Harriet Beecher Stowe.

The writings of Harriet Beecher Stowe : with biographical introductions, portraits and other illustrations (Volume 2) online

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THE WRITINGS OF
HARRIET BEECHER STOWE

IN SIXTEEN VOLUMES
VOLUME II




HOUGHTOK, MIFFLIN 5 CO.



UNCLE TOM S CABIN



BY

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE

WITH AN INTRODUCTION SETTING FORTH
THE HISTORY OF THE NOVEL

AND

A KEY TO UNCLE TOM S CABIN

IN TWO VOLUMES
VOLUME II




BOSTON AND NEW YORK
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY



1896



Copyright, 1851, 1878, and 1879,
BY HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.

Copyright, 1895 and 189G,
BY HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO.

All rights reserved.



The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A.
Electrotyped and Printed by H. O. Houghtou & Co.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. \

PAGB

UNCLE TOM S CABIN.

XXII. THE GRASS WITHERETH THE FLOWER FADETH . 1

XXIII. HENRIQUE 11

XXIV. FORESHADOWINGS 21

XXV. THE LITTLE EVANGELIST 29

XXVI. DEATH 36

XXVII. "Tms is THE LAST OF EARTH" .... 53

XXVIII. REUNION 63

XXIX. THE UNPROTECTED 82

XXX. THE SLAVE WAREHOUSE 92

XXXI. THE MIDDLE PASSAGE 105

XXXII. DARK PLACES 113

XXXIII. CASSY 124

XXXIV. THE QUADROON S STORY 134

XXXV. THE TOKENS 148

XXXVI. EMMELTNE AND GASSY 156

XXXVII. LIBERTY 165

XXXVIII. THE VICTORY 173

XXXIX. THE STRATAGEM . 186

XL. THE MARTYR 199

XLI. THE YOUNG MASTER 208

XLII. AN AUTHENTIC GHOST STORY 216

XLIII. RESULTS 224

XLIV. THE LIBERATOR .... ... 234

XLV. CONCLUDING REMARKS 239

A KEY TO UNCLE TOM S CABIN.

PREFACE 253

PART I.

CHAP. 1 255

II. MR. HALEY 256

III. MR. AND MRS. SHELBY 260

IV. GEORGE HARRIS 263

V. ELIZA 269

VI. UNCLE TOM 273

VII. Miss OPHELIA . . 277



505



VI CONTENTS

VIII. MARIE ST. CLARE 280

IX. ST. CLARE 285

X. LEGREE 288

XL SELECT INCIDENTS OF LAWFUL TRADE ... 293

XII. TOPSY 297

XIII. THE QUAKERS 301

XIV. THE SPIRIT OF ST. CLARE 303

PART II.

CHAP. 1 304

II. WHAT is SLAVERY ? 308

III. SOUTHER v. THE COMMONWEALTH THE NE PLUS

ULTRA OF LEGAL HUMANITY 312

IV. PROTECTIVE STATUTES 3-21

V. PROTECTIVE ACTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA AND LOUISI
ANA THE IRON COLLAR OF LOUISIANA AND NORTH
CAROLINA 328

VI. PROTECTIVE ACTS WITH REGARD TO FOOD AND RAI
MENT, LABOR, ETC 332

VII. THE EXECUTION OF JUSTICE 335

VIII. THE GOOD OLD TIMES 345

IX. MODERATE CORRECTION AND ACCIDENTAL DEATH

STATE v. CASTLEMAN 345

X. PRINCIPLES ESTABLISHED. STATE v. LEGREE ; A

CASE NOT IN THE BOOKS 345

XI. THE TRIUMPH OF JUSTICE OVER LAW . . . 347
XII. A COMPARISON OF THE ROMAN LAW OF SLAVERY

WITH THE AMERICAN 347

XIII. THE MEN BETTER THAN THEIR LAWS . . . 348

XIV. THE HEBREW SLAVE LAW COMPARED WITH THE

AMERICAN SLAVE LAW 357

XV. SLAVERY is DESPOTISM 357

PART III.

