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I - - -
ITtbrrarfi of tiit iSkrsenm
a HAHfiu mm. gmiuni. im
The gift of CfjL. Wowuxfl^xL-n. '^^ry^JzClL |
No. II o S -^
'-^JS/ 'T. Ya, _ ^^rj2. ;c!, /So-L
THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE.
VOLUME II., 1890-91.
PRINTED FOR THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE,
BY THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LTD., COLBORNE ST.
THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE,
<5HARLES CARPMAEL, M.A., F.R.8.0.
JAMES H. PEARCE, Esq.
StCXttnx^ _____ ALAN MACDOUOALL, M. Inst. C.E., F.R.S.E.
^VtnSfXtVtt - - - - _ JAMES BAIN, Jr., Esq.
librarian - - - d. r. keys. m.a.
Ctir3tt0r - - - _ _ DAVID BOYLE, Ph.R
(gbitor _____ GEORGE KENNEDY, M.A., LL.D.
idUmhtv» of (Eonntxl :
W. H. VAN DER SMISSEN. M.A.
W. H. ELLIS, M.A., M,B.
ARTHUR HARVEY, Esq.
MAURICE HUTTON, M.A.
G. M. RAE, Esq.
W. E. MIDDLETON, Esq., Secretary of the Bidogieal Sectwn,
W. H. MEBRITT, F.G.S., Chairman cf the Oeological and Mining Section,
J. C. HAMILTON, LL.R, Chairman of the Hittorieal Section,
R. W. YOUNG, M.A.
Offioen 1890-91 iii
TranBactioiia, SeBBion 1890-91 1
Gen. Sir J. H. Lefroy, K.O.M.G., O.B., F.R.S 1
Forty-Second Annual Meeting 43
Forty-First Annnal Report 44
Appendix I. Membership. , 46
" n. Financial Statement 47
** m. Papers read, Session 1889-90 60
Report of The Biological Section 52
" Geological and Mining Section 54
Philological Section 65
** Historical Section 66
** Librarian 57
** Sociological Committee 59
Forty-Second Annual Report 60
Appendix I. List of Members 65
** II. Financial Statement 65
" III. Papers read, Session 1890-91 68
Librarian's Report 70
Report of The Biological Section 72
'* Geological and Mining Section 74
" Historical Section 75
Notes on Nickel 77
Gboroe Miokue, B.A.
Coins * 83-
Production of Nickel 84
The Luminiferous Ether 93
J. M. Claek, M.A., LL.B.
The BcBothick Indians 98
Alan Maodouoall, M. Can. Soo. C. E.
Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man 103
Rby. Nul MaoNish, B.D., LL.D.
Gaelic Names 108
Manx Surnames 108
Art in Canada To-day 113
J. W. L. FOBSTSB.
Bone Caves — with especial reference to Prehistoric Man 116
The Occurrence of Grold and Silver in Galena and Iron Pyrites 121
Reforms in Time Reckoning 128
Sandford Fleming, C.M.G., LLuD.
A Consideration of Sewerage Schemes 143
L. J. Clark.
Lake Currents 154
L. J. Clark.
Some Eflfects of Christianity on Legislation 159
Hon. W. Peoitdfoot.
The Poor and the Sick 166
Punishment for Crimes 172
Celtic, Roman and Greek Types still existent in France, with notes on the Langue
D'Oc 1 76
The Celtic Survival in Brittany 176
Survivals of Goths and Iberians in the Pyrenaean Valleys 180
Troglodytes in South- Western France 181
The Langue D'Oc 183
Report on the Congress of Romance Philology 188
Frederic Mistral and his Mireio 191
My Darling 194
Sundry Montpellier Items 197
Roman Remains and Survivals around Nimes 198
Greek Types at Marseilles ; with the History of its Early Settlement 202
Anacreon to his Sweetheart 202
The Celt in Wales 206
Peach Yellows 209
W. R. Shaw, M.D.
Studies on the Blood of Amphibia 221
A. B. Macallum, M.B., Ph.D.
I. The Origin of Hemoglobin 221
a. Methods of Study 222
h. Structure of the Blood Corpuscles in Necturus 228
c' The Origin of the Haemoglobin in the Red Discs 230
IL The Fusiform Corpuscles 242
III. The Origin of the H»matoblasts in Amphibian Embryo 249
IV. Conclusions 257
V. Appendix 267
Explanation of Figures 259
Pkte I I'o face 259
Pkte n To /ace 260
Siberian Inscriptions 261
Rev. John Campbell, LL.D.
Plate n 282
The Administration of Lieut. -GoYenior Simcoe viewed in his Official Correspondence. 284
Notes on the Possibilities of Iron and Steel Production in Ontario 29^
Wm. Hamilton Mbrritt, F.G.S.
