Heroes All !
A compendium of the names and official
citations of the soldiers and citizens of the
United States and of her Allies who were
decorated by the American Government
for exceptional heroism and conspicuous
service above and beyond the call
of duty in the war with
HARRY R. STRINGER
FASSETT PUBLISHING COMPANY
WASHINGTON, D. C.
FASSETT PUBLISHING CO.,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
HARRY R. STRINGER
THE DU BOIS PRESS, ROCHESTER, N. Y.
TO those men and women
whose noble deeds and
meritorious acts are recorded
in these pages, this book is
The President's Tribute 8
A Word from the Secretary of War
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
Illustration (The Medal of Honor) 16
Citations for the Medal of Honor 17
Illustration (The Distinguished Service Cross) 26
Citations for the Distinguished Service Cross 27
Illustration (The Distinguished Service Medal) 432
Citations for the Distinguished Service Medal 433
Foreign Citations for the D. S. M.:
Great Britain 457
* Divisional Index 495
* Geographical Index 632
* Indexes include only names of men who won valor medals.
KE United States entered the war upon a different footing from
every Q the* nation except our associates on this side of the sea.
We entered it, not because our material interests were directly
threatened or because any special treaty obligation to which
we were parties had been violated but only because we saw the supremacy,
and even the validity, of right everywhere put in jeopardy and free
government likely to be everywhere imperiled by the intolerable aggression
of a power which respected neither right nor obligation and whose very
system of government flouted the rights of the citizen as against the
autocratic authority of his governors.
The hopes of the nations allied against the Central Powers were at a very
low ebb when our soldiers began to pour across the sea. There was every-
where amongst them, except in their stoutest spirits, a sombre foreboding
of disaster. Anxious men and women, leading spirits of France attended
the celebration of the Fourth of July last year (1918) in Paris out of gener-
ous courtesy, with no heart for festivity, no zest for hope. But they came
away with something new at their hearts. The mere sight of our men, of
their vigor, of the confidence that showed itself in every movement of their
stalwart figures and every turn of their swinging march, in their steady
comprehending eyes and easy discipline, in the indomitable air that added
spirit to everything they did, made everyone who saw them that memorable
day realize that something had happened that was much more than a mere
incident in the fighting, something very different from the mere arrival of
A great moral force had flung itself into the struggle. The fine physical
force of those spirited men spoke of something more than bodily vigour.
They carried the great ideals of a free people at their hearts and with that
vision they were unconquerable. Their very presence brought reassurance ;
their fighting made victory certain.
They were recognized as crusaders, and as their thousands swelled to
millions their strength was seen to mean salvation. And they were fit men
to carry such a hope and make good the assurance it forecast. Finer men
never went into battle; and their officers were worthy of them. They were
the sort of men America would wish to be represented by, the sort of men
every American would wish to claim as fellowcountrymen and comrades
in a great cause.
They were terrible in battle, and gentle and helpful out of it, remember-
ing the mothers and the sisters, the wives and the little children at home.
They were free men under arms, not forgetting their ideals of duty in the
midst of tasks of violence. I am proud to have had the privilege of being
associated with them and of calling myself their leader.
Washington, D. C., W D . B ? W ,
July 10, 1919. Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy.
|T will be a long time before we have completely gathered up the
fruits of the great struggle in which our several countries have
been engaged. It will be a longer time before we fully realize
the part played in that great struggle by men and women
military men and civilians; that day is going to add to the romance of this
great war. When the story is finally written, when we know all the^details
of the way in which the civilized peoples of four great nations, merging
every selfish and self-centered interest, devoted themselves with unanimity
and zeal to the accomplishment of a great and unselfish international
humanitarian purpose, there will be scattered throughout the world men
and women wearing medals and decorations of one sort and another.
Some of them will have been won on the field of battle, some of them won
at the nursing stations perhaps under shell fire those indicating valor
and a willingness to sacrifice life itself, and others indicative of equally
intensive devotion of talent and time and purpose, away from the field of
battle, but in places no less necessary to be characterized by complete
devotion than on the battle field itself.
The soldier at the front is supported by a long line of people which runs
back through the various courses of military cooperation and into civilian
pursuits, perhaps to the very farm or mine from which the sustenance and
the raw materials for the armies are drawn, and there must be the same
devotion at the end of that line that there is at the head of it if the man at
the head of the line the actual combat soldier is to be properly supported
and properly sustained.
So that when this great romance is filled in, the details will be fascinating.
They will tell of willingness to sacrifice oneself and one's interests, and the
devotion of high talents of soldier and civilian alike to the accomplishment
of a national purpose. Not all of the people who made sacrifices and showed
devotion will have medals the number is so great and the fallibility of
the human judgment is necessarily so limited that it is only possible to pick
out the conspicuous cases of gallantry and meritorious services. It is a
comfortable thing to be able to think that there will be a substantial
company of men and women who will have a physical and visible emblem
to wear a medal or a cross which will show that the Government, which
represents the people, expressed the popular judgment and expressed the
popular gratitude by seeking to find those whose services were conspicuous
and giving them a decoration which, whenever and wherever seen, will
memorialize both their individual services and the splendid services of the
people as a whole.