CHAP. I. DOES PUBLIC OPINION PROTECT THE SLAVE? . . 361

II. PUBLIC OPINION FORMED BY EDUCATION . . 366

III. SEPARATION OF FAMILIES 371

IV. THE SLAVE-TRADE 387

V. SELECT INCIDENTS OF LAWFUL TRADE, OR FACTS

STRANGER THAN FICTION 394

VI. THE EDMONDSONS 395

VII. THE CASE OF EMILY RUSSELL 427

VIII. KIDNAPPING 427

IX. SLAVES AS THEY ARE, ON TESTIMONY OF OWNERS . 428

X. POOR WHITE TRASH . 431



CONTENTS Vii
PART IV.

CHAP. I. THE INFLUENCE OF THE AMERICAN CHURCH ON SLA
VERY 437

II. How THE CHURCHES REGARDED THE DEFENCE OF

SLAVERY 443

III. MARTYRDOM 449

IV. SERVITUDE IN THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH COMPARED

WITH AMERICAN SLAVERY 449

V. TEACHINGS AND CONDITION OF THE APOSTLES . . 449

VI. APOSTOLIC TEACHING ON EMANCIPATION . . . 449

VII. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY BY CHRISTIANITY . . . 449

VIII. JUSTICE AND EQUITY VERSUS SLAVERY ... 450

IX. Is THE SYSTEM OF RELIGION WHICH is TAUGHT THE

SLAVE THE GOSPEL? 450

X. WHAT is TO BE DONE ? 450

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT OF UNCLE TOM S CABIN . . . 455

The frontispiece ("I wish I could help you, Tom," p. 310) is from a
drawing by B. West Clinedinst.
The vignette (The Cabin) is from a drawing by E. W. Kemble.



UNCLE TOM S CABIN

OR

LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY



CHAPTER XXII

" THE GRASS WITHERETH THE FLOWER FADETH "

LIFE passes with us all a day at a time ; so it passed with
our friend Tom, till two years were gone. Though parted
from all his soul held dear, and though often yearning for
what lay beyond, still was he never positively and con
sciously miserable ; for, so well is the harp of human feel
ing strung, that nothing but a crash that breaks every string
can wholly mar its harmony ; and, on looking back to seasons
which in review appear to us as those of deprivation and
trial, we can remember that each hour as it glided brought
its diversions and alleviations, so that, though not happy
wholly, we were not, either, wholly miserable.

Tom read, in his only literary cabinet, of one who had
"learned in whatsoever state he was, therewith to be con
tent. 7 It seemed to him good and reasonable doctrine, and
accorded well with the settled and thoughtful habit which
he had acquired from the reading of that same book.

His letter homeward, as we related in the last chapter,
was in due time answered by Master George, in a good,
round, school-boy hand, that Tom said might be read " most
acrost the room." It contained various refreshing items of

VOL. II.



2 UNCLE TOM S CABIN; OR

home intelligence, with which our reader is fully ac
quainted ; stated how Aunt Chloe had been hired out to a
confectioner in Louisville, where her skill in the pastry line
was gaining wonderful sums of money, all of which, Tom
was informed, was to be laid up to go to make up the sum
of his redemption money ; Mose and Pete were thriving,
and the baby was trotting all about the house, under the
care of Sally and the family generally.

Tom s cabin was shut up for the present ; but George
expatiated brilliantly on ornaments and additions to be
made to it when Tom came back.

The rest of this letter gave a list of George s school
studies, each one headed by a nourishing capital ; and also
told the names of four new colts that appeared on the pre
mises since Tom left ; and stated, in the same connection,
that father and mother were well. The style of the letter
was decidedly concise and terse ; but Tom thought it the
most wonderful specimen of composition that had appeared
in modern times. He was never tired of looking at it, and
even held a council with Eva on the expediency of getting
it framed, to hang up in his room. Nothing but the diffi
culty of arranging it so that both sides of the page would
show at once stood in the way of this undertaking.