The New Jersey Iron Ore Deposits 299-
Iron Ore Deposits of the South and Northwest Shores of Lake Superior 301
Ratio of Consumption in 1887 . 302
Marquette Iron Range. 305
The Menominee Iron Range 304
The Gogebic Iron Range 306
Vermillion and Messaba Iron Ranges 30T
Continuation of the Vermillion Range in Ontario 308^
Supply in the United States 308
Smelting in Ontario 309-
Production of Pig Iron in the United States 310
The Available Market for Home Production 312
Note On Electoral Representation and the Rectification of Parliament. 315
Sandfobd FLBMiNa, C.M.G., LL.D.
Notes on the Discoverer of the Great Falls of Labrador 332^
David Boylb, Ph.B.
Contributions to Geology, including Mineralogy published in the Transactions of the
Canadian Institute 342^
List of Members 344
THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE.
First Meeting, ist November, 1890, the President in the chair.
Donations of books and pamphlets since last meeting, 279, including
151 volumes from Mrs. Seidler, and 61 volumes from Hugh Wilson,
F.G.S., who also presented 45 specimens of Canadian woods.
Exchanges since last meeting, 2,042.
The following were elected members : — A. H. F. Lefroy, M.A., Dr.
R. Orr, Wi dmer Hawke, Fred. A. T. Dunbar, Dr. Thomas Millman, J.
J. Murphy, C. G. Cremer, and' Hugh Wilson, F.G.S.
The Council reported the election of Frank Tweed as an associate.
The following communication from A. H. F. Lefroy, M.A., was read
by Dr. Kennedy : —
"GENERAL SIR JOHN HENRY LEFROY, K.C.M.G., C.B., F.R.S.
" I desire to comply with the kind request of the Canadian Institute as
contained in their resolution of April last, and furnish a short biographi-
cal notice of my father, General Lefroy, who died on April nth of
this year. He was a son of the Reverend John Henry George Lefroy,
Rector of Ashe, in the County of Hampshire, in England, and was
born at Crondall, in that County, in 1817. In his 17th year he obtained
his commission in the Royal Artillery, one of the two scientific regiments
in the service, and throughout his life his energies were largely occupied
in scientific work, and especially in the scientific work of his profession.
Thus it will be seen that he did not enjoy the advantages, which he
esteemed so highly, of a University training.
"In 1839 he was sent to the Island of St. Helena as director of the
Magnetical Observatory there. In 1842 he was chosen by the Royal
Society to undertake the work of a Magnetic Survey of the British
2 TRANSACTIONS OP THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE. [VoL. II.
possessions in North America, and during the years 1843 and 1844 he
made a series of magnetic observations extending as far as Fort Good
Hope on the Mackenzie River, the results of which were recently revised
and published by him in a work entitled, " Diary of a Magnetic Survey
of a Portion of the Dominion of Canada, Chiefly in the North-Western
Territories:** (Longmans, Green & Co.) Mount Lefroy, in the proximity
of Kicking Horse Pass, in the Rocky Mountains, was named after him,
as was also the village of Lefroy, in the County of Simcoe, in this
Province, thus preserving the memory of his name in the two parts of
the Dominion in which his work and associations chiefly lay.
" In 1844 he was placed in permanent charge of the Magnetic Obser-
vatory in Toronto, and in 1852 was President of the Canadian Institute,
having been Vice-President in the previous year, the year of its origin.
In the first volume of the proceedings of the Institute are to be found
papers by him on " Theometric Registers ** and on " The Probable
Number of the Native Indian Populations of British America.** Return-
ing to England in 1853, he was appointed secretary to the Royal Artillery
Institution at Woolwich, which he had himself been mainly instrumental
in founding in 1838. Passing by minor appointments, in 1857 he was
gazetted Inspector-General of Army Schools, and in 1869 Director-General
of Ordnance. In 1871 he was appointed Governor of the Bermudas, and
during his term of office was made a Companion of the Bath, and
Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. On
his return home he published, in two large volumes, the early Chronicles
of the Bermudas (Longmans, Green & Co ) ; and one of his latest
literary labours was to edit for the Hakluyt Society, from a manuscript
in the Sloan Collection of the British Museum, " The Historye of the
Bermudaes or Summer Islands,** the authorship of which is attributed to
Captain John Smith, the historian of Virginia, and covers a period from
1609 to 1622. In 1880 he was for a short period Governor of Tasmania.
In 1 88 1 he attained the rank of Colonel Commandant in the Royal
Artillery, and in 1882 retired from the service with the rank of General
" My father belonged to a great number of the learned societies in
London, and took an active interest in their proceedings. He was a
fellow of the Royal Society, the Geographical Society, the Society of
Antiquaries, the Royal Archaeological Institute and the Hakluyt
Society. He was also a member of the Council of the Royal Society
from 1878 to 1880, and of the Geographical Society for one year. He
was a life member of the British Association for the Advancement of
Science, and in 1884 presided over the Geographical Society of that
Association when it met in Montreal. He served on the Committee
1890-91.] FIRST MEETING. 3
of the Palestine Exploration Fund. He was a member of the
Athenaeum Club, which is the great literary club of London, and also of
Nobody's Club. I should also state that in 1883 McGill University
■conferred upon him the degree of LL.D.
