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JEWELLERY




H.CLIFFORD SMITH



,.nMril!^»WIW(«!M«ll«»WW |, l»l«ll*«»IIW!B8





LIBRARY OF
WELLESLEY COLLEGE




BEQUEST OF
ALICE CHENEY BALTZELL



The Connoisseur's
Library

A Series of Twenty Works on Art, each by a

writer who is an acknowledged authority

on his particular subject

Mezzotints

Porcelain

Miniatures

Ivories

English Furniture

European Enamels

English Coloured Books

Glass

Goldsmith's and Silversmith's Work

Jewellery

Seals

Illuminated Manuscripts

Bookbindings

Bronzes

Coins and Medals

Engraved Gems

Etchings

Mosaics and Stained Glass

Carvings on Wood

Printed Books

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

New York London



THE CONNOISSEUR'S LIBRARY

GENERAL EDITOR: CYRIL DAVENPORT



JEWELLERY




4



r •



V



SIXTEENTH-CENTURY I'KNDENT JEWELS OF ENAMELLED GOLD



JEWELLERY



BY



H. CLIFFORD SxMITH, M.A.




NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

LONDON: METHUEN & CO.

1908



Bequest of '
Alice Cheney Baltzell









/;



CONTENTS



List of Illustrations,

Preface,

Introduction,



PAGE

ix

xxxiii

xxxvii



Chapter I



>>



M



>>







J>



>l



' I



III.

IV.
V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.



))



>>



IX



X



EARLY JEWELLERY

| Egyptian Jewellery, i

I Phoenician Jewellery, ... 7

II. Greek Jewellery, . . .11

Etruscan Jewellery, . . .20

Roman Jewellery, . . -27

Byzantine Jewellery, . . 33

Prehistoric (Celtic) Jewellery, 39

. Romano-British Jewellery, . 44

The Barbaric Jewellery of Eur-
ope (The Great Migrations), . 49

Anglo-Saxon Jewellery (Fifth
to Seventh Centuries), Mero-
vingian Jewellery, . . -56

Late Anglo - Saxon Jewellery
(Seventh to Ninth Centuries), 65

The Celtic Brooch, . . -75



„ XIV.-!



PAGE

80
91

99
113



JEWELLERY
THE JEWELLERY OF THE MIDDLE AGES

(TENTH TO FIFTEENTH CENTURIES)

Chapter XL Mediaeval Jewellery (Intro-
duction),

,, XII. Medleval England,
,, XIII. The Mystery of Precious

Stones, ....
' Head-Ornaments,
Necklaces,
,, XV. Pendants, Rosaries, and Po-
manders, . . . .118
„ XVI. Brooches — The Ring-Brooch, . 127
,, XVII. Brooches (contd) — Pectorals, . 135
„ XVIII. Rings and Bracelets, . . 147
,, XIX. Belts and Girdles, . . .159

RENAISSANCE JEWELLERY

,, XX. Italy, Fifteenth Century, . 166

I Sixteenth-Century Jewellery
(General), . . . .177
Italy, Sixteenth Century, . 183

,, XXII. Germany, The Low Countries,

Hungary, . . . .187

,, XXIII. France — Spain, . . . .199

,, XXIV. England (Henry VIII — Eliza-
beth), 206

„ XXV. Head- Ornaments, Enseignes,

Aigrettes, Hair-Pins, Ear-
rings, 222

vi



Chapter XXVI.

„ XXVII.

„ XXVIII.

XXIX.



CONTENTS

Necklaces, Neck -Chains,
and Collars, .

Neck-Pendants, .

Rings, Bracelets, Brooches,

Girdles and Girdle Pen-
dants (Mirrors, Books,
Watches, Scent - Cases,
and Pomanders),



PAGE

236

242
258



270



»>



XXXI.



LATER AND MODERN JEWELLERY

Chapter XXX. Seventeenth -Century

Jewellery (General), . 276

Seventeenth - Century

Jewellery {contd), . .290

England, Seventeenth Cen-
tury, .... 299

XXXII. Eighteenth-Century Jewel-
lery, .... 307

XXXIII. Nineteenth-Century Jewel-
lery — The Modern Re-
vival.











M



XXXIV.
„ XXXV.
„ XXXVI.
„ XXXVII.

Bibliography,
Index,



Peasant Jewellery,
Jewellery in Pictures,
Frauds and Forgeries,
Memento Mori,



325

34i
348

355
363

37i

381



Vll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

B. M. = British Museum.
V. and A. M. = Victoria and Albert Museum.
A page-number appended to a description indicates place of reference in the text.

