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UNCLE TOM S CABIN,



on,



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY.



BY



HARRIET BEECHER STOWE.




VOL. I.

SIXTIETH THOUSAND.

BOSTON:
JOHN P. JEWETT & COMPANY.

CLEVELAND, OHIO:

JEWETT, PROCTOR & WORTHINGTON.

1852.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE,
In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the District of Maine.



STEREOTYPED BY

HOBART & BOBBINS,

NEW ESGLAND TYPE AND STEREOTYPE POl NDKRV,

BOSTON.
Printed by Gco. C. Rand & Co., No. 3 Cornhill.



Us
\/, I






PREFACE.



THE scenes of this story, as its title indicates, lie
among a race hitherto ignored by the associations of
polite and refined society ; an exotic race, whose
ancestors, born beneath a tropic .sun, brought
with them, and perpetuated to their descendants, a
character so essentially unlike the hard and domi
nant Anglo-Saxon race, as for many years to haye
won from it only misunderstanding and contempt.

But, another and better day is dawning ; every
influence of literature, of poetry and of art, in our
times, is becoming more and more in unison with
the great master chord of Christianity, " good will
to man."

The poet, the painter, and the artist, now seek
out and embellish the common and gentler humani
ties of life, and, under the allurements of fiction,



VI PREFACE.

breathe a humanizing and subduing influence, favor-

> *

able <to the development of the great principles of

Christian brotherhood.

The hand of benevolence is everywhere stretched
out, searching into abuses, righting wrongs, alleviat
ing distresses, and bringing to the knowledge and
sympathies of the world the lowly, the oppressed,
and the forgotten.

In this general movement, unhappy Africa at last
is remembered ; Africa, who began the race of
civilization and human progress in the dim, gray
dawn of early time, but who, for centuries, has lain
bound and bleeding at the foot of civilized and Chris
tianized humanity, imploring compassion in vain.

But the heart of the dominant race, who have been
her conquerors, her hard masters, has at length been
turned towards her in mercy ; and it has been seen
how far nobler it is in nations to protect the feeble
than to oppress them. Thanks be to God, the world
has at last outlived the slave-trade !

The object of these sketches is to awaken sym
pathy and feeling for the African race, as they exist
among us ; to show their wrongs and sorrows, under
a system so necessarily cruel and unjust as to



PREFACE. VII

defeat and do away the good effects of all that
can be attempted for them, by their best friends,
under it.

In doing this, the author can sincerely disclaim
any invidious feeling towards those individuals who,
often without any fault of their own, are involved in
the trials and embarrassments of the legal relations
of slavery.

Experience has shown her that some of the
noblest of minds and hearts are often thus involved ;
and no one knows better than they do, that what
may be gathered of the evils of slavery from
sketches like these, is not the half that could be
told, of the unspeakable whole.

In the northern states, these representations may,
perhaps, be thought caricatures ; in the southern
states are witnesses who know their fidelity. What
personal knowledge the author has had, of the truth
of incidents such as here are related, will appear in
its time.

It is a comfort to hope, as so many of the world s
sorrows and wrongs have, from age to age, been lived
down, so a time shall come when sketches similar



VIII PREFACE.

to these shall be valuable only as memorials of what
ias long ceased to be.

When an enlightened and Christianized commu
nity shall have, on the shores of Africa, laws,
language and literature, drawn from among us,
may then the scenes of the house of bondage be to
them like the remembrance of Egypt to the

Israelite, a motive of thankfulness to Him who

**
hath redeemed them !

For, while politicians contend, and men are
swerved this way and that by conflicting tides of
interest and passion, the great cause of human
liberty is in the hands of one, of whom it is said :

" He shall not fail nor be discouraged
Till He have set judgment in the earth."

" He shall deliver the needy when he crieth,
The poor, and him that hath no helper."

" He shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence,
And precious shall their blood be in His sight."



TABLE OP CONTENTS.
VOL. I.



CHAPTER I.
IN WHICH THE READER is INTRODUCED TO A MAN OF HUMANITF, . 13

CHAPTER II.
THE MOTHER, * ..... .... 27

CHAPTER III.

THE HUSBAND AND FATHER, ...... , , 31-

*.

CHAPTER IV.
AN EVENING IN UNCLE TOM S CABIN, ..... 38

CHAPTER V.

SHOWING THE FEELINGS OF LITING PROPERTY ON CHANGING OWNERS, 54

CHAPTER VI.
DISCOYERF, . ........ 66

CHAPTER VII.
THE MOTHER S STRUGGLE, ....... 79

* CHAPTER VIII.
ELIZA S ESCE .......... 97



CHAPTER IX. .

