when those oldest organizations of Protestant Chris-
tianity were dissolved. Rather, his influence on re-
ligious development continued. It is even now in the
Protestant world more vigorous and powerful than
that of any other religious personality. But Luther
never restricted himself â€” and in this respect he is
again like Augustine â€” merely to the field of religion.
He embraced the whole of cultural hfe. Mediaeval
civilization was altogether an ecclesiastical one, i, e.,
a civilization founded and dominated by the Church.
By attacking the Chui'ch, therefore, Luther, without
realizing it, at the same time provided the impetus for
the abolition of the civilization, created and directed
by it, and for the growth of a new civilization. To
what extent he himself participated in this, and how
far, in individual instances, the remoter effects of his
religious reform reach, that, to be sure, is far from
having been determined in detail. Solely about this
there is no doubt: That he blazed a path for the new
age at just that point from out of which the recasting
of civilization, as things stood, could alone proceed,
and that for this reason if for none other he may well
be called and celebrated a hero of civilization.
a pictorial Cifc
Being the First Publication of
the Collection of Rare Prints
in the Possession of
REV. WILLIAM KOEPCHEN
Who also contributes
the Descriptive Text and Titles
THE CHRISTIAN HERALD
Bible House, New York
By The Christian Herald
THE PICTORIAL STORY OF LUTHER'S
LIFE AND WORK.
By Prof. W. H. T. Dau.
IVJO person engaged in the work of instructing
^ others or of conveying information to the gen-
eral iDubhc will undervalue the aid derived from a
good illustration. The pictorial art has a recognized
mission in every department of the education of our
race. In the study of historical subjects, in particu-
lar, there will be manifested by every healthy mind
a keen desire to behold the likeness of the famous men
who achieved great things in this world, to obtain a
glimpse of the places where, and the physical condi-
tions, under which, their work was performed ; to have
placed before one a suggestive representation of de-
cisive moments in their lives, and to see the dramatic
scenes in which they were the actors.
We do not realize, as a rule, how much knowledge
is taken up by us unconsciously since our childhood
days by looking at pictures. And not only knowledge
is gathered in this way, but settled opinions are
formed, aspirations quickened, preferences and aver-
sions fixed. A young boy is turning in a seemingly
listless way the pages in Dore's Bible Gallery, or sits
musing over the quaint drawings of Schnorr von
Carolsfeld, or over the Perry pictures, or the Tissot
Collection, or Mastroianni's sculptural reliefs, depict-
ing scenes from the life of Christ. In not a few in-
stances what appeared to be a mere mechanical
perusal of a book of pictures has proven a remark-
ably efficient medium of information and character-
formation. But why dilate on something that every-
body concedes and no one disputes?
Those were stirring times four hundred years ago.
The world seemed out of joint. A battle was on, and
the din of the conflict was reverberating through Eu-
rope, from the Grampian Hills to the Golden Horn,
and from Madrid to Riga. Yea, they were telling
in the streets of Jerusalem how a German friar had
defied the Bishop of Rome. They were noting, some
with plain satisfaction, some with amazement, some
with feelings still undefined, that serious-minded men
throughout Europe were siding with the monk against
the bishop, and not a few persons of consequence and
authority were either openlj^ abetting the monk in his
endeavor or secretly shielding him from the fury of his
It was a war different from the one which is now
convulsing Europe. There was no clashing of arms,
no brandishing of swords, no crackle of musketry, no
endless columns of warriors marching to the beat of
the drum to take up their positions in the serried ranks
of battle. There was not heard the cannons' echoing
roar, that shatters men's nerves and then, after a
short shrift, sends them into the carnage of the bay-
onet charge. At any rate, no battle of this kind was
fought in this war until a generation later. It was a
battle of spirits. The war was in the hearts of men.
Convictions clashed. Arguments grappled. Princi-
2)les were pitted against principles, declarations de-
fied by counter-declarations. Superstitions were shat-
tered, and belief's sustained. It was as if the plan
of this battle had been formulated by the ancient
prophet who said: "Not by might, nor by power, but
by my spirit, saith the Lord of hosts." (Zech. 4:6.)
The story of that mighty conflict has been told by
some of the ablest writers of the world. The his-
torian, the novelist, the dramatist, the poet, have vied
with each other to immortalize the actors and the
scenes in that war. But the painter and the sculptor
have not been behind their brother artists and scholars
in zealous devotion to the stirring subj ect of this war :
with more than ordinary prodigality and eminent
skill they have reproduced to the eye the leading
figures and the most notable events in that conflict.