I. Sixteenth -Century Pendent Jewels of Enamelled

GOLD Frontispiece

1. Pendant in the form of a Triton. Italian. (Marquess

of Clanricarde.) p. 249.

2. Pendant in form of a winged dragon. Spanish, p. 249.

(Louvre.)

II. Phoenician Jewellery To face p. 8

1-8. From Cyprus and Sardinia. (B. M.)

1-4. Four gold earrings. /. 9. 1. Chrysalis form. 2-3. A

pair: birds perched above a bushel of grain. 4. Long

oval ring terminating with a cross.
5-6. Two necklaces with pendent heads in the Egyptian

style, from Tharros in Sardinia, p. 10. 5. Beads of

glass and gold. 6. Carnelian bugles.
7-8. Two seal pendants of silver, set with sard scarabs.
9. Ibero-Phcenician stone bust, known as the " Lady of

ElcheV' p. 9. (Louvre.) {Photo, Giraudon.)

III. Early Greek Jewellery .... To face p. 12

1. Three gold plates or discs from Mycenae, p. II.

(National Museum, Athens.)
2-7. Gold ornaments of the Mycenaean period, p. 12.
(B. M.)

2. Pendant from ^gina : figure in Egyptian costume

grasping geese.

3. Plaque from Kameiros : winged goddess, with two lions

in the round, and owls at the top.

4. Diadem of spiral ornament, from Enkomi (Salamis),

Cyprus.
5-6. Pair of leech-shaped earrings, from Enkomi.
7. Pendent pomegranate of granulated gold, from Enkomi.

ix



JEWELLERY

IV. Greek Jewellery (Earrings, Necklace, and Hair-
pin). (B. M.) To face p. 16

1-3. Three earrings, p. 15. 1. Head of a goat with garnet
eye. 2. Pendent Cupids and Victories (Kyme, in
^Eolis). 3. Eros with a jug (Crete).

4. Gold necklace with pendent tassels in form of pome-

granates (Kyme).

5. Pair of gold earrings set with garnets and emeralds,

connected by a plaited chain. (Tyszkiewicz Collection.)

6. Gold pin from Paphos, Cyprus, p. 17.

V. Greek Jewellery (Crown, Necklaces, Bracelet,

Rings). (B. M.) To face p. 18

1. Gold crown from Magna Graecia, second century B.C.

(Tyszkiewicz Collection.) p. ij.

2. Necklace with enamelled rosettes and filigree. (Blacas

Collection.)

3. Enamelled gold necklace from Melos. p. 17.

4. Gold bracelet with bulls' heads. (Blacas Collection.)

5. Four rings. 1. Gold, demon with Sphynx and panther

(early Ionic). 2. Silver, surmounted by gold fly
(Cyprus), p. 10. 3. Gold, engraved with figures of
Aphrodite and Eros. 4. Gold, with busts of Serapis
and Isis (Graeco-Roman).

VI. Etruscan Jewellery (Pins, Necklaces, Earrings).

(B. M.) . . . To face p. 22

1. Hair-pins and balls of granulated gold, from Etruria.

2. Primitive necklace of amber, gold, and electrum, from

Prseneste. p. 24.

3. Necklace hung with pendent vases and heads of Io.

4. Necklace with pendent head of a faun. p. 24.

5. Chain with pendent head of a negro, p. 24.

6. Necklace of plasma and gold beads, with basalt amulet

pendant, p. 25.
7-8. Earrings, p. 23. 7. Saddle-shaped, with fine granu-
lation. 8. Pendent cock in white enamel.

VII. Etruscan Jewellery (Brooches, Diadem, Bracelet,
Rings). (B. M.) To face p. 24

1. Early fibula from Cervetri, surmounted with figures of

lions, p. 25.

