Harriet L. (Harriet Louise) Keeler.

Our native trees and how to identify them; a popular study of their habits and their peculiarities online

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®l|e i. M. Bill Sibrarg

Nnrtlj (Earaltna BtnU




QK482

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1902



This book was presented by



Howard R. Krjnbill



NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES



S02069294 W



OUR NATIVE TREES



OUR NATIVE TREES



AND HOW TO IDENTIFY THEM



|)aijit6 anU W(^m fjcculiarittcfl!



By HARRIET L. KEELER



WITH 178 ILLUSTRATIONS FROM
PHOTOGRAPHS AND WITH 162
ILLUSTRATIONS FROM DRAWINGS



THIRD EDITION

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
NEW YORK :: :: :: :: :: :: 1902



Copyright, 1900, by
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



TROW DIRECTORY

PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING COMPANY

NEW YORK



TO THE MEMORY OF

PHYLLIS AND NICHOLAS




MY LOVING COMPANIONS THROUGH

FIELD AND WOOD

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED



PREFACE

The trees described in this volume are those indigenous
to the region extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Rocky Mountains and from Canada to the northern boun-
daries of the southern states ; together with a few well-
known and naturalized foreign trees such as the Horse-
chestnut, Lombardy Poplar, Ailanthus and Sycamore Maple.

It is hoped that this book will commend itself :

To amateur botanists who desire a more extended and ac-
curate description of trees than is given by the botanical
text-books in ordinary use.

I'o such of the general public as habitually live near fields
and woods ; or whose love of rural life has led them to
summer homes in hill country or along the sea-shore ; or
whose daily walks lead them through our city parks and open
commons.

To all those who feel that their enjoyment of out-door life
would be distinctly increased were they able easily to deter-
mine the names of trees.

The author is glad to acknowledge her great indebtedness
to the following books of reference ; Sargent's "The Silva of
North America," Michaux's " North American Sylva," Lou-
don's " Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum," Emerson's
" Report on the Trees and Shrubs of Massachusetts," Sach's
"Physiology of Plants," Sach's "Text-Book of Botany," Le
Maout and Decaisne's " General System of Botany," Britton
and Brown's " Illustrated Flora of the United States and
Canada," Dawson's "Geological History of Plants," Hough's
" American Woods," Gray's " Manual of Botany," sixth edi-

vii



PREFACE

tion, Vine's " Students' Text-Book of Botany," " The Check
List of the Forest Trees of the United States," and the mag-
azine Garden ajid Forest.

The extracts from the works of Lowell, Longfellow,
Emerson, Whittier, Holmes, Thoreau, Burroughs, and Miss
Thomas are used with the permission of and by special ar-
rangement with the publishers Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin
& Co., those from Wilson Flagg with the permission of the
Educational Publishing Co., that from Bryant with the per-
mission of the publishers, Messrs. D. Appleton & Co.

The quotations from the works of Professor G. Frederick
Wright, Professor George Pierce, and Professor D. T. Mac-
Dougal are made by the kind consent of the authors. Es-
pecial acknowledgment is due to Professor Charles S. Sar-
gent not only because in the preparation of this volume the
Silva of North America has been the authority which has
decided every case of doubt and because of his kind per-
mission to quote from his writings, but also because of his
kindly interest and his invaluable assistance in obtaining
specimens for illustrations from the Arnold Arboretum. To
Miss Anna J. Wright, Miss Charlotte Bushnell and Mr.
Charles F. Pack especial thanks are due for valuable notes
and suggestions ; also to the Director of the Missouri Bo-
tanical Garden for specimens kindly sent upon request.

The outline pictures are the work of Miss Mary Keffer of
Cleveland, Ohio. The photographs for the illustrations
were taken partly by Mr. Alfred Redher, of the Arnold Ar-
boretum, partly by Mr. Charles H, Coit, of Glenville, Ohio,
but principally by Decker, Edmonson & Co. of Cleveland,
Ohio.

