also attack domestic
animals and birds. As Portschinsky has shown, they cause severe inflammations,
haemorrhages and suppurations in the organs in which they occur ; children are
especially attacked. A number of cases have been observed also in Central and
Western Europe. [The fly has a light grey abdomen with shiny black spots which
do not change their shape and appearance according to the angle in which the fly
is viewed. F. V. T.]

(Wohlfahrt : " Observ. de vermibus per nares excretis," Halae, 1768 ; Nov. Act.
Acad. Caes. Nat. curios., 1770, iv, p. 277. Gerstacker in : Sitzungsb. Ges. nat. Frde.
BerL, 1875, p. 108. Portschinsky in: Horce soc. entom. ross., 1875, 1884, p. 123.
Laboulbene in : Ann. Soc. ent. France, 1883 (6), iii ; Bull., p. xcii. Leon in : Bull.
Soc. des Med. et Nat. de Jassy, 1905, xix, p. i. Freund, L., in : Verh. Ges. deutsch.
Naturf. u. Arzte, Homburg [1901], 1902, ii, 2, p. 450, and other authors.) [Probably
most cases of attack in Europe are due to this species. F. V. T.]

The above cited do not exhaust the number of observations of diptera larv;e
parasitic in man ; there are yet to be mentioned the larvas of S. hceuiorrhoidalis,
S. hcematodes (of G. Joseph), those of S. ruficornis (excitants of a cutaneous myiasis
in the East Indies), those of species of Eristalis (of Hanby and others), and those of
Phora rufipes (of Kahl, of Warsaw, and others). In many cases the determination
of the diptera larvas has been omitted (or must be omitted) ; such is the case with
diptera larvas in the eye (Schultz-Zehden in : Berl. klin. Wochenschr., 1906, p. 286.
Ollendorf in : Med. Korrespondenzbl. d. iviirt. drtzl. Landcsver., 1904, p. 1017.
Kayser in : Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenheilkunde, 1905, xliii, i, p. 205. Ewetzky and
v. Kennel in : Zeitschr.f. Augenheilkunde, 1904, xii, p. 337, and other cases). Austen

[The correct name for this fly is Wohlfahrtia magnifica, Schiner. F. V. T.J



records several cases of myiasis due to Sarcophaga (vide Trans. Soc. Trop. Med.
and Hyg., 1910, iii, No. 6).

The larvae of African Muscidce have now become of greater
interest; like several Oestrid larvae they live normally in the skin of
mammals, but also attack man. The knowledge of these species is
certainly very insufficient, but this is not likely to be the case much
longer, as medical men practising in the Colonies are giving their
attention to these parasites. At the present time four distinct forms
are recognized according to Gedoelst. 1

Sarcophaga chrysotoma, Wied.

[This species is recorded as attacking human beings at New Amsterdam, British
Guiana. The fly is 15 mm. long, has a golden-coloured face, three broad black
thoracic stripes and ochraceous buff anal segments. It was bred from larvae
obtained by Dr. Roland from a sore on a girl's foot. It is known to occur in the
Brazils and the West Indies. Another species was also bred which Austen was
unable to identify. F. V. T.]

Sarcophaga plinthopyga, Wied.

[This and other species of Sarcophaga are called "yaw flies" in Dominica, as
they are believed to be concerned in the dissemination of framboesia or yaws
(Nicholls) (vide Austen, Trans. Soc. Trop. Med. and Hyg-,
1910, iii, p. 239). F. V. T.]

Ochromyia anthropophaga, E. Blanch. ;
Cordylobia arthrophaga, Griinberg.

Indigenous to the Senegal and neighbouring districts ;
in the district of Cayor (between the mouth of the Senegal
and Cape Verde) the larva is known as the " ver de Cayor.'''
It lives under the skin, especially at the lower extremities
and the lower region of the trunk, producing small boils,
which cause pain, but after about eight days, when the
larva leaves the body to enter the pupal stage, the pain
discontinues. Besides man the larva occurs in dogs, goats,
cats, and in the jackal. It is still questionable whether
the fly deposits its eggs direct or on the ground, from
whence the larvae as they emerge gain access to animals
and man. Larvae yellowish-white, 14 mm. long, 4 mm. wide,
eleven segments 2 ; head with two globular antennae-like
appendages, two black curved month hooks, and two wart-
shaped, finely spinous structures at their base. Body evenly
covered to the seventh segment with small black prickles,

which are stronger at the sides and the anterior borders of the segments ; from the
seventh they increase in size, on the two hindermost they are wanting; on the last
segment two deep yellow spiracles, each with three markedly curved fissures ; in

1 [The following are known to cause myiasis in man in Africa : Cordylobia anthropophaga,
Griinb. ; Auchmeromyia luteola, Fabr. ;" A. rodhani. Gedoelst ; Oestrus ovis, Linn. ; and
Anthoniyia desjardensii, Macq. The anthropophaga, Blanchard, and the depressa, Walker,
referred to here are Griinberg's anthropophaga. F. V. T.]