The friendship between Tom and Eva had grown with
the child s growth. It would be hard to say what place
she held in the soft, impressible heart of her faithful attend
ant. He loved her as something frail and earthly, yet
almost worshiped her as something heavenly and divine.
He gazed on her as the Italian sailor gazes on his image of
the child Jesus, with a mixture of reverence and tender
ness ; and to humor her graceful fancies, and meet those
thousand simple wants which invest childhood like a many-
colored rainbow, was Tom s chief delight. In the market,
at morning, his eyes were always on the flower-stalls for
rare bouquets for her, and the choicest peach or orange was



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY 3

slipped into his pocket to give to her when he came back ;
and the sight that pleased him most was her sunny head
looking out the gate for his distant approach, and her child
ish question, " Well, Uncle Tom, what have you got for
me to-day ? "

Nor was Eva less zealous in kind offices in return.
Though a child, she was a beautiful reader ; a fine musi
cal ear, a quick poetic fancy, and an instinctive sympathy
with what is grand and noble, made her such a reader of
the Bible as Tom had never before heard. At first, she
read to please her humble friend ; but soon her own earnest
nature threw out its tendrils, and wound itself around the
majestic book ; and Eva loved it, because it woke in her
strange yearnings, and strong, dim emotions, such as impas
sioned, imaginative children love to feel.

The parts that pleased her most were the Revelation and
the Prophecies, parts whose dim and wondrous imagery
and fervent language impressed her the more that she
questioned vainly of their meaning ; and she and her simple
friend, the old child and the young one, felt just alike
about it. All that they knew was, that they spoke of a
glory to be revealed, a wondrous something yet to come ?
wherein their soul rejoiced, yet knew not why ; and though
it be not so in the physical, yet in moral science that which
cannot be understood is not always profitless. For the soul
awakes, a trembling stranger, between two dim eternities,
the eternal past, the eternal future. The light shines only
on a small space around her ; therefore, she needs must
yearn towards the unknown ; and the voices and shadowy
movings which come to her from out the cloudy pillar of
inspiration have each one echoes and answers in her own ex
pecting nature. Its mystic imageries are so many talismans
and gems inscribed with unknown hieroglyphics ; she folds
them in her bosom, and expects to read them when she
passes beyond the veil.



4 UNCLE TOM S CABIN ; OR

At this time in our story, the whole St. Clare establish
ment is, for the time being, removed to their villa on Lake
Pontchartrain. The heats of summer had driven all who
were able to leave the sultry and unhealthy city, to seek
the shores of the lake and its cool sea-breezes.

St. Clare s villa was an East-Indian cottage, surrounded
by light verandas of bamboo-work, and opening on all sides
into gardens and pleasure grounds. The common sitting-
room opened on to a large garden, fragrant with every pic
turesque plant and flower of the tropics, where winding
paths ran down to the very shores of the lake, whose silvery
sheet of water lay there, rising and falling in the sunbeams,
a picture never for an hour the same, yet every hour
more beautiful.

It is now one of those intensely golden sunsets which
kindles the whole horizon into one blaze of glory, and
makes the water another sky. The lake lay in rosy or
golden streaks, save where white-winged vessels glided
hither and thither, like so many spirits, and little golden
stars twinkled through the glow, and looked down at them
selves as they trembled in the water.

Tom and Eva were seated on a little mossy seat, in an
arbor, at the foot of the garden. It was Sunday evening,
and Eva s Bible lay open on her knee. She read, " And I
saw a sea of glass, mingled with fire."

"Tom," said Eva, suddenly stopping, and pointing to
the lake ; " there t is."

" What, Miss Eva ? "

" Don t you see, there ? " said the child, pointing to
the glassy water, which, as it rose and fell, reflected the
golden glow of the sky. " There s a sea of glass, mingled
with fire. "

"True enough, Miss Eva," said Tom; and Tom sang:

" Oh, had I the wings of the morning,
I d fly away to Canaan s shore ;



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY 5

Bright angels should convey me home,
To the new Jerusalem."

" Where do you suppose new Jerusalem is, Uncle Tom ? "
said Eva.

" Oh, up in the clouds, Miss Eva. 7

" Then I think I can see it," said Eva. " Look in
those clouds ! they look like great gates of pearl ; and
you can see beyond them, far, far off, it s all gold.
Tom, sing about spirits bright. :

Tom sung the words of a well-known Methodist hymn :

" I see a band of spirits bright,

That taste the glories there ;
They all are robed in spotless white,
And conquering palms they bear."