"In 1848 he married a daughter of the late Sir John Beverley Robinson,
then Chief Justice of Upper Canada, who died in 1859. He subse-
<}uently married a daughter of Lieut-Colonel Thomas Dundas, of
Carron Hall, Stirlingshire, Scotland, who survives him.
" My father was throughout his life a frequent contributor to the
proceedings of the various learned societies to which he belonged. He
also took a keen interest in the political and public questions of the day,
in literature, and in history. For matters of family history, of genealogy,
and of heraldry he had a marked taste, and collected with much labour,
and in 1868 privately published, the records of our own family. A
devoted son of the Church of England, he made a life-long study of her
theology, and was especially an admirer and student of Hooker's great
work on Ecclesiastical Polity.
*' It is, however, for others, and not for nje, to speak of my father's deep
religious convictions, and consistent Christian life ; of the breadth of
his mind and the unflagging zeal with which he flung himself into all his
work ; of his well-directed energy, of the activity of his mind, and his
widely-extended interests ; of the kindliness of his heart, and his
•charitable efforts on behalf of the Patriotic Fund and numerous other
benevolent institutions, and of his high standard of honour and of
principle. It would, I am sure, be a gratification to him to know that
some record of his life, however imperfect, was preserved in the pages of
the Journal of the Canadian Institute, in the welfare of which he felt so
much interest, as indeed he did in everything connected with Canada."
Mr. David Boyle, Ph.B., read a paper on " The Canadian Institute of
the Future." He referred to the approaching jubilee of the Institute as a
fitting opportunity to look forward as well as backward. Reference was
made to the work that has been performed, as evidenced by the many
volumes of proceedings and transactions issued, and special notice was
taken of the fact that Mr. Sandford Fleming first proposed the standard
time system now rapidly becoming adopted. Mention was made of the
many distinguished men who have been connected with the Society since
its foundation, but, notwithstanding all this, it was deplored that the
Institute did not accomplish all the good it was capable of. The condi-
tion and management of the reading-room, library, and museum were
<:riticised, and the situation of the building and night of meeting (Satur-
day) were mentioned as hindrances to success. Want of funds was
4 TRANSACTIONS OF THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE. [VOL. H.
referred to as crippling every effort to progress, and it was suggested
that the annual fees be raised from $4 to $10, or even more. It was held
that "after an existence of forty years the Institute should occupy a very
much higher and more honourable position in Ontario and Canada than
it does. Its dicta on scientific and historical matters should be respected,,
its library of works upon such subjects ought to be the best in the
Dominion, its opinions should be quoted, and its wishes consulted. Its
publications should be sent among the people by thousands, and not b>r
a few paltry hundreds, and to be one of its members ought to be regarded
as highly meritorious." A supposititious account of the Institute twenty
years hence brought out by comparison many existing defects. The
following were offered as suggestions for the future : — Summer and winter
meetings elsewhere than in Toronto ; special meetings in the rooms dur-
ing the regular session, with invitations to the public ; increased activity
on the part of individual members ; increased annual payments and an
entrance fee; removal to larger and more conveniently situated premises,,
and a change in the night of meeting ; failing increase of revenue and
ability to secure better accommodation, to hand the library and museum
over to the City Public Library, or the books alone to it, and the museum
to the University. Reference was made to the attempts of some to
secure Upper Canada College, and a suggestion to organize the Institute
on a basis analogous to that of the Washington Smithsonian was dis-
cussed The paper closed with a suggestion that a committee be ap-
pointed to take the whole of this subject into consideration and " prepare:
a report whereby it may be deemed possible to place the Canadian
Institute on such a footing financially, and influentially, as may tend to
its becoming all it ought to be, and all its best friends fervently desire it
should be, namely, the largest, most useful, and best accredited scientific
association in Canada, and not inferior to the best in any other country..
Mr. O. A. Howland suggested the propriety of making a valid claim
to the Upper Canada College grounds. He thought that a united effort
should be made by the Institute and other societies for that purpose..
The Institute would start with a certain amount of capital, and would be
entitled to take the lead. The Upper Canada College grounds would be
the very best site for the purpose. It would be the most suitable for the
musical societies, for the Art Association, and for museum purposes, and
would be one of the most prominent objects presented to the visitors oC
Toronto. He suggested that the members who had formerly beea
appointed on the committee to act with other bodies should be re-^
Mr. William Houston was in favour of changing the night of meetings
from Saturday to some other night of the week. It would be an advan-
1890-91.] FIRST HEBTING. 5
tage to have newspaper men attend the weekly meetings, but reporter^
cannot attend on Saturday night.