IN WHICH IT APPEARS THAT A SENATOR IS BUT A MAN, . . 118



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X.
THE PROPERTY is CARRIED OFF, 140

CHAPTER XI.

IN WHICH PROPERTY GETS INTO AN IMPROPER STATE OF MIND, 154

CHAPTER XII.
SELECT INCIDENT OF LAWFUL TRADE, 172

CHAPTER XIII.
THE QUAKER SETTLEMENT, 195

CHAPTER XIV.

EVANGELINE, 207

CHAPTER XV.

OF TOM S NEW MASTER, AND VARIOUS OTHER MATTERS, . 221



CHAPTER XVI.
TOM S MISTRESS AND HER OPINIONS, ..... 243

CHAPTER XVII.

THE FREEMAN S DEFENCE, . . . . . . 268

CHAPTER XVIII.
Miss OPHELIA S EXPERIENCES AND OPINIONS, . . , 291




UNCLE TOM S CABIN:

OR,

LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY.



CHAPTER I.

IN WHICH THK READER IS INTRODUCED TO A MAN OP HUMANITY.

LATE in the afternoon of a chilly day in February, two
gentlemen were sitting alone over their wine, in a well-
furnished dining parlor, in the town of P , in Kentucky.

There were no servants present, and the gentlemen, with
chairs closely approaching, seemed to be discussing some
subject with great earnestness.

For convenience sake, we have said, hitherto, two gentle
men. One of the parties, however, when critically examined,
did not seem, strictly speaking, to come under the species.
He was a short, thick-set man, with coarse, commonplace
features, and that swaggering air of pretension which marks a
low man who is trying to elbow his way upward in the world.
He was much over-dressed, in a gaudy vest of many colors, a
blue neckerchief, bedropped gayly with yellow spots, and
arranged with a flaunting tie, quite in keeping with the gen
eral air of the man. His hands, large and coarse, were plen
tifully bedecked with rings ; and he wore a heavy gold watch-
chain, with a bundle of seals of portentous size, and a great
2



14 UNCLE TOM S CABIN : OH,

variety of colors, attached to it, -which, in the ardor of con
versation, he was in the habit of flourishing and jingling with
evident satisfaction. His conversation was in free and easy
defiance of Murray s Grammar, and was garnished at conve
nient intervals with various profane expressions, which not
even the desire to be graphic in our account shall induce us
to transcribe.

His companion, Mr. Shelby, had the appearance of a gen
tleman ; and the arrangements of the house, and the general
air of the housekeeping, indicated easy, and even opulent cir
cumstances. As we before stated, the two were in the midst
of an earnest conversation.

" That is the way I should arrange the matter," said Mr.
Shelby.

"I can t make trade that way I positively can t, Mr.
Shelby," said the other, holding up a glass of wine between
his eye and the light.

"Why, the fact is, Haley, Tom is an uncommon fellow;
he is certainly worth that sum anywhere, steady, honest,
capable, manages my whole farm like a clock."

" You mean honest, as niggers go," said Haley, helping
himself to a glass of brandy.

" No ; I mean, really, Tom is a good, steady, sensible,
pious fellow. He got religion at a camp-meeting, four years
ago ; and I believe he really did get it. I ve trusted him,
since then, with ever/cuing I have, money, house, horses,
and let him come and go round the country ; and I always
found him true anc] square in everything."

"Some folks don t believe there is pious niggers, Shelby,"
said Haley, with a candid flourish of his hand, " but / do. I
had a fellow, now, in this yer last lot I took to Orleans
t was as good as a meetin, now, really, to hear that critter



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY. 15

pray ; and he was quite gentle and quiet like. He fetched me
a good sum, too, for I bought him cheap of a man that was
bliged to sell out ; so I realized six hundred on him. Yes,
I consider religion a valeyable thing in a nigger, when it s
the genuine article, and no mistake."

"Well, Tom s got the real article, if ever a fellow had,"
rejoined the other. " Why, last fall, I let him go to Cincin
nati alone, to do business for me, and bring home five hun
dred dollars. i Tom, says I to him, I trust you, because I
think you re a Christian I know you would n t cheat. Tom
comes back, sure enough ; I knew he would. Some low fel
lows, they say, said to him c Tom, why don t you make
tracks for Canada ? Ah, master trusted me, and I could n t,
they told me about it. I am sorry to part with Tom, I
must say. You ought to let him cover the whole balance of
the debt ; and you would, Haley, if you had any conscience. w

" Well, I ve got just as much conscience as any man in
business can afford to keep, just a little, you know, to swear
by, as twere," said the trader, jocularly; "and, then, I m
ready to do anything in reason to blige friends ; but this yer,
you see, is a leetle too hard on a fellow a leetle too hard."
The trader sighed contemplatively, and poured out some more
brandy.