May 20, 1900.



CONTENTS

Page

Genera and Species xi

Illustrations xvii

Guide to the Trees xxi

Descriptions of tlie Trees :

Dicotyledones /

GymnospermcB ^37

Form and Structure of Roots, Stems, Leaves,
Flowers, and Fruit ^03

Tlie Tree Stem or TrunJi 5/^

Species and Genus ^ly

Glossary of Botanical Names . . . . ^ig

Index of Latin Names ^2y

Index of Common Names ^^o



GENERA AND SPECIES



DICOTYLEDONES



Magnoliace^ .


. Magnolia Family




•^Magnolia glauca .


. Swamp Magnolia


3


\Magnolia iripetala


. Umbrella-tree


5


\Mag7ioHa actimijiata


. Cucumber-tree .


9


•'\Lh'iodendro7i tiiHpifera


. Tulip-tree ....


14


Annonace^


. Custard-Apple Family




Asimiiia triloba


Papaw ....


20


TlLIACE^ . . . .


. Linden Family




^Tilia aine7'icaiia .


. Linden . . . .


24


^^ilia pubescens


. Downy Linden .


30


\Tilia heterophylla .


. White Basswood


30


Tilia eiiropcea


. European Linden


30


RUTACEiE .


. Rue Family




Ptelea trifoliata .


. Wafer Ash


32


SlMAROUBACE^ .


. Ailanthus Family




Ailatithus glaiididosa


. Ailanthus . . . .


36


Aquifoliace^ .


. Holly Family




Ilex opaca


. American Holly .


41


Ilex ino7iticola


. Mountain Holly .


45


Celastrace^e


. Staff-tree Family




. Euofiyimis atropttrpwet


(s . Burning Bush


46



Rhamnace^e

Rhamnus caroliniana



Buckthorn Family
Indian Cherry



49



GENERA AND SPECIES







PAGE


HIPPOCASTANACE.E .


. Horse-chestnut Family




-\ jEsciilus glabra


. Ohio Buckeye


50


yEsc7ih{s octandra .


. Sweet Buckeye .


54


J^-^smlus hippocastatitmi.


. Horse-chestnut .


54


ACERACE/E . . . .


. Maple Family




Acer pe7iiisylvaniciim


Striped Maple


60


Acer spicatum


. Mountain Maple .


64


Acer sacchanun


. Sugar Maple


66


Acer saccharijium .


. Silver Maple


73


Acer rubriun .


. Red Maple . . . .


n


Acer plataiioides .


. Norway Maple .


82


Acer pseiido-plata?ius


. Sycamore Maple .


82


Acer negimdo.


. Box Elder . . . .


85


Anacardiace^ .


. Sumach Family




Rhus hirta


. Velvet Sumach .


88


Rhus copalh'na


. Dwarf Sumach .


91


Rhus verftz'x .


. Poison Sumach .


94


Leguminos/e


. Pea Family




Robinia pseudacacia


. Locust . . . .


97


Robiiiia viscosa


. Clammy Locust .


103


Cercis canadensis .


. Redbud


104


Gymnocladus dioicus


. Kentucky Coffee-tree .


109


Gleditsia triacanfhos


. Honey Locust


. 112


Cladrastis lutea


. Yellow-wood


. 116


Rosacea . . . .


. Rose Family




Prunus nigra


. Canada Plum


119


Prunus amerz'cana


. Wild Plum .


. 120


Prunus pennsylvam'ca


. Wild Red Cherry


122


Prunus virginiana


. Choke Cherry


125


Prunus serotma


. Black Cherry


. 128


Pyrus coronaria


. Crab Apple.


• 133


Pyrus a?nerzcana .


. Mountain Ash


. 136


Pyrus auc tip aria .


. European Mountain Ash


. 138


Pyrus sainbucifolia


. Elderleaf Mountain Ash


. 140


CratcEgus crus-galli


Cockspur Thorn .


