Harriet Taylor Upton.

A twentieth century history of Trumbull County, Ohio; a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interests (Volume 1) online

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REYNOLD'^ T-^^rTORJCATl
GEKEALOGY COLLECTiOtf



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY



3 1833 00824 4375



Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center



http://www.archive.org/details/twentiethcentury01upto



A TWENTIETH CENTURY

HISTORY

OF

Trumbull County
Ohio

A NARRATIVE ACCOUNT OF ITS HISTORICAL

PROGRESS, ITS PEOPLE, AND ITS

PRINCIPAL INTERESTS



HARRIET TAYLOR UPTON

OF WARREN



VOLUME I

ILLUS'TOA'f'ED
r 7 7 u fD
\Ui



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY
CHICAGO

1909



iv PREFACE

History of Cleveland, Whittlesey's History of Clevelaiid,
Mathews' History of the "Western Reserve, the reports of the
Ohio Arehseologieal Sot-iety, tlie Historieal Collection of the
Mahoning Valley Association, particularly the c]ia])ter on War-
ren prepared by LeAvis Morris Iddings, the works of lion. B. A.
Hinsdale, Hon. Jas. A. Garfield, the Memorial to the Pioneer
Women of the Westei'n Reserve, and many others.

She has taken great pains to verify all dates, names ami
facts and yet she knows there will be errors. She therefore
begs those of critical minds to do some work of the same char-
acter before passing tinal .indgment on this.

HARRIET TAYLOR UPTOX.



14110S7

PREFACE



Cei



In writiug this History of Trumlmll County tlie author
has not attemjited to present exhaustively any one of its many
interesting and important features nor on the other hand to
make of it an encyclopedia. She has aimed to tell in a simple
^vay the simple story of an earnest, honest people, believing
that when such homely facts are known the readers will be
lietter able to rmderstand the historical significance of the past
and the conditions of today. She used as far as possible orig-
inal MSS., letters, ])ictures and maps, but in the main does not
feel that the volume contains much which is truly new. Even
that which has heretofore been unpublished will probably be of
more interest to the next historian than to the readers of today.
She has done away with footnotes and has quoted liberally
from all printed matter obtainable on the subject. She has
tried to show what part women jilayed in the early settlement
of the county and their standing today. For ages men have
written books and naturally have so well portrayed the doings
of men that the world understands them. ^Vhen women write
as generally, then will women's jiart in history be e(iually clear.
She is indebted to the Western Keserve Historical Society for
many valuable books and ])apers ; to Mr. H. K. ]\Iorse of Poland
and Mr. "Whittlesey Adams of Warren for prepared material
and important facts; to the descendants of the early families
who were untiring in assisting her to corroborate and elucidate
statements, — ]jarticularly was this true of ]iliss Elizabeth
Iddings of Warren. She has (pioted bodily and used ideas and
facts from Howe's Historical Collection, Williams' History of
Trumbull County, Portage County History, Kennedy's Early



CONTENTS



ClIAPTKl! J.
Eeasox fok Colonization'. — C'oi.i^Misrs. — Jsauiclla. — I'ilgiiims. —

PUBITANS 1

CHAPTER II.
Spain. — PouTrGAi,. — Fuanck. — England. — The Vikginia C'iiaetlr 4

C'HAPTEP Iir.

Connecticut Constitution. — Ciiauteu of 1GG2. — Ciiakteu Oak. —
Connecticut in Pennsylvania. — -Connecticut Massacee and
Loss OF Claim. — Charles II"s Geogeapiiy. — Connecticut Ee-

SEEVES PaET of IIER GeANT 8

CHAPTEPt IV.

CO-AnilTTEE APPOINTED BY CONNECTICUT LEGISLATURE. — ElEE LaNDS.

— Second Comjiittee. — Oeiginal Puuciiasees. — Quantity of
Land ok the Eeseeve. — Xatul'al Resources. — Men who pre-
ceded Connecticut Settlers. — Garfield's Speech 13

CHAPTER A .

Yankees. — Pennsylv.vnia Dutch. — Scotch Irish. — Salt Speings.

— JuD(iE SAiiuia. 11. Parsons 23

CH.VPTER YI.