The first medal which the American Army is able to give is, of course,
the Congressional Medal of Honor, which has long been recognized as a
valor medal, and is given under the sanction of a very explicit statute of
Congress. This war has developed two additions to that medal the Dis-
languished Service Cross which is another valor medal, and the Dis-
tinguished Service Medal which is a conspicuous service medal. I have
been called upon a great number of times to award medals of those kinds
to persons whose services were conspicuous and valuable. They are not
limited to the soldiers or citizens of our own country, they include, and we
are happy to have them include, officers and civilians of the allied and asso-
ciated powers with whom we waged this contest.
NEWTON D. BAKER,
Secretary of War.
Washington, D. C.
November 7, 1919.
TyETWEEN the covers of this book have been recorded the names and official
LJ citations of the soldiers and citizens of the United States and of the Allies
upon whom were bestowed the Congressional Medal of Honor, the Distinguished
Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal the three great military
decorations of the American Government for extraordinary heroism in action
and meritorious service in the line of duty.
Behind the simple and meagre accounts of their deeds, there courses the full,
stirring story of Americas participation in the war with Germany her stern
purpose, her unswerving spirit and the magnificent achievements of her arms
as the champion of right and justice. In them another glorious chapter has been
written into America's brilliant history.
The deeds of these men and women themselves exemplify the noble ideals
and high resolve to which this nation was dedicated in the great struggle. They
breathe the generous spirit of sacrifice without thought of self, the heroic devotion
to duty and the indomitable and persevering courage with which all of her sons
fought and served and triumphed.
The world will never forget your gallant acts. They will endure forever as
an inspiration to all mankind. And for those who laid down their lives that
freedom and humanity might survive, there is a greater glory far above the power
of man to give. They are immortal.
The medals you wear have little intrinsic worth but as tokens of tasks well
done and as symbols of the honor, gratitude and reverence your country cherishes
for you, they are beyond mere treasure. Editor.
| HE United States Government has three military honors with
whiclr|[it| rewards its soldiers and citizens who serve with
marked^distinction in time of war. They are the Congressional
Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross and the
Distinguished Service Medal. The Medal of Honor and the Distinguished
Service Cross are awarded for valor; the Distinguished Service Medal for
conspicuous service in a position of great trust and responsibility.
Tradition has it that the custom of decorating war heroes originated
with the Chinese many centuries before the advent of Christianity, but
the practice did not become popular until late in the Middle Ages when the
armies of England wore badges after the decline of armor and before the
use of distinctive uniforms. Even this, undoubtedly, was an outgrowth
of the custom of ladies of the court in the days of armor of conferring favors
upon their favorite knights. Be that as it may, the custom has since been
universally adopted and now each country vies with the other in the honors
and glory it can shower on its heroes.
The first war medal of which history has a record was struck in honor
of the British Navy. It was ordered by Queen Elizabeth. Charles I struck
the first military medal while the first occasion on which a whole army was
decorated was in commemoration of the Battle of Dunbar. Other medals
awarded when the vogue was in its incipiency were: the medal awarded
LaHogue by William and Mary which presumably was the first naval cam-
paign decoration; the Culloden Medal which was the earliest to be provided
with a ribbon of special pattern; the gold Peninsular Medals which bore
the first bars; the Waterloo Medal, and the Mutiny Medal which was the
first military medal bestowed upon a civilian for military assistance.
In this country the custom dates back to the Revolution. Our first
medals were ordered by Congress upon the recommendation of General
Washington and were conferred upon John Paulding, David Williams and
Jacob Van Wart, the captors of Major Andre, the British spy. The medals
were of silver and were struck in a beautiful although not elaborate design.
The face bore the one word, Fidelity, while on the reverse side was the
legend, Vincit Amor Patriae, "the love of country conquers."
Other gallant deeds of the Revolution did not go unrequited. In recogni-
tion of them Congress ordered appropriate medals struck. They were
awarded to both the army and the navy and were usually of silver although
they were sometimes cast in gold where the recipient had performed a par-
ticularly meritorious act. These medals, however, were not to be worn
and it was not until December 21, 1861, that Congress authorized the first
medal for decorative purposes generally.
Like Great Britain's, our first medal was struck in honor of the Navy.