" Uncle Tom, I ve seen them" said Eva.

Tom had no doubt of it at all ; it did not surprise him
in the least. If Eva had told him she had been to heaven,
he would have thought it entirely probable.

" They come to me sometimes in my sleep, those spirits ; "
and Eva s eyes grew dreamy, and she hummed, in a low
voice,

" They all are robed in spotless white,
And conquering palms they bear."

" Uncle Tom," said Eva, " I m going there."

" Where, Miss Eva ? "

The child rose, and pointed her little hand to the sky ;
the glow of evening lit her golden hair and flushed cheek
with a kind of unearthly radiance, and her eyes were bent
earnestly on the skies.

" I m going there," she said, " to the spirits bright,
Tom; I m going before long"

The faithful old heart felt a sudden thrust ; and Tom
thought how often he had noticed, within six months, that
Eva s little hands had grown thinner, and her skin more
transparent, and her breath shorter; and how, when she



C UNCLE TOM S CABIN; OR

ran or played in the garden, as she once could for hours,
she became soon so tired and languid. He had heard Miss
Ophelia speak often of a cough, that all her medicaments
could not cure ; and even now that fervent cheek and little
hand were burning with hectic fever ; and yet the thought
that Eva s words suggested had never come to him till now.

Has there ever been a child like Eva ? Yes, there have
been ; but their names are always on gravestones, and their
sweet smiles, their heavenly eyes, their singular words and
ways, are among the buried treasures of yearning hearts.
In how many families do you hear the legend that all the
goodness and graces of the living are nothing to the peculiar
charms of one who is not ! It is as if Heaven had an
especial band of angels, whose office it was to sojourn for a
season here, and endear to them the wayward human heart,
that they might bear it upward with them in their home
ward flight. When you see that deep, spiritual light in the
eye, when the little soul reveals itself in words sweeter
and wiser than the ordinary words of children, hope not
to retain that child ; for the seal of Heaven is on it, and
the light of immortality looks out from its eyes.

Even so, beloved Eva ! fair star of thy dwelling ! Thou
art passing away ; but they that love thee dearest know it
not.

The colloquy between Tom and Eva was interrupted by
a hasty call from Miss Ophelia.

" Eva Eva ! why, child, the dew is falling ; you
must n t be out there ! "

Eva and Tom hastened in.

Miss Ophelia was old and skilled in the tactics of nurs
ing. She was from New England, and knew well the first
guileful footsteps of that soft, insidious disease, which
sweeps away so many of the fairest and loveliest, and,
before one fibre of life seems broken, seals them irrevocably
for death.



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY 7

She had noted the slight, dry cough, the daily brighten
ing cheek ; nor could the lustre of the eye, and the airy
buoyancy born of fever, deceive her.

She tried to communicate her fears to St. Clare ; but he
threw back her suggestions with a restless petulance, unlike
his usual careless good humor.

" Don t be croaking, cousin, I hate it ! " he would say ;
" don t you see that the child is only growing ? Children
always lose strength when they grow fast."

" But she has that cough ! "

" Oh, nonsense of that cough ! it is not anything. She
has taken a little cold, perhaps. 7

" Well, that was just the way Eliza Jane was taken, and
Ellen and Maria Sanders."

" Oh, stop these hobgoblin nurse-legends. You old hands
get so wise that a child cannot cough or sneeze but you see
desperation and ruin at hand. Only take care of the child,
keep her from the night air, and don t let her play too
hard, and she 11 do well enough."

So St. Clare said ; but he grew nervous and restless. He
watched Eva feverishly day by day, as might be told by the
frequency with which he repeated over that " the child was
quite well," - - that there was n t anything in that cough,
it was only some little stomach affection, such as children
often had. But he kept by her more than before, took her
oftener to ride with him, brought home every few days
some receipt or strengthening mixture, "not," he said,
" that the child needed it, but then it would not do her any
harm."