List of Lirkitoes and Surveyors of Connec;ticut Land Coii-
PANY. — The Wo.AiEN OF THE Party. — Details of the Trip. —
Schenectady. — Eoet Oswego. — Canandaigua. — Buffalo. —
Council with the Indians at Buffalo Creek. — Whiskey and
THE Surveying Party. — Coxneaut. — July 4th, 179(j 37

CHAPTER YTI.

Indian Council at Coxneaut. — Tin-: Start of the Sueveyoes. —
Setting the Coenee Post. — Running the Paeallel. — Si-ii-
jier at Cleveland. — Retuen Hojie. — Wixtice at Clevelaxd. —
WixTEE at Coxneaut. — Starvation 3.5



vi CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIIT.

Setii Pkask. — SruvEYixG Pakty of 1797. — Tkip Orx. — Suji-aiei!
SrifVEY. — ^Irc'it Sickness. — Fiust Hauvest. — Aiizi Atwatek.
liELTl.'X IIi):\iE -li

CHAPTER IX.
KiXGSBURy's Deed. — SorxHERx Poktion of Couxty Settled First.

PlOXEEliS OF "98 AND "99. JoiIX' YoUNG. JaJIES HiLLMAX.

Edwards.— DoAX'. — Carter. — Honey. — Harmox. — Lovelaxd. —
Morgan. — Harpersfield. — Coxxeaut. — Thorpe. — Tappax. —
HuDsox. — Caxfield. — Sheldox. — AValworth. — Paixe. — At-

W.iTER. Ha I.E. CA:\lP]iF,LE. ^llI,ES 48

CHAPTER X.

How THE First Settlers Cajie. — Carryixg Cuildrex ix* Aproxs. —
The B.vby's Cry. — Seeds and Plaxts. — Chestnut STUjrps as
Stoyes. — First Ovex's. — First Laiixdries. — Early Houses. —
WiXTER Evenings. — Dishes. — Bric-a-brac. — Chairs. — Finan-
cial Depexdexce. — Books. — First Schools. — Pies. — Clotii-
ixG. — Big Fajiilies. — Woincx's Siioics. — Horseback to
Church. — Sleepixg ox Husiia\ii"s ({rave. — BiiEAD-iiAicixc. —
Bears. — Whiskey 60

CHAl'TFR XI.

IvVI.'LV SlCTTLI'RS OF WaRREX. — (^ULXBY. — StORER. — JMcilAHOX. — CoST

OE Park. — Lane. — Case. — Kino. — Leavitt. — Fajiilies of
THESE Men. — Adgate. — Early Houses. — County •\mthout
Law. — Forjiatiox" of County 73

chaptfr xn.

First Court IldisE. — Oruuxal Subscriptiox List for Same. —
Brick Poxu. — Secoxd CIoirt House. — Sale of First Court
House. — Court Crier. — First Jail in Warrex. — Second Jail.
— Debtor's Rooji. — Third Jail. — Fourth Jail. — County" Seat
War 90

(il.M'TKi; XIII.

Ja.\ii:s Scott IIousi:. — .Mrs. Scott ank Indians. — iliis. Rowe. —
Mrs. Justus Sjiith. — Mi.'s. 'J'od. — ({raeter House. — Parsox's
Ho.ME. — .Mrs. Edwards" Weddinc;. — Rawdon House. — Castle
William. — Lane House. — ^Home of ILiNRY and ^Lvry Stiles.
— Stevens-Crowell Place. — Webb Pj!operty. — Dana's Insti-
TU'i'E. — I'cASE Home. — Iddings Home. — South Street Social
Ci:xTi;it. — liiDiN'fis ^Iap 99



CONTENTS vii

CHAPTER XIV.

Early Letters. — Eihst ^Iail Iioutk. — Fikst Postmastek. — Gex-
EKAL Perkins axd Mail Routes. — Eleazer Gilsox. — Asael
Adams as Mail Carrier. — Carrying Bullets to General Per-
Kixs. — Advertised List. — List of Warren Postmasters. —
Presidential Office J".M

CHAPTER XV.