. 140


Cratcegus coccinea .


. White Thorn


. 143


CratcEgus mollis .


. Scarlet Haw


• 144



GENERA AND SPECIES



Rosacea — Cojttmiicd.
Cratcrgns tonieiitosa
Cratcsgits punctata.
Aviclatichier canadensis.

HAMAMELIDACE/E

Ha?nanielis vi7'giniana
Liquidambar styracifiua

Araliace^.

Aralia spinosa

CORNACE^ .

Cornus fiorida
Corn us alternifolia.
Nyssa sylvatica

Caprifoliace^ .

Viburnum lent ago .
Vibur7ium prmiifoliuni

ERICACE/E .

Kalniia latifolia
Rhododendro7i maxim um
Oxydendrum arboreum

Ebenace^ ,

Diospyros virginiana

Styracace^

MoJirodendron caroh'num
Mohrodcndron dipterum

OLEACEyE ....
V'Fraxinus americana
V Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Fraxinus lanceolata
Fraxin us qitadrangidata
Fraxinus nigra
1/ Chtonanthus virginica .

BlGNONIACE^

Catalpa Catalpa .
Catalpa speciosa





PAGE


Black Thorn


. 148


Doited Haw


. 150


June-berry .


. 153


Witch Hazel Family




Witch Hazel


• 157


Sweet Gum


. 160


Ginseng Family




Hercules' Club .


. 165



Dogwood Family

Flowering Dogwood . .169
Alternate-leaved Dogwood . 175

Tupelo . . . .177

Honeysuckle Family

Sweet Viburnum . . .181

Black Haw. . . .184



Heath Family




Mountain Laurel


. 186


Rhododendron .


. . 189


Sourwood .


. 192


Ebony Family




Persimmon .


. 195


Storax Family




Silverbell-tree


, 20G


Snowdrop- tree .


. 202


Olive Family




White Ash .


. 206


Red Ash .


. 212


Green Ash .


. 214


Blue Ash .


. 214


Black Ash .


. 218


Fringe-tred .


. 222


Bignonia Family




Catalpa


. 225


Hardy Catalpa .


. 228



GENERA AND SPECIES







PAGE


Laurace^ ....


Laurel Family




Sassafras sassafras


Sassafras . . . .


229


Ulmace^ ....


. Elm Family




Ulmus ajnericafia .


White Elm.


233


Ulinus pub esc ens .


Slippery Elm


240


Ulmus raceinosa


Cork Elm . . . ,


242


Ulmus alata .


Winged Elm


246


Ulmus cainpestris .


English Elm


248


Celtis occidentalis .


Hackberry . . . .


249


MORACE^ ....


Mulberry Family




Morus rubra .


Red Mulberry


253


Morus nigra .


Black Mulberry .


254


Morus alba .


White Mulberry .


258


Toxylon pomiferum


Osage Orange


258


Platanace^


. Plane-Tree Family




Platanus occidentalis .


. Sycamore . . . .


263


JUGLANDACE^ .


Walnut Family




fuglans nigra


. Black Walnut . . . .


269


Juglajts cinerea


Butternut .


274


Hicoria ....


. Hickory . . . .


276


Hicoria mitujna


. Bitternut . . . .


279


Hicoria ovata.


. Shellbark Hickory


282


Hicoria lactm'osa .


. Big Shellbark . .


286


Hicoria alba .


Mockernut .


286


Hicoria glabra


Pignut.


290


Betulace^.


. Birch Family




Betula ....


. Birch . . . .


295


Betula populifolia .


. White Birch.


. 297


Betula papyrif era .


. Paper Birch.


302


Betula 7iigra .


. Red Birch .


306


Betula lutea »


. Yellow Birch


310


Betula lent a .


. Sweet Birch.


311


Almis glutinosa


, European Alder .


314


Ostrya virginiana .


. Hop Hornbeam .


. 316


Carpinus caroliniana .