"Well, then, Haley, how will you trade?" said Mr.
Shelby, after an uneasy interval of silence.

" Well, have n t you a boy or gal that you could throw in
with Tom?"

" Hum ! none that I could well spare ; to tell the truth,
it s only hard necessity makes me willing to sell at all. I
don t like parting with any of my hands, that s a fact."

- Here the door opened, and a small quadroon boy, between
four and five years of age, entered the room. There was



16 UNCLE TOM S CABIN : OB,

something in his appearance remarkably beautiful and engag
ing. His black hair, fine as floss silk, hung in glossy curls
about his round, dimpled face, while a pair of large dark
eyes, full of fire and softness, looked out from beneath the
rich, long lashes, as he peered curiously into the apartment.
A gay robe of scarlet and yellow plaid, carefully made and
neatly fitted, set off to advantage the dark and rich style of
his beauty ; and a certain comic air of assurance, blended with
bashfulness, showed that he had been not unused to being
petted and noticed by his master.

"Hulloa, Jim Crow!" said Mr. Shelby, whistling, and
snapping a bunch of raisins towards him, "pick that up,
now ! "

The child scampered, with all his little strength, after the
prize, while his master laughed.

" Come here, Jim Crow," said he. The child came up,
and the master patted the curly head, and chucked him under
the chin.

" Now, Jim, show this gentleman how you can dance and
sing." The boy commenced one of those wild, grotesque
songs common among the negroes, in a rich, clear voice,
accompanying .his singing with many comic evolutions of the
hands, feet, and whole body, all in perfect time to the music.

" Bravo ! " said Haley, throwing him a quarter of an
orange.

" Now, Jim, walk like old Uncle Cudjoe, when he has the
rheumatism," said his master.

Instantly the flexible limbs of the child assumed the ap
pearance of deformity and distortion, as, with his back humped
up, and his master s stick in his hand, he hobbled about the
room, his childish face clrawn into a doleful pucker, and spit
ting from right to left, in imitation of an old man.



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY. 17

Both gentlemen laughed uproariously.

"Now, Jim," said his master, "show us how old Elder
Bobbins leads the psalm." The boy drew his chubby face
down to a formidable length, and commenced toning a psalm
tune through his nose, with imperturbable gravity.

"Hurrah! bravo! what a young un ! " said Haley;
" that chap s a case, I 11 promise. Tell you what," said
he, suddenly clapping his hand on Mr. Shelby s shoulder,
"fling in that chap, and I ll settle the business I will.
Come, now, if that ain t doing the thing up about the
Tightest ! "

At this moment, the door was pushed gently open, and a
young quadroon woman, apparently about twenty-five, entered
the room.

There needed only a glance from the child to her, to iden
tify her as its mother. There was the same rich, full, dark
eye, with its long lashes ; the same ripples of silky black hair.
The brown of her complexion gave way on the cheek to a per
ceptible flush, which deepened as she saw the gaze of the
strange man fixed upon her in bold and undisguised admira
tion. Her dress was of the neatest possible fit, and set off to
advantage her finely moulded shape ; a delicately formed
hand and a trim foot and ankle were items of appearance that
did not escape the quick eye of the trader, well used to run
up at a glance the points of a fine female article.

"Well, Eliza?" said her master, as she stopped and looked
hesitatingly at him.

" I was looking for Harry, please, sir; " and the boy
bounded toward her, showing his spoils, which he had gath
ered in the skirt of his robe.

"Well, take him away, then," said Mr. Shelby; and
hastily she withdrew, carrying the child on her arm.
2*



18 UNCLE TOM S CABIN: OR,

"By Jupiter," said the trader, turning to him in admira
tion, " there s an article, now ! You might make your for
tune on that ar gal in Orleans, any day. I ve seen over a
thousand, in my day, paid down for gals not a bit handsomer."

"I don t want to make my fortune on her," said Mr.
Shelby, dryly; and, seeking to turn the conversation, he
uncorked a bottle of fresh wine, and asked his companion s
opinion of it.

" Capital, sir,, first chop ! " said the trader; then turning,
and slapping his hand familiarly on Shelby s shoulder, ho
added

li Come, how will you trade about the gal ? what shall I
say for her what 11 you take ? "

"Mr. Haley, she is not to be sold," said Shelby. "My
wife would not part with her for her weight in gold."

"Ay, ay! women always say such things, cause they
ha nt no sort of calculation. Just show em how many
watches, feathers, and trinkets, one s weight in gold would
buy, and that alters the case, /reckon."