Indian Paths. — First Roads. — Coaches. — Ferries. — Lotticry. —

Canals. — Railroads 127

CHAPTER X\l.— BENCH AND BAR.

Introduction. — Biour aimiical Sketches. — Stories. — List of

Judges 1 ^"-

CHAPTEI! XVIl.

Indians as Warriors. — State iliLiTiA. — Soldiers of ISl','. — Sol-
diers OF isiil. — \\'arrk\ Benevolent Society' Ui4

CHAPTER XVIII.— HHI.Ki IOCS ORGANIZATIONS.

Connecticut Law. — Fif.st ilissioNARiEs. — First Church in Old
Trujibull County. — First Preaching. — Baptist Church. —
Presbyterian Church — Christ Church (Episcopal). — Cen-
tral Christian Church. — First Methodist F^piscopal
Church. — St. JIary's Church (Roman Catholic). — German
Lutheran Church. — Zion Reformed Church. — Tod Avenue
Methodist Episcopal Church. — Christian Science Church.
— Grace United Ev.vngelical Church. — Second Christian
Church "^35

CHAPTER NIX.— SCHOOLS.

School Lands in Western Reserve. — First Schools and Teach-
ers IN Warren. — Warren Academy'. — School Discipline. —
Select Schools. — Beginning of Public School Systeji. —
Eably Teachers and Superintendents. — Reminiscences. —
L'ncomfortable Schoolhouses. — Old-time Pedagogy'. — War-
ren SCHOOLHOUSES FOR FiFTY YeARS. PUBLIC SCIIOOL TEACH-
ERS. — Bo.yrd of Education. — Superintendents. — Alumni of
Warren High School ■.'84

CHAPTFR NX.— MEDICINE.

Fraternity of Trumbull County Physicians. — Theodore Shep-

ard, "pliysician." — wo,men in the profession. mulvculous

Cures. — John W. Seely. — John B. Harmon. — Daniel B.
Woods. — Physicians of Lati:r Ti.mes. — ^Iedical Notes :!i.'i



viii COXTENTS

C'JIAPTEI! XXI.
Masoxs. — Odd 1-'j;llo«>-. — Kxiuhts of 1'ytiiias 337

CHAPTEIJ XXI I .— B AXKS.

Old Wksteux Eesekve Bank. — FuiST X'atioxal Baxk. — Wareex"
Savixgs Baxk. — Commercial X'atioxal Baxk. — Uxiox' Xa-
xioxAL Baxk. — Secoxd Xatioxal Baxk. — Trumbull Xa-
TioxAL Baxk. — Westerx Eeserte Xatioxal Bax'k. — Farmers'
Baxkixg Comi'axy of West Farmixgtox. — Dollar Savixgs
Baxk CoiirAxv of Xiles. — First Xatioxal Baxk of Cort-
laxd. — X'oRTii Bloo:\ifielu Baxkixg Compaxy oil

CHAPTEi; XXIH.— XEWSPAPEES.

First Xewsp-U'er ox Westerx Eeserve^ "Trump of Fame." —
Chaxged to "Westerx Eeseeve Chroxicle.'" — Peculiar Clip-
PixGs FROii "Trump of Fame." — "Trumbull Couxty AYhig."
— "Trumbull Couxty Democrat." — "Warrex Daily* Chrox-
icle." — "Xews Letter." — "TheCoxstitutiox.'" — "TheWarrex"
Eecord."" — "Westerx Eeserve Democrat." — "AYarrex" Trib-
uxE." — "The Liberty Herald." — "The Cortlaxd Gazette.'" —
— "Cortlaxd Herald." — "Xiles Ixdepexdext." — "Xiles
Xews" 3-36

CHAPTEE XXIV.— CEMETEEIES.

First Bury^x'g Grouxd ix^ Westerx Eeserte. — Wareex Cemetery
axd its Distix-guished Dead. — Coffixs axd Hearses. — Oak-
■\vood Cemetep.y 369

CHAPTEE XXV.

Agiucultural Fairs. — First ^Iills 374

CHAPTEE XXVI.

Warkex Debatixg Society^. — Members axd Descexdaxts. — Public
Library. — Circulatixg Libiliry. — Warrex Library Associa-
tion. — The Carnegie Library. — Trumbull County Artists. . 379

CHAPTEE XX^^I. ..