2. Gold diadem of ivy leaves and berries, p. 23.

3. Fibula from Tuscana, with meander pattern in fine



granulation.



x



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

4. Early bracelet from Cervetri, with minute granular
work. p. 25.

5-8. Four rings. 1. Bezel mounted with intaglio, gold
border with tendril pattern (Chiusi). 2. Cartouche
with figures of shepherd and dog (Chiusi). 3.
Intaglio bezel supported by lions, p. 25. 4. Large
oval bezel bordered with dolphins and waves (Bolsena).
/. 26.

VIII. Roman Jewellery To face p. 30

1-6. (B. M.)

1. Gold necklace set with garnets, and a pendant in form

of a butterfly.

2. Gold necklace, with a pendent aureus of Domitian. p. 30.

3. Gold hair-pin from Tarentum surmounted by a figure of

Aphrodite, p. 28.

4-6. Three gold rings, pp. 31-32. 4. Serpent form. 5.
Open-worked, set with a nicolo intaglio — a mask of a
Satyr. 6. Eye-shaped, with open-work shoulders, set
with a nicolo.

7-15. (V. and A. M.)

7-10. Earrings, pp. 28-29. 7. Porphyry drop. 8. Two
pearls {crotalid) suspended from yoke. 9. Basket of
fruit set with garnet, a carnelian bead, and an emerald
pendant. 10. Large hook set with sapphire, an emerald
below, and three pearl drops.

11. Gold bracelet in form of a serpent, p. 30.

12-15. Four rings. 12. Gold: tragic mask in high relief.
13. Gold : quintuple, set with two sapphires and three
garnets. 14. Gold : raised open-work bezel set with a
sapphire and a chrysoprase. 15. Gilt bronze: bust
of Serapis in relief, p. 32.

IX. Byzantine Jewellery, and Enamelled Jewellery in
the Byzantine Style To face p. 36

1-7 and 9-1 1. (B. M.) 8. (V. and A. M.)

1-2. Pair of gold loop earrings : a cross patee between two
peacocks confronted. About seventh century, p. 35.

3. Gold pectoral cross with a text from Galatians vi. 14.
Eleventh century, p. 36.

4-5. Pair of gold and enamelled loop earrings. Twelfth
century, p. 35.

6. Nielloed gold wedding ring : Christ and the Virgin
blessing a bride and bridegroom. About tenth century.

xi



JEWELLERY

7. Engraved gold signet ring. About fifth century.

8. Beresford- Hope cross : cloisonne enamel. About eighth

century, p. 36.

9. The Castellani brooch : portrait in cloisonne enamel.

North Italian, seventh century, p. 70.

10. Gold inscribed key ring. Fourth century, p. 37.

11. Townley brooch. Probably Rhenish work, with By-

zantine cloisonne enamels. Tenth or eleventh century.
p. 70.

X. Prehistoric Gold Ornaments of the British Isles

(B. M.) To face p. 40

1. Ring, found at Bormer, near Falmer, Sussex.

2. Plaited ring, found near Waterford, Ireland.

3. " Ring Money " of gold and silver, found at Rustington,

Sussex.

4. Torque fastened by a ring, found at Boyton, Suffolk.

5. Disc, found at Castle Treasure, near Douglas, Co. Cork.

6. Dress fastener, found at Crif Keran Castle, Co. Armagh.

7. Bracelet, found at Bexley, Kent.

XI. Anglo-Saxon and Romano-British Brooches, etc.

(B. M.) To face p. 60

1-5. Anglo-Saxon inlaid jewellery.

1. Gold brooch, from Sarre, Kent. p. 61.

2. Silver brooch, from Faversham, Kent. p. 60.

3. Gold pendant, from Faversham. p. 58.

4. Bronze brooch, from Wingham, Kent. p. 60.

5. Gold brooch, from Abingdon, Berks, p. 61, note.
6-7. Romano-British brooches.

6. Bronze brooch set with slices of Roman millefiori glass,

from Pont-y-Saison, near Chepstow, Mon. p. 46.

7. Enamelled bronze brooch, found in London. (Hastings

Collection.) p. 46.

XII. Anglo-Saxon and Frankish Jewellery (Fifth to
Seventh Centuries) To face p. 62

1-6. (B. M.)