Luther's face, in particular, as that of the master
mind of the reformatory movement, has become fa-
miliar to most men of our day who lay claim to some
degree of culture. Artistic representations of scenes
from his life adorn some of the most famous galleries
We are on the eve of the four hundredth anni-
versary of that event from which the beginning of the
Reformation is commonly reckoned â€” the publication
of Luther's Ninety-five Theses against the sale of in-
dulgences on the thirty-first of October, 1517. Able
authors have in most recent times given us very cred-
itable accounts of Luther's life-work. Some have en-
livened the pages of their books with illustrations.
Among these there have been re^^roduced some rare
The vokime which is here submitted to the reader
has separated the narrative of Luther's hfe from the
illustrations: it makes the pictures tell the story of
Luther. The views assembled in this volume are the
result of critical and painstaking research. Years
were spent in getting them together. Rev. William
Koepchen, himself an ardent and loyal Lutheran,
and the pastor of a large Lutheran Church in New
York City, has collected these views and written the
informing and stirring explanatory remarks that ac-
company them. The patient labor which he has ex-
pended in the assembling of the various parts that
make up this series has been ably seconded by the
publisher of this memorial volume. No expense has
been spared by The Christian Herald in the en-
deavor to make these views historically accurate and
artistically adequate to the great subject which they
May it achieve its silent mission of enlightenment
and encouragement in many a Christian home, placing
before the old at a glance many a scene that has dimly
formed in their minds during hours of laborious read-
ing, and attracting the inquiring youths who may
draw an inspiration from the imperishable work of a
plain man of the people and a loyal son of the church
of Jesus Christ, who dared to obey God's Word
rather than men.
W. H. T. Dau.
St. Louis, Mo., October 20, 1915.
There are men of whom the world will never be tired, and
Martin Luther is one of them. It would be saying little to
state that he is a representative man. He is one of the vital
forces of modern civilization. Blot Luther from the sixteenth
century and the historical development of the last four hun-
dred years would have been impossible. By him the seething
elements of progress were fused, forgei^. into a thunderbolt,
and hurled against that power which obstructed the march of
civilization, and led mankind captive at its will.
Hans Luther was a firm, straightforward, and pious man,
endowed with an unusual portion of sound sense. He knew
what he wanted and had no fear of saying what he meant in
unmistakable terms. His integrity and sturdy common sense
made him, in later life, a respected adviser of the princes at
Mansfeld and a trusted magistrate.
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Margaretha Zicgler of Eisenach had been known as a
virtuous and pious girl. She retained her modesty and fear
of God after her marriage to Hans Luther, and led such a
virtuous life that she could be made a model for her sex. On
her face, as preserved by Cranach's brush, the struggles of
her early life are recorded. For many years, nearly every
waking hour was spent in exhausting manual labor.
The House Where Martin Luther Was Born.
Tt stands in Eisleben, Saxony, at the top of the street
which bears his name. The house was partly burned in 1689.
but was restored in 1817. The modern entrance is surmounted
by a poorly executed bust of Luther with the following in-
scription : "In this house Dr. Martin Luther was born Novem-
ber 10, 1483. God's Word and Luther's doctrine pure shall
to eternity endure."
Mansfeld is to-day a small town, with a church in the
center and rnins of a castle on a high hill. In 1533 it had
three churches and the castle was in its splendor, with high-
roofed buildings, spires, and walls pierced by numerous win-
dows. Here Martin grew up under the shadow of dark and
wooded cliffs, crowned by the castle of the Counts of Mansfeld
and pierced by the shafts of the mines.
CoTTA House in Eisenach.
In the congenial atmosphere of home and school in Eise-
nach, Luther developed rapidly and made such progress in
his studies that, at the age of eighteen years, he said farewell to
the generous Cotta family and their home to enter the old and
famous University at Erfurt, at that time, perhaps, the most
advanced of the higher institutions of learning in Germany.
Luther Received into Cotta's Home at Eisenach.
While attending school at Eisenach, Luther joined one of
the companies of singers who went from house to house singing
and accepting money. His beautiful voice brought him to the
attention of Ursula Cotta, the pious wife of a wealthy mer-
chant. She took him into her home, spoke to him sympathet-
ically and made him one of her family,
It was the custom of the students who did not board
with one of the professors to live at the "Burse," a com-
bination of dormitory and eating-club. Luther lived at the
Burse of St. George, which once stood on Lehmann's Bridge.