" I tell you, Haley, this must not be spoken of: I say no,
and I mean no," said Shelby, decidedly.

"Well, you ll let mo have the boy. though/ said the
trader ; " you must own I ve come down pretty handsomely
for him."

"What on earth can you want with the child?" said
jShelby.

" Why, I ve got a friend that s going into this yer branch
of the business wants to buy up handsome boys to raise for
the market. Fancy articles entirely sell for waiters, and
so on, to rich uns, that can pay for handsome uns. It sets
off one of yer great places a real handsome boy to open
door, wait, and tend. They fetch a good sum ; and this lit-



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY. 19

tie devil is such a comical, musical concern, he s just the
article."

j "I would rather not sell him," said Mr. Shelby, thought
fully; "the fact is, sir, I m a humane man, and I hate to
take the boy from his mother, sir."

" 0, you do? La ! yes something of that ar natur. I
understand, perfectly. It is mighty onpleasant getting on
with women, sometimes. I al ays hates these yer screachin ,
screamin times. They are mighty onpleasant ; but, as I
manages business, I generally avoids em, sir. Now, what
if you get the girl off for a day, or a week, or so ; then the
thing s done quietly, all over before she comes home. Your
wife might get her some ear-rings, or a new gown, or some
such truck, to make up with her."

"I m afraid not."

" Lor bless ye, yes ! These critters an t like white folks,
you know ; they gets over things, only manage right. Now,
they say," said Haley, assuming a candid and confidential
air, "that this kind o trade is hardening to the feelings; but
I never found it so. Fact is, I never could do things up the
way some fellers manage the business. I ve seen em as
would pull a woman s child out of her arms, and set him up
to sell, and she screechin like mad all the time ; very bad
policy damages the article makes em quite unfit for ser
vice sometimes. I knew a real handsome gal once, in Orleans ;
as was entirely ruined by .this sort o % handling. The fellow
that was trading for her did n t want her baby ; and she was
one of your real high sort, when her blood was up. I tell
you, she squeezed up her child in her arms, and talked, and
went on real awful. It kinder makes my blood run cold to
think on t ; and when they carried off the child, and locked
her up. she jest went ravin mad, and died in a week. Cleai



20 UNCLE TOM S CABIN: OR,

waste, sir, of a thousand dollars, just for want of management,
there s where t is. It s always best to do the humane
thing, sir; that s been my experience." And the trader
leaned back in his chair, and folded his arm, with an air of
virtuous decision, apparently considering himpelf a second
Wilberforce.

The subject appeared to interest the gentleman deeply ; for
while Mr. Shelby was thoughtfully peeling an orange, Haley
broke out afresh, with becoming diffidence, but as if actually
driven by the force of truth to say a few words more.

"It don t look well, now, for a feller to be praisin him
self; but I say it jest because it s the truth. I believe I m
reckoned to bring in about the finest droves of niggers that is
brought in, at least, I ve been told so ; if I have once, I
reckon I have a hundred times, all in good case, fat and
likely, and I lose as few as any man in the business. And I
lays it all to my management, sir j and humanity, sir, I may
say, is the great pillar of my management."

Mr. Shelby did not know what to say, and so he said,
" Indeed!" *

" Now, I ve been laughed at for my notions, sir, and I ve
been talked to. They an t pop lar, and they an t common ;
but I stuck to em, sir ; I ve stuck to em, and realized well on
em ; yes, sir, they have paid their passage, 1 may say," and
the trader laughed at his joke.

There was something so piquant and original in these elu
cidations of humanity, that Mr. Shelby could not help laugh
ing in company. Perhaps you laugh too, dear reader ; but
you know humanity comes out in a variety of strange forms
now-a-days, and there is no end to the odd things that humane
people will say and do.

Mr. Shelby s laugh encouraged the trader to proceed.



j^tV^WT 3V*

LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY.



"It s strange, now, but I never could beat this into peo
ple s heads. Now, there was Tom Loker, my old partner,
down in Natchez ; he was a clever fellow, Tom was, only the
very devil with niggers, on principle t was, you see, for a
better hearted feller never broke bread ; t was his system,
sir. I used to talk to Tom. Why, Tom, I used to say, when
your gals takes on and cry, what s the use o crackin on em
over the head, and knockin on em round? It s ridiculous,
says I, c and don t do no sort o good. Why, I don t see no
harm in their cryin , says I; it s natur, says I, and if natur
can t blow off one way, it will another. Besides, Tom, says
I, it jest spiles your gals ; they get sickly, and down in the
mouth; and sometimes they gets ugly, - particular y allow
gals do, and it s the devil and all gettin on em broke in.
Now, says I, why can t you kinder coax em up, and speak
em fair ? Depend on it, Tom, a little humanity, thrown in
along, goes a heap further than all your jawin and crackin ;
and it pays better, says I, * depend on t. But Tom could n t
get the hang on t; and he spiled so many for me, that I had
to break off with him, though he was a good-hearted fellow,
and as fair a business hand as is g )inV

" And do you find your ways o; managing do the business
better than Tom s 1 " said Mr. Shelby.