1. Gold necklace with garnets, from Desborough, Northants.

/. 74.

2. Gold bracteate, from Ash, near Sandwich, Kent. p. 59.
xii



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

3. Saucer-shaped brooch, bronze gilt, from East Shefford,

Berks. /. 61.

4. Square-headed brooch, from Chessell Down, Isle of

Wight, p. 62.

5. Cruciform brooch, bronze gilt, from Sleaford, Lines.

p. 61.

6. Inlaid and jewelled gold buckle, from Taplow, Bucks.

p. 63.

7. " Radiated " brooch of silver, enriched with gold and

inlay of garnets. The back inscribed with the name
UFFILA. Seventh century. From Wittislingen on the
Danube. 6£ inches long. p. 62. (Bavarian National
Museum, Munich.)

XIII. Late Anglo-Saxon Jewellery (Seventh to Ninth
Centuries) To face p. 68

1-2. The Alfred Jewel, pp. 68-69. (Ashmolean Museum,
Oxford.)

3. St. Cuthbert's cross, p. 68. (Durham Cathedral.)

4. Dowgate Hill brooch : cloisonne enamel and pearls.

p. 69. (B. M.)

5. Ethelwulf's ring. p. 72. (B. M.)

6. Nielloed gold ring with two bezels, found in the Nene,

near Peterborough, p. 72. (B. M.)

7. Ethelswith's ring. p. 72. (B. M.)

8. Gold ring, found in Garrick Street, London. (B. M.)

9. Alhstan's ring. p. 71. (V. and A. M.)

10. Nielloed gold ring. p. 73. (Lord Fitzhardinge.)

11. Silver ring found in the Thames at Chelsea, p. 73.

(V. and A. M.)

XIV. THE Tara Brooch, p. 78. (Collection of the Royal

Irish Academy, National Museum, Dublin) . To face p. 78

XV. The Jewels of William of Wykeham. New Col-
lege, Oxford To face p. 96

1. Monogram of the Virgin : gold, enamelled, and set with

rubies, emeralds and pearls.

2. Silver-gilt decorations of the mitre : comprising two

quatrefoils set with turquoises, two rosettes set with
pastes, and hinged bands of brasse-taille enamel set with
pearls and crystals. English, late fourteenth century.
//. 96-98.

xiii



JEWELLERY

XVI. Antique Cameos in Mediaeval Settings . To face p. 102

1. The Jewel of St. Hilary, p. 103. (Bibliotheque Nationale,

Paris.)

2. The Schafifhausen onyx. p. 104.

3. The cameo of Charles V of France, p. 103. (Biblio-

theque Nationale, Paris.) {Photo, Giraudon.)

XVII. Mediaeval Head-Ornaments. . . . To face p. no

1-4. Pilgrims' signs of lead. p. no. (B. M.)

1. Head of St. Thomas with swords, within a cusped

border.

2. Ampulla for blood of St. Thomas.

3. St. George within a border.

4. Head of St. John the Baptist.

5-8. Retainers' badges of lead. p. 110. (B. M.)

5. Hart lodged (Richard II).

6. Crowned ostrich feather (Duke of Norfolk).

7. Rose and fetterlock (Edward IV).

8. Collared hound (Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury).

9. Silver-gilt crown or circlet, set with pearls and coloured

pastes. French, fourteenth century, p. 106. (Musee
du Cinquantenaire, Brussels.)

10-12. Three fifteenth-century gold enseignes.

10. Antique onyx cameo, outer frame set with rubies.

Spanish, p. in. (V. and A. M.)

11. "Pelican in her Piety," set with a ruby and a diamond.

Flemish (found in the Meuse). /. III. (B. M.)

12. Figure of a dromedary in white enamel in frame set

with pearls. Flemish, p. 146. (Museo Nazionale.
Florence.) {Photo, Alinari.)

XVIII. Medieval Pendants (Reliquaries, etc.) To face p. 120

1. Silver reliquary set with a crystal. German, fifteenth

century, p. 121. (Bavarian National Museum, Munich.)

2. Silver-gilt reliquary, from the treasury of Enger, near

Herford, in Westphalia. Fifteenth century. (Kunst-
gewerbe Museum, Berlin.)