Fire Department. — Fire of 1846. — Peoiitive ^Methods of Fire
Protectiox'. — Fire Companies axd Apparatus. — "The GRE_i.T
FiRi:." — City Hall axd Paid Departmext 388

CHAPTEE XXVIII.

Germax Ameeicax' Fa'Milies of Trumbull Couxty'. — Dax*iel
Bischoff. — Christianar. Voit. Dietz, Siialer. Derr, Goerixg.
Hucke, Waldeck, Koehler, etc 396



CONTEXTS ix

CHAPTER XXIX.— BliACEVILLE.

JuxATiiAX Brace. — Oviatt Fajiii.y. — Otiieu Settleks. — .Schools
AXD Churches. — Phaeaxx. — ""B.vttee of the Sxakes."" — Tok-
XADO 401

CHAPTER XXX.— BAZETTA.

BaZETTA AXD THE CoUXTY SeAT. — FlKST Setteeks. — P'llisr Oi;-

cHAi;i). — Bacoxshurc oi; Corteaxi). — Schools axu ('i[n;ciii;s. . lo^;

CHAPTER XXXI.— BLOOMFIELD.

Fuisr Pi;oi'iiiEroi;s. — Graxd River axd BLOOiEFna.D Swamps. —
Ferry FAnrn.Y. — A Pioxeei! Doc;. — ^Fex axd Wojiex of Note.
— Browx F-V-\iily. — Schools axd Churches 113

( 'H AFTER XXXII.— BROOKFIELD.

"The Greex." — First Persoxs axd Ex'exts. — Miles axd Blast

FuRXA('E. — Schools axd Te.vciiers. — Churches ^24

CHAPTER XXXIII.— BRISTOL.

GEiniAx Settlers. — Baughmax. Sagei; axd B.vrbe. — Schools. —
^Fexxoxitk axd Otiiei! Religious Or(;axi/;aii(ixs. — Te.m-
TERAXCE 4"38

CHAPTER XXXIV.— CHAMPIOX.

The Rutax' Family. — .V Pet Deer. — William Woodkow. — ^Irs.
AYalker's Exi'ERiExcE WITH A Bear. — Eai;ly Sciiool Teach-
ers. — Churches 433

CHAPTER X X XV.— FARM IX GTOX .

Origixai. ( )wxE!;s ,\xd Xa:\ie. — The AVolcotts. — Taftsville. — AIrs.
James Stull. — Lee Family. — The Hydes. — Other Pioxeees.
— Charles A. Daxa. — Schools. — Faemixgtox' Acade.my. —
SuBSCRii'Tiox List for Preachers. — Church Societies 441

CHAPTER XXXVL— FOWLER.

Salt Maxufacture b\' Ixdians. — ilRS. Asa Foote. — "Tyrrell
Hill."" — Ax" Importaxt ^[axufacturer. — The Morrow, Bald-

WIX, DOUD .VXD ALDERilAX FaiMILIES. — COXGREGATIOXAL. ^MeTH-
ODIST AXD CllRlSTIAX ClIURCHES ■|.")"2

CHAPTER XXXVIL— GREEXE.

Caxadlvx IiuMiGRAXTs. — TuE Wakefields, Harrixgtoxs axd
Other Pioxeeks. — Character of First Settlers. — Pioxeer
Ixcidexts. — Epitaphs. — R. C. Rice"s Rejiixiscexces. — For-
3IATI0X OF the Towxsiiip. — Calvixist Pioxeers. — First
Churches. — A Bear Story. — Attexdixg the Cokwix Meet-
ix'G. — The Schools of Greexe.^ — The Harrixgtoxs School. .. 4.5S



X COXTEXTS

CIlAPTKl! XXXVIII.— (U'STAVl'S.

J'KL'rox Family. — Tin-; liiLDKits. — C'alvix Coxic. — OxiiEii Early
Familiks. — John Bkowx, Jk. — A Gkkat Ixvextoi!. — Piiysi-
ciAxs. — Schools and Teachers. — Eeligious Ohgaxizatioxs. . . 474

CHAPTER XXXIX.— HARTFOltD.