This was the Navy Medal of Honor. It was not until seven months after-
ward that the Army Medal of Honor was authorized. Originally, the law
governing the issuance of the medals provided that they were to be con-
ferred only upon non-commissioned officers and enlisted men for deeds of
extraordinary heroism, but popular agitation resulted in the removal of
this restriction two years later and commissioned officers were made eligible
to the decorations although the requirements were in nowise altered. At
the same time the provision designating them as Civil War Medals strictly
Being the first it was only natural that the Medal of Honor should become
the foremost American military decoration. At first it was fashioned after
the Navy Medal of Honor, the clasp and ribbon alone being different, but
in 1904, the medal was changed to its present form at the suggestion of
Major General George Lewis Gillespie and all resemblance to the Navy
decoration removed outside the similarity in ribbons.
Unfortunately, sufficient discrimination was not always exercised in the
early awards of the Medal of Honor and as a consequence a few fell into
undeserving hands. This lamentable feature tended to detract from its
value, but in the war with Germany this fault was corrected and the
medal's prestige was restored. The circumstances under which the Medal
of Honor was to be granted were rigidly proscribed by the War Depart-
ment and the fact that but seventy-eight Americans of the two million and
more who served in the American Expeditionary Forces received it speaks
eloquently for the high standards that are now set upon it and how tre-
mendously it is prized.
The war with Germany gave us our two other military decorations the
Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal. Con-
gress established them in the Army Appropriation act of July, 1918. In
the act the President was authorized to present the Distinguished Service
Cross to any person who while serving with the Army of the United States
since the sixth day of April, 1917, or who shall thereafter distinguish him-
self or herself by extraordinary heroism in connection with military opera-
tions against an armed enemy.
Textually, the provisions in the Act establishing the Distinguished
Service Medal are the same with the exception of the deed for which it is
awarded, it being stipulated that the medal shall be granted to those
either a man or a woman who distinguish themselves by exceptionally
meritorious service to the government in a duty of great responsibility.
Although the law practically precludes the possibility of an enlisted man
winning a Distinguished Service Medal in the future, it contains a pro-
vision conferring it upon enlisted men to whom the Certificate of Merit
had been awarded prior to the passage of the Act. A great many of these
Certificates were issued in the Mexican war and the war with Spain.
The high premium on the nation's decorations was further enhanced by
the ruling of Congress that only one Congressional Medal of Honor, one
Distinguished Service Cross or one Distinguished Service Medal can be
issued to any one person. Where the recipient performed additional acts
justifying the award of a medal of the same class the President was author-
ized to award a bar or other suitable device to be worn as he directed. In
the case of the Distinguished Service Cross a bronze oak leaf was selected.
The leaf is worn on the ribbon of the medal. No additional insignia was
selected for the other medals.
After Congress had established the decorations and had stated generally
the character of the acts they were to reward, it necessarily remained for
the President to define specifically the conditions under which they were
to be awarded. This task he assigned to the Secretary of War, Mr. Newton
D. Baker, and the Commanding General of the American Expeditionary
Forces, General John Joseph Pershing, in whom he also invested the power
of granting the decorations in his name and that of Congress. At this
point, it might be said that the Medal of Honor is granted in the name of
Congress and Congress finally must sanction all recommendations for it
while the Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal
are conferred in the name of the President.
At the General Headquarters of the American Expeditionary Forces
which were at Chaumont, France, two boards of award were subsequently
created, one to pass on the citations for the medals of valor, the Medal of
Honor and the Distinguished Service Cross, and the other to sit in judg-
ment on the recommendations for the Distinguished Service Medal. The
personnel of each board was changed constantly so that there could be no
question of its integrity or the justice of its decisions.
No restriction was placed on the award of the three medals to a single
person save the stipulation that it must be for different acts. It is note-
worthy, however, that the war did not record an instance of one man
winning all three of the decorations although there were frequent cases
where a man was awarded two. Where a man was decorated with a medal
and it was afterwards found that his deed merited a higher reward, it was
the custom of the board to immediately recall the first award and grant
the higher decoration.
The board of award for the valor medals was repeatedly called on to
exercise its prerogative in this respect in making awards of the Medal of
Honor. In fact a Distinguished Service Cross in most cases had been
previously granted to the man who it was later found was entitled to
greater recognition. When the Medal of Honor was awarded in conse-
quence, the Distinguished Service Cross was, of course, recalled, although
this action did not prevent the recipient from winning this decoration
again for a different deed.
The American military decorations rank with the highest in the world.
There is none greater, perhaps, than our Medal of Honor. Our Distin-
guished Service Cross takes its place with the celebrated Victoria Cross
of Great Britain which has been conceded to be the highest decoration
for valor in the world while our Distinguished Service Medal is the equal
of any foreign medal of its class.
Another feature which gives our decorations increased individuality is
their number. With three we have fewer than any other nation in the
world. While our government created two new medals in the war with
Germany, Great Britain established four and other nations were equally
as generous and ofttimes more so in showing their appreciation of their
war heroes. The new medals of Great Britain were the Distinguished
Service Cross for commissioned naval officers of junior grade; the Distin-
guished Service Medal for the rank and file in the Marines and the men
of chief petty-officer rank and less in the Navy; the Military Cross, and
the Military Medal for non-commissioned officers and women.