. Hornbeam .


. 319



XIV



GENERA AND SPECIES



CUPULIFER^

Qucrcus .

Qiiercus alba . - .

Querciis minor .

Qiie7'cus macrocarpa '

Querciis primes r"

Qucrcus aciwiinata. "

Qucrcus prinoides .

Quercus piatanoides — -

Qucrcus rubra .■-

Quercus coccinea r-

Quercus velutina . -

Quercus digitata -r

Quercus palustris r

Quercus ilicifolia .

Quercus mari/andica

Qucrcus iinbricaria

Quercus phellos
Fagace.e .

Fagus atropunicea

Casta7iea dcntata .

Castanea pumila
Salicace/E .

Salix

Salix nigra .

Salix lucida .

Salix auiygdaloides

Salix fluviat His

Salix bebbiana

Salix discolor.

Salix alba vitellina

Salix frag His

Salix babylonica

Populus .

Populus tremuloides

Populus graiididcntata

Populus hetcrophylla

Populus balsaniifera

Populus balsamifera caudic

Populus deltoides .

Populus alba .

Populus nigra italica



. Oak F'amily

. Oak .

. White Oak .

. Post Oak .

. Bur Oak .

Chestnut Oak

. Yellow Oak

. Dwarf Chinquapin Oak

. Swamp White Oak

. Red Oak .

. Scarlet Oak .

. Black Oak .

. Spanish Oak

. Pin Oak

. Bear Oak .

. Black Jack .

, Shingle Oak

. Willow Oak

. Beech Family

. Beech .

. Chestnut

. Chinquapin.

. Willow Family

. Willow

. Black Willow

. Shining Willow

Peach Willow

. Sandbar Willow

. Bebb Willow

. Glaucous Willow

. White Willow

. Crack Willow

. Weeping Willow

. Poplar

. Aspen

. Large-toothed Aspen

. Swamp Cottonwood

. Balsam

rus Balm of Gilead .

. Cottonwood,

. White Poplar

. Lombardy Poplar



GENERA AND SPECIES



GYMNOSPERM.E



PlNACE^


. Pine Family








PinacecE


. Pines 439


Finns


. The Pine .






440


'^Pimis pa Ins iris


. Long-leaved Pine






443


'\-'Pin7is strobtis


. White Pine .






443


1 Piims resiiiosa


. Red Pine .






450


\ Pinus taeda .


. Loblolly Pine






452


-^imts rigida .


. Pitch Pine .






454


..yPiHus vir'giniaiia .


. Jersey Pine .






456


J^inus echinata


. Yellow Pine






458


\ Pinus divaricata .


. Gray Pine .






460


Pinus laricio austriaca .


. Austrian Pine






462


"hPinus sylvestris


. Scotch Pine






464


^Picea canadensis .


. White Spruce






. 464


1 Picea rubens .


. Red Spruce






. 468


I Picea mariana


. Black Spruce






470


•^-Picea excelsa .

4- Tsuga canadensis .


. Norway Spruce .






473


. Hemlock






474


*\^Larix laricina


. Tamarack .






476


Larix europcca


. European Larch






480


-^Abies balsainea


. Balsam Fir .






480


\ Tax odium distichum


. Bald Cypress






484


-i^ThuJa Occident alis.


. Arborvitse .






486


\Cupressus thyoides.


. White Cedar






. 489


■^-Jtmiperus couimunis


Common Juniper




492


A~ Juniper us virginiana .


. Red Cedar .




496


TaXACE/E . . . .