3. Silver-gilt pomander opening into four sections. German,

about 1480. p. 126. (Bavarian National Museum,
Munich.)

xiv



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

4. Gold Reliquary of Charlemagne, containing a fragment

of the True Cross. German, ninth (?) century, p. 118.

5. "Reliquary of St. Louis," gold, enriched with translucent

enamels, containing a thorn from the Crown of Thorns.
French, fourteenth century, p. 119. (B. M.)

6. Gold bracelet. German, twelfth century, p. 157. (Bavarian

National Museum, Munich.)

XIX. Medieval Pendants To face p. 124

1. Silver-gilt pendant containing figures of saints and

angels, surmounted by the Virgin and Child. German,
fifteenth century, p. 120. (Bavarian National Museum,
Munich).

2-3, 5-8, and 10. German, fifteenth and sixteenth cen-
turies. (V. and A. M.)

2. Coronation of the Virgin, silver gilt.

3. Agnus Dei, silver gilt. Inscribed : lECUC (JESUS)

Maria Johannes annus (agnus). On the back :
Jesus Maira (Maria) Johannes Maria hilf.
/. 122.

4. Nielloed pendant, silver gilt : with the Annunciation on

one side, and the sacred monogram on the other.
Italian, fifteenth century, p. 173. (V. and A. M.)

5. St. Sebastian, silver gilt.

6. The Crucifixion, silver gilt.

7. Figures of four saints, silver gilt.

8. Gold cross, set with rubies and pearls. Fifteenth century.

9. The Devil of Temptation, silver gilt. Flemish or Ger-

man, fifteenth century, p. 120. (Mrs. Percy Mac-
quoid.)

10. Rosary of boxwood, with emblems of the Passion in

silver, p. 124.

XX. Medleval Brooches (Ring-Brooches, etc.) . To face p. 130

1-6. Gold ring-brooches (fermails).

1. Set with pearls and precious stones, and with four bosses

of animals. Fourteenth century, p. 129. (B. M.)

2. Enamelled blue and white, and inscribed with a text

from St. Luke iv. 30. French, fourteenth century.
/. 130. (Museo Nazionale, Florence.) (Photo, Alinari.)

3. Set with rubies and sapphires, the back nielloed. French,

thirteenth century, p. 130. (V. and A. M.)

xv



JEWELLERY

4. Heart-shaped, inscribed. French, fifteenth century.

p. 129. (V. and A. M.)

5. Circular: inscribed, and set with two rubies and four

small emeralds. English (from Enniscorthy Abbey),
fourteenth century. (B. M.)

6. Set with rubies and emeralds. French, thirteenth century.

p. 130. (Museo Nazionale, Florence.) (Photo, Alinari.)

7. Silver-gilt brooch in form of St. Christopher. English

(from Kingston-on-Thames), fifteenth century, p. 142.
(B. M.)

8-12. Flemish-Burgundian gold brooches (nouches).
Fifteenth century.

8. Two standing figures, enamelled, and set with a ruby,

diamond, and pearls, p. 146. (Imperial Art Col-
lections, Vienna.)

9. Seated female figure with golden rays behind : enamelled

and set with pearls, p. 144. (Essen Treasury.)

10-12. Brooches found in the Meuse. p. 143. (B. M.)

10. Enamelled and set with a ruby and diamond.

1 1. A female figure, set with a sapphire, diamond, and three

rubies.

12. Set with a ruby amidst foliage, with traces of enamel.

XXI. Mediaeval Scottish Brooches. The Glenlyon and
Loch Buy Brooches. (B. M.) .... To face p. 132

1. The Glenlyon brooch. Silver gilt, set with amethysts,

pearls, and rock crystal : the back inscribed. Fifteenth
century, p. 132.

2. The Loch Buy brooch. Silver, set with rock crystal and

pearls. About 1500. p. 133.

XXII. Medieval Brooches (Pectorals and Morse) To face p. 136

1. The "Eagle Fibula"; gold and cloisonne enamel. Early

twelfth century, p. 135. (Mainz Museum.)