It was a building similar to the one seen on this Kramer-
The Universitj^ at Erfurt was one of the earliest on Ger-
man soil. It was founded in 1392, and reached its high- water
mark in 1480, with an enrollment of 2,000. On the records, still
preserved, though the university ceased to exist in 1816, may
be read to-day the entry : ' ' JNIartinus Luder ex IMansf eld. ' '
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Luther as Studext at Erfurt.
Luther was a sociable fellow, witty, talkative, fond of joke
and jest, and devoted to music, for which he had a natural
talent, and which he regarded as one of the most beautiful
gifts of God, ranking it next after theology in importance.
When he felt fatigued or otherwise indisposed with study and
writing, he took his flute or liis guitar and played some agree-
able air. He often praised the art of music to his friends, say-
ing : ' ' Music is tlie best cordial to a person in sadness ; it soothes,
quickens and refreshes the heart. ' '
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Luther at the Augustinian IMonastery at Erfurt.
No exemptions from the hnmiliating duties in the cloister
were made for this distinguished Master of Arts. He swept
the walks, scrubbed the floors, washed the filthiest vessels, and,
with a sack on his back, begged provisions in Erfurt and the
neighboring villages. But the spiritual peace for which his
heart craved did not come to his heart by this participation in
the duties, drudgeries and humiliations of convent life.
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JOHANN VON StAUPITZ, D.D.
In this Vicar General of the Aiigustinian Order the monk
Luther found a sincere friend and spiritual helper. Staupitz
was of noble birth, of high scholarly attainments and with a
spirit of simple, unaffected piety and wide sympathies. His
judgment was sober, and his great tact in dealing with cases
of conscience made him pre-eminently a true shepherd of souls.
The portrait represents Staupitz as Abbot of the Benedictine
Monastery of St. Peter at Salzburg. He died there in 1524.
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One of the many shrines visited by Luther during his
stay in Rome was the "Scala Sancta," or Pilate's Staircase,
supposed to be the very stairway upon which our Saviour
ascended to the palace of Pontius Pilate. Luther crawled up
these steps upon his knees but failed to experience any spiritual
satisfaction in this exercise.
Martin Luther, Doctor op Theology.
Staupitz, wishing to be relieved from his duties at the
university, had, with the consent of the Elector, selected Luther
as his successor. Luther urged his delicate health and begged
to be excused. But he finally consented, held the required dis-
putation, October 18, 1512, and was with all due ceremony
created a Doctor of Divinity on the following day, pledging
himself to devote his whole life to the study, exposition, and
defense of the Scriptures. This pledge gave him privileges
and rights which his enemies could not deny, and it laid on
him obligations and duties which he never forgot.
Reared amidst all the luxuries wealth could bring and en-
joying the highest social rank, this pope recoiled from the
coarse sensuality of Alexander VI, but he was no less a devotee
of pleasure, according to the standards of his more cultivated
tastes. In furthering his plans for personal pleasure, as well
as in continuing the adornment of the Papal city in keeping
with the artistic ideals of his age, Leo was the most prodigal
of spendthrifts. Often in desperate straits for the ready cash, it
was only too convenient for him to realize the necessary money
by the sale of indulgences.
Friedrich, surnamed the Wise, Elector of Saxony, was a
judicious capable ruler and pious according to mediaeval stand-
ards. He loved peace, order and justice. This moved him to
protect Luther, though he otherwise avoided all personal con-
tact with the Reformer. The Elector was the most powerful
of the princes of the Empire, and it is due to his passive aid, his
guarding the inviolability of Luther's person, rather than to
any public assent to Luther's work, that the Reformation was-
so successful in Germany. This noble-minded prince came at
the close of his life to a fuller insight of the Gospel.
tit of time.
and rough edges are
beginning to tell the
secret of its great age.
The large iron stove
that warmed Luther's
blood can yet liold the
flames of many fires;
le floor of
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The University at Wittenberg,
Wittenberg, the electoral residence, was selected as the
site of the university, partly because the income of the Castle
Church could be used for its support, partly because there was
an Augustinian monastery there, which could be relied upon
for teachers of philosophy and theology. ]\Iartin Pollich, Doc-
tor of Medicine, Philosophy and Theology, and physician to the
Elector, and Staupitz were the Elector's chief advisers. To
promote Friedrich's plan, they called to Wittenberg competent
monks from other cities to aid in the work of instruction.
Among those drafted was Martin Luther.
" Stadtkirche " IN Wittenberg.
By urgent request of the town council of Wittenberg,
Luther, in 1515, accepted the charge as pastor of the Town
Church, whose pastor, Simon Heintz, was sickly and unable
to fulfill his many duties. This edifice, surmounted by double
towers, is large aiid massive, externally plain and without
any architectural pretension. The interior is commodious and
well adapted to Protestant worship.