. Yew Family


1 Salisburia adiantifolia


. Gingko-tree






499



ILLUSTRATIONS

Swamp Magnolia, Flowering Spray of, 2

Umbrella-tree, Leaf of, 7

Cucumber-tree, Leaf of, 11 ; Trunk of, 12 ; Flowering Branch of, 13 ; Fruit

of, 13
Tulip-tree, Leaf of, 15 ; Flower of, 17 ; Unfolding Leaves of, 17 ; Fruit Cone

of, 18
Papaw, Leaf of, 21 ; Flower of, 22 ; Fruit of, 23
Linden, Leaves of, 25 ; Fruit of, 27 ; Trunk of, 28
White Basswood, Fruiting Spray of, 31
Wafer Ash, Fruiting Spray of, 33

Ailanthus, Leaves of, 37 ; Samaras of, 39 ; Sumach Leaflet and, 40
Holly, Fruiting Spray of, 43
Mountain Holly, Leaf of. 45
Burning Bush, Fruiting Spray of, 47
Ohio Buckeye, Flowering Spray of, 51 ; Fruit of, 53
Sweet Buckeye, Leaflets of, 55
Horse-chestnut, Spray of, 57 ; Fruit of, 59
Striped Maple, Leaf of, 61; Keys of, 62
Mountain Maple, Fruiting Spray of, 63 ; Keys of, 65
Sugar Maple, Leaves of, 67 ; Keys of, 69 ; Trunk of, 71
Silver Maple, Flowers of, 74; Leaves of, 75 ; Key of, 76
Red Maple, Leaves of, 79; Key of, 80
Norway Maple, Fruiting Spray of, 81
Sycamore Maple, Fruiting Spray of, 83
Box Elder, Keys of, 86; Fruiting Spray of, 87
Staghorn Sumach, Fruit and Leaf of, 89
Dwarf Sumach, Leaves of, 93
Poison Sumach, Leaves of, 95

Locust, Leaves of, 99 ; Raceme of Blossoms of, 100 ; Fruit of, loi
Redbud, Flowering Branch of, 105 ; Leaf of, 107
Kentucky Coffee-tree, Flowers of, no ; Leaves of, in
Honey Locust, Leaves of, 113
Yellow-wood, Leaves of, 117
Canada Plum, Fruiting Spray of, 121
Wild Red Cherr\-, Fruiting Spray of, 123
Choke Cherry, Fruiting Spray of, 127



ILLUSTRATIONS

Black Cherry, Fruiting Spray of, 129 ; Trunk of, 131

Crab Apple, Fruiting Spray of, 135

Mountain Ash, Fruiting Spray of, 137 ; Fruiting Spray of European, 139

CocKSPUR Thorn, Leaves of, 141

White Thorn, Fruiting Branch of, 145

Scarlet Haw, Fruiting Branch of, 147

Black Thorn, Sprays of, 149

Dotted Haw, Sprays of, 151

June-berry, Leaves of, 155

Witch Hazel, Leaves of, 159 ; Flowers and Fruit of, 161

Sweet Gum, Section of Twig of, 162 ; Leaves of, 163 ; Fruit of, 164

Hercules's Club, Leaves of, 167 ; Drupes of, 168

Dogwood, Branch of Flowering, 171 ; Flowering Spray of, 173 ; Fruit of, 174 ;

Fruiting Branch of Alternate-leaved, 176
Tupelo, Fruiting Branch of, 178 ; Drupes of, 179
Sweet Viburnum, Sprays of, 183
Black Haw, Sprays of, 185

Mountain Laurel, Fruiting Branch of, 187 ; Flower Cluster of, 188
Rhododendron, Flowering Spray of, 191
Sourwood, Leaves of, 193 ; Flowers of, 194
Persimmon, Leaves of, 197 ; Fruit of, 198
Silverbell-tree, Fruiting Branch of, 201 ; Flowers of, 202
Snowdrop-tree, Flowering Branch of, 203 ; Fruit of, 204
White Ash, Leaves of, 207 ; Samaras of, 20S ; Trunk of, 210
Red Ash, Flowers of, 212 ; Leaves of, 213 ; Samaras of, 214
Green Ash, Leaves of, 215