2. Gold brooch in form of an eagle, set with emeralds,

lapis-lazuli, a sapphire, and a ruby. Thirteenth century.
p. 136. (Baron von Heyl.) From an etching in
Kunstgewerbe-Blatt, III. (By permission of the artist,
Prof. P. Halm, of Munich.) '

3. Silver-gilt morse, made in 1484 for Albert von Letelin,

Canon of Minden, by the goldsmith Reinecke van
Dressche of Minden. p. 139. (Kunstgewerbe Museum,
Berlin.)

xvi



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

XXIII. Medieval and later Rings . . . To face p. 148

1-2. Episcopal rings of William of Wykeham. Fourteenth
century. (New College, Oxford.) 1. Gold set with a
ruby. p. 149. 2. Silver gilt, with representation of
the crucifixion, set with a crystal.

3. Gold, episcopal, set with a sapphire. English, fourteenth
century. (V. and A. M.)

4-5. The Coventry ring (two views). Gold, engraved with
the five wounds of Christ and their names. English,
about 1457. p. 150. (B. M.)

6. The Godstow Priory ring : a gold love-ring, with legends

and forget-me-nots. English, fifteenth century, p. 150.

7. Gold, episcopal, projecting bezel set with a sapphire.

French, fourteenth century. (V. and A. M.)

8. Gold, episcopal, of complex design, set with a sapphire.

Italian, fifteenth century. (V. and A. M.)

9. Silver, set with a toadstone. German, sixteenth century.

p. 151. (V. and A. M.)

10. " Papal " ring. Gilt metal with cardinal's hat and

crossed keys. On shoulders Virgin and Child and
Saint. Inscription on hoop: EPISC. LUGDUN — Cardinal
de Bourbon (?), Archbishop of Lyons, 1466- 1488.
Italian, fifteenth century. /. 148. (V. and A. M.)

11. Antique gem in red jasper, set in gold Italian mount of

the fourteenth century, inscribed : S. FR. DE COLUMPN A.
p. 1 54. (V. and A. M.)

12. Gold, set with a wolfs tooth, and inscribed with the

charm motto : + BURO + BERTO + BERNETO + CONSUM-
MATUM EST. English, fourteenth century, p. 152. (V.
and A. M.)

13. Gold ornamental ring, chased, enamelled, and set with

emeralds. Italian, sixteenth century. (B. M.)

14. Gold signet ring with the arms of Mortimer. English,

seventeenth century. (V. and A. M.)

15. Silver-gilt wedding ring, set with two teeth. North

German, seventeenth century, p. 262. (V. and A. M.)

16. Fede ring, nielloed silver. Italian, fifteenth century.
p. 173. (V. and A. M.)

17. Ornamental ring of silver gilt, set with a foiled crystal.

German, sixteenth century, p. 356. (V. and A. M.)

18. The Percy signet. Gold. Inscribed: "NOW YS THUS."

From Towton Field, W.R., Yorks. English, fifteenth
century, p. 153. (B. M.)

b xvii



JEWELLERY

19. Ornamental ring of silver gilt, with stag and foliage in

open-work. German, late fifteenth century. (V. and
A. M.)

20. Gimmel rings, enamelled gold. German, sixteenth

century, p. 261. (B. M.)

XXIV. Picture, known as the "Legend of St. Eloy and
St. Godeberta," representing the interior of a
goldsmith's shop in the fifteenth century. By
Petrus Christus, of Bruges, p. 155. (Baron A. Oppen-
heim, of Cologne) To face p. 156

XXV. Fifteenth-Century Pendants, etc. (Italian and
Flemish) To face p. 170

1. The " Felicini" jewel, by Francia. Reproduced from a

picture in the Bologna Gallery, p. 170.

2. Enamelled gold pendant, figured with the Annuncia-

tion. Italian, fifteenth century, p. 173. (Mr. J.
Pierpont Morgan.)

3. Pendent jewel of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy,

set with three rubies ("the Brethren"), a diamond, and
four pearls, p. 209.

4. Two silver-gilt girdle-plates, with figures of Samson

and St. Michael. Flemish, fifteenth century, p. 163.
(Herr James Simon, of Berlin.)