Brii(iniLL, Bi!ock\v.vy's Hill, Dutch IUdge. — The KuAixAnD axd
lUsHXELL Families. — Arhival of Elaji Joxes. — First
EvEXTs. — Teachers of the First Schools. — CiirRcii C'om-
Mixiox ]x A (iitovK. — Faxxy Daxa GA(iE. — Oraxgeville 484

CHAPTFi; XL.— IIOWLAXI).

JoHX Hart Adgate. — Daxiel IIaxk. — A Xoted Hotel. — Seely
Family. — Barber Kixg. — Uatliffs. — IJeeves Family. — The
J-Ieatox Stove. — Ewalt. — Kexxedy. — Schools .\xd Teachers.
— IIdwi.axh FLA(i Stoxe. — Churches 493

CHAPTER XLL— HUBBARD.

Samuel Tylee. — William Bukxett. — Other Early Fa:\iilies.^
AsAEL Adams* School. — Irox axd Coal. — Peluhous Orijaxiza-

TIOXS. — COALBURG 501

CHAPTER XLIL— JOHXSTOX.

Captaix" Bradley's FAiiiLY. — Two ^Iechaxics. — The Hixe

]'-UiTY. — Schools axd Churches 508

CHAPTER XLTIL— KlXSilAX.

.ToHX Tvixs:\iAx. — A Party of Fa:mous ^[ex. — A Cheerful. Exer-
■ :etic Womax. — KixsiiAX ^[iLL. — Dr. Allex. — .V Cextury-old
ChUIICH. KlXSMAX SCLIOOLS 513

CHAPTER XLR'.- LI BICPTV.
Fn;sr Siri'Ti.icRs. — (iiRAiM), CiiriicHiLL axd SoDoii. — The Piio:\ii-

XEXT F.VMILIES OF ToWX AXD CoUXTRY. GeDM.VX A.MERICAX

Residexts. — Schools. — First Church Op.gaxizatioxs. — Lib-
erty' Churchi:s 523

CHAPTEP XLV.— LORDSTOWX.

S^u\r.l. 11i)mi:sti:ai)s ix the P.iigixxixc. — A IjAxd Deal. — Bailey's

(■(ii;xi;i;s. — \Vi:i.l Knowx Fa.\[ilii:s. — Schools. — Religiox. . . . 538

CHAPTEl! XLVL— :\1ECCA.

'I'uh'H WD Kuri'i. \xi). — First Settlers axd Evexts. — Teachers and

S( liooLiioi sEs. — Oil Si'eculatiox. — •"Dixie." — The Churches 545



CONTEXTS

ClIAl'TI-:!! XLVIL— :\[ES()POTAilIA.

The Xajie. — Si'Eiiiiv Fa.mii.y. — Tin: (irii.Ds. — Thacy. — Pioneer
I)evel()I'.mi:xt. — Fii;sr TiCAciiixd ami Pi!i:a('iuxi;



CHAPTKi; X LVl 1 1 .—X EWTOX'.

X'lcwTdx Falls. — "PincETOWX." — Jesse IIalliday. — l)i;. Pjkoxsox.
— X'ewtox Falls Villaci:. — S(;iiools. — Ciirucir ()ni;\\iy.\-
Tioxs ,"'i:)7

CHAPTEi; XLLX.—SOUTlIlXiJTOX.

Yaxkee Settlers. — '1'iie Xortox Family. — Ax Uxtrofessiox.vl
Physiciax. — AViriTE. — 'I'ue SfiiooLS. — IiKLIciox axii its Ad-

IIEREXTS .505

( 'H APTE R L.— VERXOX^

TiiOiiAs GiuDixcs" Xarrative. — The Arrival of the First Set-
tlers AXD THEIR Exi'ERIEXlES. "BoDILY lOXERCISES." ilYRA

K. Peltox"s Article. — Sad and Bomantic Incidex'ts of Pio-
neer Life. — Veenox''s X'otable Families. — First Methodist

Class ix' Eeserve. — Other ('HrRciiEs. — Verxox' Schools.... .573

(TLVPTEi; LI.— VI EXXA.