If it must be told, the thing that struck a deeper pang
to his heart than anything else was the daily increasing
maturity of the child s mind and feelings. While still
retaining all a child s fanciful graces, yet she often dropped,
unconsciously, words of such a reach of thought and strange
unworldly wisdom that they seemed to be an inspiration.



UNCLE TOM S CABIN; OR

At such times, St. Clare would feel a sudden thrill, and
clasp her in his arms, as if that fond clasp could save her ;
and his heart rose up with wild determination to keep her,
never to let her go.

The child s whole heart and soul seemed absorbed in
works of love and kindness. Impulsively generous she had
always been; but there was a touching and womanly
thoughtfulness about her now, that every one noticed. She
still loved to play with Topsy and the various colored
children ; but she now seemed rather a spectator than an
actor of their plays, and she would sit for half an hour at
a time laughing at the odd tricks of Topsy, and then a
shadow would seem to pass across her face, her eyes grew
misty, and her thoughts were afar.

"Mamma," she said suddenly to her mother one day,
" why don t we teach our servants to read ? "

" What a question, child ! People never do."

"Why don t they ? " said Eva.

" Because it is no use for them to read. It don t help
them to work any better, and they are not made for any
thing else."

" But they ought to read the Bible, mamma, to learn
God s will."

" Oh, they can get that read to them all they need."

" It seems to me, mamma, the Bible is for every one to
read themselves. They need it a great many times when
there is nobody to read it."

" Eva, you are an odd child," said her mother.

" Miss Ophelia has taught Topsy to read," continued
Eva.

" Yes, and you see how much good it does. Topsy is
the worst creature I ever saw ! "

" Here s poor Mammy ! " said Eva. " She does love
the Bible so much, and wishes so she could read ! And
what will she do when I can t read to her ? "



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY

Marie was busy turning over the contents of a drawer,
as she answered,

" Well, of course, by and by, Eva, you will have other
things to think of besides reading the Bible round to ser
vants. Not but that is very proper ; I ve done it myself,
when I had health. But when you come to be dressing and
going into company, you won t have time. See here ! " she
added, " these jewels I m going to give you when you come
out. I wore them to my first ball. I can tell you, Eva, I
made a sensation."

Eva took the jewel-case, and lifted from it a diamond
necklace. Her large, thoughtful eyes rested on them, but
it was plain her thoughts were elsewhere.

" How sober you look, child ! " said Marie.

" Are these worth a great deal of money, mamma ? "

" To be sure, they are. Father sent to France for them.
They are worth a small fortune. 7

" I wish I had them," said Eva, " to do what I pleased
with ! "

" What would you do with them ? "

" I d sell them, and buy a place in the free States, and
take all our people there, and hire teachers, to teach them
to read and write."

Eva was cut short by her mother s laughing.

" Set up a boarding-school ! Would n t you teach them
to play on the piano and paint on velvet ? "

" I d teach them to read their own Bible, and write their
own letters, and read letters that are written to them," said
Eva steadily. " I know, mamma, it does come very hard
on them, that they can t do these things. Tom feels it.
Mammy does, a great many of them do. I think it s
wrong."

" Come, come, Eva ; you are only a child ! You don t
know anything about these things," said Marie ; " besides,
your talking makes my head ache."



10 UNCLE TOM S CABIN; OR

Marie always had a headache on hand for any conversa
tion that did not exactly suit her.

Eva stole away ; but after that, she assiduously gave
Mammy reading lessons.



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY 11



CHAPTER XXIII

HENRIQUE

ABOUT this time, St. Clare s brother Alfred, with his
eldest son, a boy of twelve, spent a day or two with the
family at the lake.

No sight could be more singular and beautiful than that
of these twin brothers. Nature, instead of instituting
resemblances between them, had made them opposites on
every point ; yet a mysterious tie seemed to unite them in
a closer friendship than ordinary.

They used to saunter, arm in arm, up and down the
alleys and walks of the garden, Augustine, with his blue
eyes and golden hair, his ethereally flexible form and viva
cious features ; and Alfred, dark-eyed, with haughty Roman
profile, firmly knit limbs, and decided bearing. They were
always abusing each other s opinions and practices, and yet
never a whit the less absorbed in each other s society ; in
fact, the very contrariety seemed to unite them, like the
attraction between opposite poles of the magnet.