"Why, yes, sir, I may say so. You see, when I any
ways can, I takes a leetle care about the onpleasant parts
like selling young uns and that, get the gals out of the way
out of sight, out of mind, you know, and when it s clean
done, and can t be helped, they naturally gets used to it.
Tan t, you know, as if it was white folks, that s brought up
in the way of spectin to keep their children and wives, and
all that. Niggers, you know, that s fetched up properly.



22 UNCLE TOM S CABIN: OR,

ha n t no kind of spectations of no kind ; so all these things
comes easier."

" I m afraid mine are not properly brought up, then," said
Mr. Shelby.

" S pose not; you Kentucky folks spile_jpjir_ niggers.
You mean well by em, but tan t no real kindness, arter all
Now, a nigger, you see, what s got to be hacked and tumbled
round the world, and sold to Tom, and Dick, and the Lord
knows who, tan t no kindness to be givin on him notions
and expectations, and bringin on him up too well, for the
rough and tumble comes all the harder on him arter. Now,
I venture to say, your niggers would be quite chop-fallen in a
place where some of your plantation niggers would be singing
and whooping like all possessed. Every man, you know, Mr.
Shelby, naturally thinks well of his own ways ; and I think I
treat niggers just about as well as it s ever worth while to
treat em."

" It s a happy thing to be satisfied," said Mr. Shelby, with
a slight shrug, and some perceptible feelings of a disagreeable
nature.

"Well," said Haley, after they had both silently picked
their nuts for a season, "^fhat do you say?"

"I ll think the matter over, and talk with my wife," said
Mr. Shelby. "Meantime, Haley, if you want the matter
carried on in the quiet way you speak of, you d best not let
your business in this neighborhood be known. It will get out
among my boys, and it will not be a particularly quiet busi
ness getting away any of my fellows, if they know it, I 11
promise you."

" ! certainly, by all means, mum ! of course. But
I 11 tell you, I m in a devil of a hurry, and shall want to



LIFE AMONG THE LOWLY.



know, as soon as possible, what I may depend on,- said he,
rising and putting on his overcoat.

" Well, call up this evening, between six and seven, and
you shall have my answer," said Mr. Shelby, and the trader
bowed himself out of the apartment.

"I d like to have been able to kick the fellow down the
steps," said he to himself, as he saw the door fairly closed,
" with his impudent assurance ; but he knows how much he
has me at advantage. If anybody had ever said to me that I
should sell Tom down south to one of those rascally traders,
I should have said, Is thy servant a dog. that he should do
this thing ? And now it must come, for aught I see. And
Eliza s child, too ! I know that I shall have some fuss with
wife about that ; and, for that matter, about Tom, too. So
much for being in debt, heigho ! The fellow sees his advan
tage, and means to push it."

Perhaps the mildest form of the system of slavery is to be



agricultural pursuits of a quiet and gradual nature, not
requiring those periodic seasons of hurry and pressure that
are called for in the business of more southern districts,
makes the task of the negro a more healthful and reasonable
one ; while the master, content -with a more gradual style of
acquisition, has not those temptations to hardheartedness
which always overcome frail human nature when the prospect
of sudden and rapid gain is weighed in the balance, with no
heavier counterpoise than the interests of the helpless and
unprotected.

Whoever visits some estates there, and witnesses the good-
humored indulgence of some masters and mistresses, and the
affectiona f <? byalty of some slaves, might be tempted to dream
the o poetic legend of a patriarchal institution, and all



Ty

24 k,) UNCLE TOM S CABIN: OK,

v^ 7^

that ; but over and above the scene there broods a portentous
shadow the shadow of law. So long as the law considers
all these human beings, with beating hearts and living affec
tions, only as so many things belonging to a master, so
long as the failure, or misfortune, or imprudence, or death of
the kindest owner, may cause them any day to exchange a
life of kind protection and indulgence for one of hopeless
misery and toil, so long it is impossible to make anything
beautiful or desirable in the best regulated administration of
\ slavery.

Mr. Shelby was a fair average kind of man, good-natured
and kindly, and disposed to easy indulgence of those around


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