First Evexts. — Batiisheba Burr. — Hctchixs. — Woodford. —
Wheeler. — Ijartholojiew. — Betts. — Huiiisox. — Bai.dwix. —
^Mackey. — 'I'liE Schools axd CiirRciiEs ."iS9

('II .\ P'llTi; LT L— W I^ATJ I ERSFIELD.

liARiiox Fa.milv. — (Jhltown. — Mineral IIidge. — Xiles. — Iron'
JLvnufacture. — The Eatox Family. — Founding axd Growth
OF X'lLEs. — William McKixley. — Schools axd Churches. . . . 599

CHAPTEK LIIL

Civil Lists. — State Senators. — il embers of Coxoress. — State
Eerresextatives. — ( ;ovi;rnoi;s vuom Truvibull County. — ilis-
cellaxeous X'otes 613



HISTORY OF
TRUMBULL COUNTY



CHAPTER I.



Reasons for Colonization. — Columbus. — Isabella. — Pilgrims.
— Puritans.

Desire for money and desire for religious liberty, in the
ratio of ninety-nine to one, were the means of colonizing the New
World. Women as well as men have had a hand in this coloniza-
tion, but whereas the motive in men has been largely commer-
cial, in women it has been largely religious.

When Columbus had declared his belief in a roimd world
and had explained to leading men the great commercial advan-
tages awaiting the nation which would finance his scheme, he
was ridiculed. Few men believed he could find the gold of the
east by sailing west. Columbus, as man has always done when
he has utterly failed with men, turned to a woman — a queen. To
be sure, he told her of the eastern gold which would be hers and
of the fame which would come to Spain but he dwelt at great
length on the opportunities she had for planting her religion in
a new world.

History tells us that, because of her devotion to her church,
she sold her jewels and raised the necessary money. At any
rate, we know she herself contributed more than half the money
he needed, and made the town of Palos give him two vessels.
The discoveries he made did reflect credit u^Don her kingdom,
and through the upper parts of South America and most of
the West India Islands, Spanish is the language spoken, and
the Roman Catholic religion is the universal religion. That
religion, especially its ritual, is making itself felt in the United
States today in ways we hardly recognize. That church mod-

1

Vol. I— 1



2 Jllfe;TOiiY OF TiJUMBULL COUNTY

itied the forms of the j^agau worshiij and adopted them as their
own. The Anglican ohureh follows moderately niauj- of these
forms, while the ordinary Protestant church follows today at
a respectful distance. Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, and
so on, read the Psalter, sing the Gloria, say the Creed, repeat
the Lord's Prayer, and take on other forms to make the service
attractive and effective. Three or four churches other than
Catholic and Episcoi>al in AVarren, in this year (1909) had ap-
propriate services during Holy Week. The vestments of the
Episcopal priest are fashioned a little more and more after his
Romish brother, while the garments of Protestant clergymen
distinguish them often from their fellow men. In fact, if the
Pilgrims, as they stepped u])ou the rock, could have had a
vision of the church of today, with its staiued glass, its organ,
its choir, its forms and ceremonies, possilily they would have
re-embarked.

The Puritans came to this country seeking religious lib-
erty. These Puritans were both men and women, they had
been born in a constitutional monarchy where the established
church was powerful, and the man became the monarch of the
family, and the man preacher, the ruler of the community. On
tlie rocky coast of New England the Puritan mother helped to
carve out the nation, as well as did the Puritan father. She
loved religious liberty as well as did he, but she spoke and acted
at second hand. If she felt so strongly that she let her voice be
heard, she endangered her life and was sometimes hung or
Imrned as a witch or disturber. As we look back at the early
Massachusetts days, we marvel at those early women. Accus-
tomed to a mild climate, they bore the severities of their new
home with utmost patience and resignation. They bore and
buried their children, in great numbers, and most of them
yielded up their lives when young. Hundreds of grave-stones
in New England, with only a little moditication, testify that
"Mary Anne Smith died at the age of twenty-six, leaving eight
children to the tender mercy of God."

Peo])le of today are not alone in wondering how the Puritan
could think he had religious liberty in his new home, for some
of the Massachusetts residents at the time also thought so. To
have more liberty and a larger chance for making money, these
dissatistied people moved on into Connecticut.