Mr. Arthur Harvey would rather look to the labours of the few to form
the strength of the Institute than to the accession of the many. He did
not think that its prosperity was to be advanced by courting popularity.
He referred to the large amount of valuable work that had already been
^done. He said that Mr. Boyle had not alluded to the fact that it was on
the action of the Institute that the Provincial Government had made the
grant for archaeological purposes. The Canadian Institute of the future
should have nothing to do with anything but the consideration and dis-
cussion of the subjects which were brought before it. It was on these
lines that other important and valuable societies had worked. He had
viewed with a good deal of interest the movement that Mr. Howland and
his friends had inaugurated for obtaining the Upper Canada College
grounds in conjunction with the other societies mentioned.
Mr. Pearce, in reference to what Mr. Boyle had said about handing
over the museum to Toronto University, could not agree to the surrender
of that portion of it that belonged to the Biological Section. As to the
matter of obtaining funds, he recollected calling on 30 or 40 out of a list
of 82 merchants, and did not succeed in getting more than five doll.irs.
The efforts for getting up a conversazione last year had failed through
the inability to raise the requisite funds. He was in favour of a location
for the Institute further up town. Somewhere nearer the University would
be much more convenient. He recommended that enquiries should be
made about the lot on McCaul street that had been referred to.
Mr. Dewar was not in favor of removing to another locality. He
thought that one near the University would not be so convenient for
strangers in the city. He would like to see the professors and other men
of eminence in scientific pursuits attend the meetings and take a more
active part in the proceedings.
Mr. Squair: If the Institute was located farther up in the city, and
nearer to where he lived, he would attend oftener, but it would not be wise
to move for the sake of benefiting some when it may inconvenience
others. He was altogether opposed to raising the amount of the annual
subscription to ten dollars ; he thought four dollars was quite enough. As
to the want of prosperity, it would be necessary to look deeper for the
causes. This was not a scientific country, and a good deal of the work
of the Institute, though valuable in itself, did not interest any large
body of the public. He referred to the amount of very valuable work
that had been done by the active members. As to the Philological Sec-
6 TRANSACTIONS OP THE CANADIAN INSTITUTE. [VoL. it.
tion, he was amused at the enthusiasm displayed by some of those who*
got it up, but who soon became tired of it
Mr. Pearce spoke of the prosperity of the Biological Section. Not
only was there a large amount of work done by the section, but also by
the several sub-sections into which it had been divided. If all the other
sections of the Institute were as strong as the Biological Section, it would
be in a very prosperous condition.
Mr. Browning said the division into sections had worked well in the
case of the Biological Section, but not in regard to the other sections.
He would like to see some effort made to obtain the Upper Canada
College grounds. He supposed, however, that these grounds would go to
the University, and was afraid the Institute would not get any part of
them. The next question was the sale of the present building and the
erection of one in some other locality. He would like to see a building
put up that would yield a revenue. They would require one costing
about $75,000. He thought that something could be done in the way of
raising funds outside the membership of the Institute.
The following v/ere named a committee to take into consideration the
matters relating to the Institute referred to in Mr, Boyle's paper : — The
President, and Messrs. Boyle, Pearce, Howland, Houston and Harvey.
Second Meeting, 8th March, 1890, Mr. G. G. Pursey, in the chair.
Donations and exchanges, 57.
A circular was read from the Committee of Organization of the Inter-
national Congress of the Geographical Sciences stating that the Congress
would be held at Berne, in August, 1 891, on the occasion of the festival
commemorative of the seventh centenary of the founding of the City of
Berne, explaining the objects of the Congress and requesting the co-
operation of the Canadian Institute.
Mr. Boyle read a memorial to the Hon. the Attorney- General respect-
ing the publication of certain historical documents, and moved the fol-
lowing resolution, which was seconded by Mr. Harvey, and carried : —
" That the Council of the Institute be empowered and requested to
present to the Government of Ontario the facts now expressed by them^
also to enquire if the correspondence of Governor Simcoe and the military
1890-91.] SECOND MEETING. 7
archives of the forces in Canada at and about the period of the establish-
ment of the separate Provincial Government for Upper Canada, recently
acquired by the archivist at Ottawa, have been examined by them with
a view to the publication thereof, either in full or in abstract form, as is
now being done in the case of similar documents by the Province of
Moved by Mr. Houston, seconded by Mr. Douglass, and carried : —
" That the members of this Institute learn with pleasure that the Exe-
cutive Committee of the National Teachers' Association of the United
States have decided to hold their next annual meeting in Toronto, in July,
1 89 1, and they earnestly urge upon all who are in a position to do so, to