Blue Ash, Flower of, 216; Samaras of, 216; Leaves of, 217
Black Ash, Leaves of, 219 ; Flowers of, 220; Samaras of, 220
Fringe-tree, Flowering Branch of, 223 ; Drupes of, 224
Catalpa, Flowering Spray of, 227
Sassafras, Fruit of, 230 ; Leaves of, 231
White Elm, 237 ; Flowering Spray of, 234 ; Leaves of, 235 ; Unfolding Leaves

of, 238 ; Samaras of, 240
Slippery Elm, Leaves of, 239 ; Samaras of, 241
Cork Elm, Leaves of, 243 ; Samaras of, 244
Winged Elm, Leaves of, 245 ; Samaras of, 246
English Elm, Leaves of, 247
Hackberry, Fruiting Spray of, 251
Red Mulberry, Fruit of, 254 ; Leaves of, 255
White Mulberry, Fruiting Branch of, 257
Osage Orange, Leaves of, 259 ; Fruit of, 261
Sycamore, Trunk of, 264 ; Fruit of, 266 ; Leaf of, 267
Black Walnut, Leaves of, 271 ; Trunk of, 273 ; Fruit of, 275
Butternut, Fruit of, 275 ; Leaves of, 277
Shellbark Hickory, Staminate Aments of, 278 ; Fruiting Spray of, 285 ; Trunk

of, 287
Bitternut, Leaves of, 281 ; Fruit of, 282
Mock F.R nut. Fruit of, 288 ; Leaves of, 289



ILLUSTRATIONS

Pignut, Fruiting Spray of {Carya porciua), 291 ; Fruiting Spray of [Carya mi-
crocarpa)^ 293

Red Birch, Branch of, 296; Leaves of, 307 ; Strobiles of, 308

Sweet Birch, Aments of, 296; Strobiles of, 312 ; Leaves of, 313

Paper Birch, Strobiles of, 302 ; Fruiting Sprays of, 303 ; Trunk of, 305

Yellow Birch, Scales of, 297 ; Leaves of, 309 ; Strobiles of, 310

White Birch, Strobiles of, 298 ; Fruiting Branch of, 299 ; Trunk of, 301

Alder, Fruiting Spray of, 315

Hop Hornbeam, Branch of, 316; Fruiting Spray of, 317; Aments of, 318

Hornbeam, Ament of, 320 ; Fruiting Spray of, 321

Scarlet Oak, Aments of, 324 ; Flowers of, 325

White Oak, Leaf of, 327 ; Trunk of, 329 ; Fruiting Spray of, 331

Post Oak, Leaves of, 2,2,3 \ Acorn of, 334

Bur Oak, Acorn of, 336; Leaf of, -^-yj

Chestnut Oak, Leaves of, 339 ; Acorn of, 340 ; Trunk of, 341

Yellow Oak, Leaves of, 343 ; Acorn of, 344

Chinquapin Oak, Leaves of, 345; Acorn of, 346

Swamp White Oak, Leaves of, 347 ; Acorn of, 348

Red Oak. Leaves of, 350, 351 ; Trunk of, 353 ; Acorn of, 354

Scarlet Oak, Aments of, 324 ; Flowers of, 325 ; Leaves of, 355 ; Acorn of, 357

Black Oak, Leaves of, 359, 361 ; Acorn of, 362

Spanish Oak, Leaves of, 363 ; Variant Leaves of, 364 ; Acorns of, 364

Pin Oak, Acorn of, 366; Leaves of, 367

Bear Oak, Acorn of, 368 ; Leaves of, 369

Black Jack, Leaves of, 371 ; Acorn of, 372

Shingle Oak, Leaves of, yjl \ Acorn of, 374

Willow Oak, Acorn of, 375 ; Leaves of, 376

Beech, Leaves of, 378 ; Fruiting Spray of, 379 ; Flowers of, 380 ; Flower Clus-
ters of, 380 ; Tree, 3S1 ; Trunk of, 385