Still later, commercialism and religion, the latter 's voice
somewhat weakened, allured Connecticut jieople to Pennsyl-



iiisToiiv OF T]!r:\ii;rLL cotxty 3

vania. Here other men, also with hive of money and i-cligioii,
met them and after confiiet turned them haek. nr rather the
survivors.

Later, the C'onneetieut ]ieopk' made another effort, going
in the eastern corner of the North-West Territory, where they
aeenmuhited property and modified their religion and lieeame
powerful and prosperous, as we shall see.



CHAPTER II.

Spain. — Portugal. — France. — England. — The Virginl\
Charter.

Columbus was not the first mau to believe the world was
round, but he really believed it, and was anxious to prove what
was then a theory. In AugiLst, 1492, with three small vessels
and about one hundred men, some of them criminals, he set sail,
and on October 12th sighted land, one of the Bahamas. Later
he discovered Cuba. He returned home in January. Isabella
and Ferdinand, and in fact all Spaniards were overjoyed at
the success of the enterprise. The Queen hastened to the Pojie,
Alexander VI, and asked him to grant to vSpain dominion over
this new land.

When in the beginning Columbus had tried to interest the
Portugnese in his adventure, that country had pretended it be-
lieved nothing in the theory, but true to their reputed natures,
while denying his claim, these people started out sailors to make
the voyage, thus hoping to obtain the glory themselves. These
sailors, however, had not the faith of Colmnbus, and, soon be-
coming disheartened, turned back. However, when Columbus
returned, Portugal was chagrined and immediately sent an ex-
pedition to India, via Cape Hope, and thus De Gama, in 1498,
reached the land all were seeking, before any European. These
facts would be of no interest to the readers of this history, ex-
cept that Pope Alexander believed Portugal as well as Spain
had reached the "Golden Land," and "drawing a meridian one
hundred leagues west of the Azores, decreed that all new lands
west of this line should belong to Spain, and those east to
Portugal."

Columbus died without knowing that he had discovered a
new world. On his second voyage he visited Porto Rico, which
island, four hundred years later, was a part of the United
States.

Spain and Portugal owned the land in the new world, pro-

4



HISTOEY OF TEUMBULL COUNTY 5

vided the people who lived here (erroneously nnmed Indians)
had no claim to the forests over which their fathers liad roamed
many centuries before either Portugal or Spain had heard of a
round world or a short passage to India, and provided the
Norsemen were not exj^loring with the idea of colonizing, which
they were probably not.

Stupid, penurious Henry VII was quite disturbed by Colum-
bus' success, and in 1497 sent John Cabot after India's gold, and
the next year sent Sebastian Cabot, the son, on the same errand.
The father landed on the North American coast and the son in
the territory' of the United States. Neither found treasure of
any kind, and so England discontinued her voyages although
upon these two expeditions England later laid claim to a goodly
part of the land east of the Mississippi.

Spain for many years sent explorers or colonies to the
new Avorld, sometimes to South America and the Islands, some-
times to Mexico, to Florida, to California and the country in
between. However, about one hundred years from the time of
Columbus' first voyage it became imderstood that Spain would
confine herself to the southern part of the Northern continent.

France was slow in attempting to colonize in the western
hemisphere. It was more than one hundred and fiftj' years from
Columbus' first voyage before the Huguenots, for religious rea-
sons, fled from France to make a new home in Florida. As this
land was claimed by the Spanish, the Spanish Christians slew
the French Liberal Christians, and were in turn hanged by the
French Regular Christians. Oh ! the agony, the bloodshed, the
torture inflicted by those supposing themselves to be the fol-
lowers of the gentle, loving, the non-resisting Jesus.

In 15.35 the French sailed into the St. Lawrence and from
that time on made excursions in all directions. In 1605 there
was a permanent settlement in Nova Scotia. In 1660 they were
on Ijake Superior, in 1673 on the upper Mississippi, in 1679
La Salle launched a boat of sixty tons, the "Griffin," on Lake
Erie, and proceeded up the lakes. In 1682 he was at the mouth
of the Mississipjii. In fact, on the border of the land claimed
by the English, the French military posts were numerous and



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