XXVI. Designs for Jewellery by Durer and Holbein.

(B. M.) . . " To face p. 190

I. Drawings for two ring-shaped pendent whistles by Durer.
p. 190.

2-3. Etchings for (2) a buckle and buckle-plate, and (3) a
girdle-end, by Hollar, from lost originals by Durer.
p. 191.

4-9. Drawings by Holbein, p. 212.

4. Jewelled pendant : a monogram of the letters R and E.

5. A pendant of open goldwork with ribbon ornament ; a

diamond in the centre, surrounded by six pearls, and
a pearl below.

6. Pendant formed in a monogram of the letters H and I.

7-8. Two pendants each formed of two stones, one above
the other, set in goldwork, with three pearls below.

9. Pendant : a bust of a woman holding before her a large
stone, on which are the words Well Laydi Well.

xviii



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

XXVII. Designs for Jewellery by Solis, Woeiriot, Hor-
nick, and Brosamer To face p. 194

1-2. Engravings for pendants by Virgil Solis. /. 194.
(B. M.)

3. Engraving for a pendant by Pierre Woeiriot, dated
1555. p. 201. (B. M.)

4-6. Engravings for pendants by Erasmus Hornick :
Neptune and Amphitrite, and St. George and the
Dragon, p. 194. (B. M.)

7. Drawing for pendent whistle by Hans Brosamer, fitted
with toothpick, etc. pp. 193, 250. (Mr. Max Rosen-
heim.)

XXVIII. Renaissance Jewellery of Enamelled Gold.
(His Majesty the King) To face p. 218

1. Painted enamel back of a "lesser George" of the Garter,

belonging to Charles II. English, seventeenth cen-
tury, p. 292.

2. Enamelled gold enseigne, with figures of St. George

and the Dragon. Venetian, sixteenth century, p. 224.

3. Enamelled gold pendant, with figures of Apollo and

Daphne : inscribed : DAPHNEM PHEBVS Amat, etc.
Italian, sixteenth century.

4. The Lennox or Darnley Jewel. Scottish, sixteenth

century, pp. 217 and 257.

5. Miniature case of enamelled gold, open-worked and set

with diamonds and rubies. English, late sixteenth
or early seventeenth century. It contains a lock of
hair of Charles I taken from his coffin, p. 257.
From the Connoisseur (1903). By permission of Mr.
J. T. Herbert Baily.

XXIX. Renaissance Enseignes of Enamelled Gold Tofacep.226

1. Head of John the Baptist on a charger. Italian, sixteenth

century, p. 226. (V. and A. M.)

2. Bust of Helen. Italian, sixteenth century. (Poldi-

Pezzoli Museum, Milan.)

3. Battle scene. Italian, sixteenth century. /. 225.

(Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.)

4. Head of a negro in agate. German, sixteenth century.

p. 228. (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.)

5. Leda and the Swan. By Cellini, p. 228. (Antiken

Kabinet, Vienna.)

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JEWELLERY

6. Cameo bust of Nero on sardonyx, in enamelled mount

set with diamonds and rubies. French, sixteenth
century. (Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.) (Photo,
Giraudon.)

7. Cameo of Diana on sardonyx in enamelled setting.

French, sixteenth century. (B. M.)

8. Onyx cameo, winged female head in enamelled setting.

French, sixteenth century. (B. M.)

XXX. Hat-Ornaments (Aigrettes, etc.). Late sixteenth

AND EARLY SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES . . To face p. 23O

1. Two coloured drawings for jewelled aigrettes. By

Arnold Lulls, jeweller to James I. pp. 231 and 302-3.
(V. and A. M.)

2. Gold enseigne of Sir Francis Drake : enamelled and set

with diamonds, rubies, and opals, p. 230. See also
Plate XXXIV, 3. (Sir F. Fuller-Eliott-Drake.)

3. Socket for an aigrette, enamelled gold set with rubies :

initials D. M. — Dorothea Maria, wife of Otto Henry,
Count Palatine of Neuburg. pp. 230-1. (Bavarian
National Museum, Munich.)

4. Enamelled gold aigrette set with emeralds, pearls, etc.

S. German, early seventeenth century. (Formerly the
property of Sir T. D. Gibson Carmichael.)

XXXI. German and French Renaissance Pendants Tofacep.244.



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