The Military Medal is next to the Victoria Cross which takes precedence
over all other British decorations. The Cross was instituted by Royal
Warrant in January, 1856, and is truly the national order of Great Britain.
The earlier copies of the Cross were cast from cannon captured from the
Russians in the Crimea, and the late ones from guns taken from the
Germans. A man on whom the Victoria Cross has been bestowed is
accorded the privilege of placing the initials "V. C." after his name which
he will modestly tell the uninitiated mean "Very Careless."
The very ideals and traditions on which the United States is founded
are reflected in our decorations. The Medal of Honor and the Distinguished
Service Cross can be won by a "buck" private or the highest officer. No
fine distinctions are drawn. The Distinguished Service Medal is obviously
a medal of a different class. It is primarily for civilians and officers whose
service to their country is less conspicuous but no less necessary. On the
other hand, foreign nations as a rule have provided different medals for
soldiers of one rank and those of another and neither is eligible to the other.
Next to our own decorations, Americans are probably more familiar
with those of France than of any other nation for thousands Americans
are today wearing the medals conferred upon them by our sturdy sister
Republic on whose soil they repelled the common foe. The renowned
French decoration is the Legion of Honor. The Legion of Honor was
suggested in the Estates-General in 1789 and inaugurated by Napoleon
at the Invalides in July, 1804, on the fifteenth anniversary of the fall of
the Bastile. It has five classes and is awarded for gallant and meritorious
conduct. Several high American officers were fortunate enough to win it
in the war with Germany.
La Medaille Militaire, the next in order of the French decorations, was
established by Prince Louis Napoleon in 1852. It is a valor medal and is
given to non-commissioned officers and marines. A unique feature of the
late war was that La Medaille Militaire was awarded to the commander-in-
chief of the French army but to no other commissioned officer. Marechal
Joffre received it. Thus the humblest poilu shared honors with his great
La Croix de Guerre is the French decoration with which we are most
familiar. France bestowed it on Americans with a lavish hand in the war.
It was inaugurated in April, 1915. The medal itself is of Florentine bronze.
It was awarded to all those who were cited by Order of the Day. If the
soldier's deed was considered of extraordinary merit his captain recom-
mended a citation for him from the Colonel of the regiment. Approving
the Colonel in turn requested a citation of his superior officers which if
granted gave to the soldier for the same act a bronze palm to be worn on
the ribbon of the Cross. When a soldier was cited by the Corps d'armee
he was awarded a gold star and by the Brigade or Regiment a bronze
star which also are worn on the ribbon. After a soldier had been awarded
five palms for separate acts of bravery he was given a silver palm, and
upon receiving a sixth citation he was entitled to wear a bronze palm under
the silver palm on the ribbon of the Cross.
La Medaille des Epidemes is another French medal commemorative of
the war with Germany. As its name implies it was awarded to the sanitary
personnel and it also was bestowed on surgeons and nurses for heroic
service in the care of the wounded.
Italy has five great decorations. They are the Supreme Order of the
Annunziata which, incidentally, is not a military order; the order of St.
Maurice and St. Lazare, the Military Order of the Savoy, the Order of
the Crown of Italy and the Military Medal of Valor which corresponds
with the French Croix de Guerre. This last decoration was bestowed by
Italy on many Americans who fought with the Italian armies against
The national order of Italy is the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazare
which was created in 1434. It has since been divided into five classes
resembling the French Legion of Honor in this respect. Officers who have
reached the rank of lieutenant-general only are eligible to it. Victor
Emmanuel I. founded the Military Order of the Savoy in 1815. It is
awarded to non-commissioned officers and enlisted men as well as officers.
The Order of the Crown was established in 1868 by Victor Emmanuel II.
in consecration of the annexation of Venetia. It is bestowed upon Italians
and foreigners who render a special service to the nation.
Before the German invasion, Belgium had seven decorations, an unusual
number considering her size. To this number she added the Belgian Cross
of War in 1915. This Cross is modelled after the French Croix de Guerre
in that it is merited only by a citation in army orders. The national order
of the nation is the Order of Leopold which was instituted in 1832 by
Leopold I. It is conferred only upon officers of high rank for very excep-
Relatively, it has been only recently that Japan has adopted the use of
decorations. The national Japanese Order is the Order of the Rising Sun.
Eight classes comprise it: The first six are awarded to officers and the
last two to officers and enlisted men. The highest military medal of
Japan is the Gold Kite with which bravery in battle on land and sea is
rewarded. Recipients of this decoration also receive a pension. Other
Japanese decorations are the Red Cross Medal, the Order of the Sacred