Henrique, the eldest son of Alfred, was a noble dark-
eyed, princely boy, full of vivacity and spirit ; and, from
the first moment of introduction, seemed to be perfectly
fascinated by the spirituelle graces of his cousin Evangeline.

Eva had a little pet pony, of a snowy whiteness. It
was easy as a cradle, and as gentle as its little mistress ;
and this pony was now brought up to the back veranda by
Tom, while a little mulatto boy of about thirteen led along
a small black Arabian, which had just been imported at a
great expense for Henrique.



12 UNCLE TOM S CABIN; OR

Henrique had a boy s pride in his new possession; and as
he advanced, and took the reins out of the hands of his little
groom, he looked carefully over him, and his brow darkened.

"What s this, Dodo, you little lazy dog ! you haven t
rubbed my horse down this morning."

" Yes, Mas r," said Dodo submissively ; " he got that
dust on his own self."

" You rascal, shut your mouth ! " said Henrique, vio
lently raising his riding-whip. " How dare you speak ? "

The boy was a handsome, bright-eyed mulatto, of just
Henrique s size, and his curling hair hung round a high
bold forehead. He had white blood in his veins, as could
be seen by the quick flush in his cheek and the sparkle of
his eye, as he eagerly tried to speak.

" Mas r Henrique " he began.

Henrique struck him across the face with his riding-
whip, and, seizing one of his arms, forced him on to his
knees, and beat him till he was out of breath.

" There, you impudent dog ! Now will you learn not to
answer back when I speak to you ? Take the horse back,
and clean him properly. I 11 teach you your place ! "

" Young Mas r," said Tom, " I specs what he was gwine
to say was, that the horse would roll when he was bringing
him up from the stable ; he s so full of spirits, that s
the way he got that dirt on him ; I looked to his cleaning."

"You hold your tongue till you re asked to speak!"
said Henrique, turning on his heel, and walking up the
steps to speak to Eva, who stood in her riding-dress.

" Dear cousin, I m sorry this stupid fellow has kept you
waiting," he said. " Let s sit down here, on this seat, till
they come. What s the matter, cousin ? you look sober."

" How could you be so cruel and wicked to poor Dodo ? "
said Eva.

" Cruel, wicked ! " said the boy, with unaffected sur
prise. " What do you mean, dear Eva ? "



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY 13

" I don t want you to call me dear Eva, when you do
so/ 7 said Eva,

" Dear cousin, you don t know Dodo ; it is the only way
to manage him, he s so full of lies and excuses. The only
way is to put him down at once, not let him open his
mouth ; that ? s the way papa manages."

" But Uncle Tom said it was an accident, and he never
tells what is n t true."

" He s an uncommon old nigger, then ! " said Henrique.
" Dodo will lie as fast as he can speak."

" You frighten him into deceiving, if you treat him so."

" Why, Eva, you 7 ve really taken such a fancy to Dodo
that I shall he jealous."

"But you beat him, and he did n t deserve it."

" Oh, well, it may go for some time when he does, and
don t get it. A few cuts never come amiss with Dodo,
he s a regular spirit, I can tell you ; but I won t beat him
again before you, if it troubles you."

Eva was not satisfied, but found it in vain to try to make
her handsome cousin understand her feelings.

Dodo soon appeared with the horses.

" Well, Dodo, you ve done pretty well this time," said
his young master, with a more gracious air. " Come, now,
and hold Miss Eva s horse, while I put her on the saddle."

Dodo came and stood by Eva s pony. His face was
troubled, his eyes looked as if he had been crying.

Henrique, who valued himself on his gentlemanly adroit
ness in all matters of gallantry, soon had his fair cousin in
the saddle, and, gathering the reins, placed them in her
hands.

But Eva bent to the other side of the horse, where Dodo
was standing, and said, as he relinquished the reins,
" That s a good boy, Dodo ; thank you ! "

Dodo looked up in amazement into the sweet young face ;



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