Chestnut, Leaf of, 387; Burs of, 389 ; Trunk of, 391

Willow, Flowers of, 394

Black Willow, Staminate Flower of, 396; Pistillate Flower of, 396; Leaves

of, 397

Peach Willow, Leaves of, 398

Shining Willow, Leaves of, 399

LoNGLEAP^ Willow, Leaf of, 400

Bebb Willow, Leaves of, 402

Glaucous Willow, Leaves of, 404

White Willow, Leaves of, 406

Crack Willow, Leaves of, 407

Weeping Willow, Leaves of, 411

Aspen, Flowers of, 413 ; Leaves of, 415

Large-toothed Aspen, Leaf of, 417; Fruiting Ament of, 417

Swamp Cottonwood, Leaf of, 420; Fruiting Ament of, 420

Balsam, Leaves of, 421, 423 ; Flowers of, 424 ; Fruiting Ament of, 424

Cottonwood, Leaves of, 427 ; Winter Branch of, 426 ; Trunk of, 425 ; Stam-
inate Aments of, 412 ; Pistillate Aments of, 412

White Poplar, Leaves of, 429 ; Aments of, 431, 433



ILLUSTRATIONS

Lo:.i3ARDY Poplar, Leaves of, 435

White Pine, Leaves of, 444, 445 ; Trunk of, 447 ; Cone of, 449

Red Pine, Leaves of, 45°

Loblolly Pine, Leaves of, 452 ; Cone of, 453

Pitch Pine, Cone of, 455 ; Leaves of, 456

Jersey Pine, Cones of, 457; Leaves of, 4^8

Yellow Pine, Cones of, 459; Leaves of, 458

Gray Pine, Leaves of, 460; Cones of, 461

Austrian Pine, Cone of, 463

Scotch Pine, Cones of, 465

White Spruce, Sprays of, 467

Red Spruce, Fruiting Spray of, 468

Black Spruce, Fruiting Spray of, 471

Norway Spruce, Fruiting Spray of, 475

Hemlock, Fruiting Branch of, 477

Tamarack, Fruiting Spray of, 479

Larch, Fruiting Branch of, 481

Balsam Fir, Leaves of, 483

Bald Cypress, Leaves of, 485

Arborvit^, Fruiting Spray of, 487

White Cedar, Fruiting Spray of, 491

Common Juniper, Fruiting Branch of, 493

Red Cedar, Fruiting Branch of, 495 ; Leaves of, 49^

Ginkgo, Spray of, 501



GUIDE TO THE TREES

Leaves simple — i
Leaves compound — 2

I. — Leaves alternate — 3
I. — Leaves opposite — 4
3. — Margins entire — 5
' 3. — Margins slightly indented — 6
3. — Margins lobed — 7

. — Oblong-ovate or obovate, large, thick The Magnolias

. —Oblong, sub-evergreen at the south Swamp Magnolia

^ \ Rhododendron

.—Evergreen | Mountain Laurel

.—Obovate, 6' to 10' long Papaw

.—Oblong, thick, shining, 3' to 5' long Tupelo

.—Oblong, tree occurring sparingly at the north Persimmon

.—Heart-shaped Redbud

. — Leaves of three forms — oval, two-lobed, or three-lobed —

frequently all three on one spray Sassafras

_,.,,.. -n u 1 i Shingle Oak

.—Thick, shmmg, willow-shaped | ^^.^y/;;^^ ^^^^,

. — Thick, shining, ovate, spines in the axils Osage Orange

. — Broadly oval or obovate, veins prominent, leaves

usually in clusters at the ends of the branches. Allernale-leaved

Dogwood

6.— Obliquely heart-shaped The Lindens

6.— Obliquely oval The Elms

6.— Obliquely ovate The Hackberry

^ „ , . J 1.1 * S l^it' Birches

6.-Oval or ovate, doubly serrate j The Hornbeams

6.— Repand with spiny teeth Holly

6. — Coarsely-toothed, twigs bearing thorns The Thorns

6. — Of quivering habit, petioles compressed. .... The Poplars



GUIDE TO THE TREES

6, — Long, slender, finely serrate The Willoiv

6. — Coarsely crenately-toothed The Chestnut Oaks,

6. — Obovate or oval — wavy-toothed Witch Hazel

The Plums
The Cherries
Crab-Apple

-Serrate \ Soiirwood

June-berry
The Silver-bells
The Beeches
7. — Lobes entire — 8
7. — Lobes slightly indented — 9
7. — Lobes coarsely toothed — 10