2 [Austen gives the length as 12 to 12-5 mm. and the breadth as 5 mm. ; he describes the
larva as follows : Bluntly pointed at the anterior extremity, and truncate behind ; from third

FlG. 409. Ochromyia
larva on the skin of
man, South Africa.
3/1. (After Blanchard.)


addition two stigmata on the posterior border of the first segment. Duration of the
larval stage about eight days. Upon the construction of roads in Guinea the larva
is spread by dogs far into the interior.

Auchmeromyia (Bengalia) depressa (Walker). 1

Distributed in the region of Natal and apparently over the whole of South
Africa. The " larva of Natal," as one may still term the species provisionally, as
its identity is not certain, possesses on its head (besides the mouth hooks) lateral
protuberances beset with a row of chitinous spines. The cuticle of the body is
spinose. The spines are difficult to recognize on account of their transparency and
want of colour; they are longest over the anterior segments, from the fifth they
become smaller, and over the
binder most they are very small.
Apart from the foremost segment,
the position they take is that
of rows running transversely or
obliquely, two to four generally
in juxtaposition ; the number of
spines in the groups gradually
increases posteriorly, attaining the
number of eight to twelve on the
sixth segment, and this number is
maintained to the end of the body.
Isolated spines are found over the
head ; over the second, third and
fourth segments single ones are

still found adjoining the groups of ^ _ He 7d~^d7f larva of Natal."

spines, from the filth onward they Magnified. (After Gedoelst.)

are wanting. From here the spines

cover the whole free surface of the segments ; over the fourth the anterior three-
quarters, over the third two-thirds and over the first and second only the anterior
half. The stigmata found at the anterior end also serve as distinguishing characters.
The parasitic stage appears to last about fourteen days. [Fuller (Agric. Journ.,
Dept. Agric. and Mines, Natal, 1901, iv, p. 606) refers to this as Bengalia depressa
also. F. V. T.]

Genus. Cordylobia, Grunberg, 1903.
Cordylobia grunbergi, Donitz.

Syn. : Ochromyia antJiropophaga, Grunberg, nee Blanch. ; Cordylobia

anthropophaga, Grunberg.

Endemic in German East Africa and neighbouring regions. Larva up to
14 mm. long, 4 to 5-5 mm. wide, of cylindrical shape, slightly narrowed behind,
truncated, gradually tapering in front ; antennae-like processes, cone-shaped, blunt.

to eleventh segments thickly covered with minute recurved spines of brownish chitin, usually
arranged in transverse series of groups of two or more, which can be seen to form more or less
distinct undulating and irregular transverse rows. In each of the two posterior sligmatic
plates, the respiratory slit on either side of the median one is characteristically curved,
resembling an inverted note of interrogation. The barrel-shaped puparium is on an average
IO'3 by 4*6 mm. ; its colour varies from ferruginous to nearly black. F. V. T.]

1 [According to Austen this is Cordylobia anthropophaga, Griinb. Bengalia depressa,
Walker, is a very different insect, whose life-history is unknown. F. V. T.]


Smaller cylindrical formations at the base of the mouth hooks surrounded by a
circle of chitinous hooks. Body from the first segment covered with small brown
squamous spines which are disposed in numerous irregular transverse rows. The
spines are small over the two first segments, the two posterior thirds of all the
segments, as well as from the eighth ; over the third to the seventh they are larger,
but between these there are very small spines. The breathing pores of the stigmata
at the anterior end are kidney-shaped ; the orifices are elongated and very tortuous,
each divided into three. The larval period appears to last several weeks.

Cordylobia anthropophaga, Gitinberg.

This well-known cutaneous African parasite seems to have been the cause
of much confusion in regard to names. It belongs to the genus Cordylobia
of Griinberg, and is one of the family Muscidcc, and differs from Auchmeromyia
in that the second abdominal segment of the female is of normal size, whilst
in Auchmeromyia it is more than half the length of the whole abdomen, and in the
male the eyes are holoptic or close together, whilst in Auchmeromyia they are wide
apart. The flies of this genus (three so far described) attack man in their larval
stage (anyway two of the three), and also dogs and other animals, by burrowing into
the skin and producing painful boils.

[C. anthropophaga, Griinberg, is widely distributed in Africa, extending from
Senegal, where its maggot is known as the "ver de Cayor," and is referred
to on p. 590 as Ochromyia anthropophaga, E. Blanchard, to Natal, where it is

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