8. — Apex truncate, three-lobed Tulip-tree

8. — Lobes and sinuses rounded Oaks {White Oak Group)

8. — Lobes rounded, lobes 2 or 3 Sassafras

8. — Lobed or coarsely toothed, under surface cov-
ered with white down White Poplar

9. — Five-lobed, finely serrate Sweet Gum

9. — Variously lobed, irregularly toothed The Mulberries

10. — Irregularly toothed, lobes bristle pointed. . Oaks {Red Oak

Group)

10. — Leaf broad, lobes coarsely toothed Sycamore

4.— Margins entire — 11

Tv^r • . \ Sweet Viburnum

4.-Margins serrate \ Black Haw

4. — Margins lobed The Maples

II. — Ovate, veins prominent F'lowering Dogwood

II. — Heart-shaped, large The Catalpas

1 1 . — Oval Fringe Tree

2. — Leaves pinnately compound — 12

2, — Leaves bi-pinnately compound — 13

T 1^1 1 S The Buckeyes

2.-Leaves palmately compound | ^./^^ Horse-chestnuts

12. — Alternate — 14

12. — Opposite — 15
14. — Margin of leaflets entire — 16

14. — Margin of leaflets with two or three teeth ^\.h2.SQ.. Ailafithus

{ The Siimachs

T,n ' c^ a ^ ^ I The Mountain Ashes

I4.-Margm of leaflets serrate \^ ^^^^ Walnuts

I The Hickories

16.^ — Leaflets oval, apex obtuse The Locusts

16. — Leaflets oblong apex acute Poison Siunach

xxii



GUIDE TO THE TREES

i6. — Leaflets oval or ovate Cladastris

16. — Leaflets ovate — three in number .... Wafer Ash

15. — Margin of leaflets entire The Ashes

1 5. — Margin of leaflets serrate TJie Ashes

15. — Margni of leaflets coarsely toothed Box Elder

13. — Margins of leaflets entire Kentucky Coffee-tree

13. — Irregularly bi-pinnate, margins of leaflets
entire, thorns on stems above the axils

of the leaves Honey Locust

13. — Margins of leaflets serrate, stems s^'my .Hercules Club

Note. — // must be re?nembered that the typical leaves of a species are to
be found up07i mature trees, not upon young ones. The leaf-
lets of a cotnpound leaf cmi be distinguished frojn s mple
leaves by the absence of leaf-buds from the base of their stems.
No guide has been prepared for the Conifers, as it is believed
the illustrations will be sufficient.



SIGNS USED IN THIS BOOK

(') Acute accent over a vowel marks the short sound.
( ^ ) Grave accent over a vowel marks the long sound.
(°) The sign of degree is used for feet.
( ' ) When used with figures means inches.



DICOTYLEDONES




Flowering Spray of Swamp Magnolia, Magnolia glaiica.

Leaves 4' to 6' long, \%' to 2^' broad. Flowers 2' to 3' across.



MAGNOLlACEiE— MAGNOLIA FAMILY

SWAMP MAGNOLIA. SMALL MAGNOLIA.
SWEET BAY

Magnolia glauca.

Magnolia was named by Linnaeus in honor of Pierre Magnol, an



Online LibraryHarriet L. (Harriet Louise) KeelerOur native trees and how to identify them; a popular study of their habits and their peculiarities → online text (page 1 of 31)