Interior of the Stadtkirche in Wittenberg.
Notwithstanding his other occupations, Luther found time
to preach constantly, Bugenhagen was pastor of this Stadt-
kirche. When in 1528 and 1529, 1530 and 1532, and again
from 1537 to 1540 Bugenhagen was away on missionary and
other duties, Luther preached in his pulpit, Sunday after Sun-
day, frequently also on Wednesdays and Saturdays.
Pulpit in the Stadtkirche, Wittenberg, in Luther's Time.
From this pulpit Luther preached most of those eloquent
sermons that set the souls of his hearers aflame. His voice was
sonorous and far-reaching, his large and dark eyes seemed to
flash fire when under excitement, and when reaching a climax
he bore down with the full torrent of his oratory. While in-
describably powerful his preaching was always reverent and
Castle Church at Wittenberg.
To tlie door of this Castle Church Luther affixed his niuety-
five theses, October 31, 1517. The wooden doors to which the
theses were nailed were burned in 1760, during the war with
Austria, but in 1858 Emperor Friedrich Wilhelm IV replaced
them by iron doors, bearino; the original text of the theses.
Interior of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
Monday, February 22d, the Counts of Mansfeld arrived
with Luther's corpse before Wittenberg. At the Elsterthor
they were received by the whole University, the town counselors
and citizens. The leaden coffin was carried into this Castle
Church, against which he had nailed the ninety-five theses.
Bugenhagen, as pastor of the town church, delivered a sermon
in German and Melanchthon followed with a funeral oration
in Latin on behalf of the University. The body was then
lowered into a prepared grave near the pulpit.
Melanehthon had entered Heidelberg University at the
age of thirteen, had taken the degree of bachelor at fifteen and
of master one year later. At the age of twenty-one he was
called to the University of Wittenberg from Tiibingen to be-
come its first professor of Greek. One of the greatest scholars
and teachers of the century, he not only immensely enhanced
the fame of the university, but also proved himself a most effi-
cient aide of Luther.
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Nailing the Ninety-five Theses to the Church Door.
Instead of thundering against Tetzel from the pulpit, or
publishing a polemic pamphlet, or issuing an open letter to the
archbishop, calling liim sliarply to account, as Luther was
quite capable of doing, he invited the theologians in Wittenberg
and the neighborhood to a discussion. Adopting the usual
method of announcing such a debate, he posted a notice on tht
door of the Castle Church stating time and place of the pro-
posed disputation and the theses he intended to defend.
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JoHANN EcK, D.D., a professor of the University of Ingol-
stadt, was like Luther a peasant by extraction and a monk by
profession, a theologian of no mean ability, and a man of energy
and resource. He was, without doubt, the ablest and most per-
sistent opponent Luther ever had. In Rome he painted Lu-
ther's "heresy" in such black colors that Leo finally decided
that there was nothing left but to condemn Luther.
Disputation Between Luther and Eck in Leipzig.
The debate was opened with much pomp and solemnity on
the twenty-seventh of June, 1519. After Karlstadt had de-
bated until the fourth of July, Luther himself took the floor.
Though very careful and moderate in his utterances, he yet
maintained that the authority of the Pope was of human and
not of divine right, and that a Christian might therefore be
saved, even if he refused to submit to it. This the sneering Eck
at once declared sounded like the opinion of Johann Hus, who
had been condemned by the Council of Constance and burned
as a heretic a hundred vears before.
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The election of Charles of Spain, on June 26, 1519, had
been hailed with enthusiasm, but those who had expected much
were doomed to disappointment. He was by temperament and
training far more Spanish than German. Germany was hardly
more than a pawn in his political game. When he needed the
support of the Papacy he was quite willing to use his power to
suppress Lutheranism, and though a devout Catholic, he per-
mitted it to flourish when he wished to bring the Pope to terms.
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The Bishop's Palace in Worms.
On April 17th, the day after his arrival in Worms, Luther
was cited to appear before the Diet that afternoon at 4 o'clock
in the Bishop's Palace, where the Emperor Charles and his
brother Ferdinand were staying. This Bishop's Palace was
destroyed by the French in 1689 and, after being rebuilt, was
again destroyed by them in 1794.
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Luther at the Entrance of the Council Hall.
When the hour had arrived in which this faithful witness
of Jesus Christ was to stand before the great and mighty of
the earth to make a good profession, the valiant and famous
general, Georg von Frundsberg, touched him on the shoulder
and said: ''My dear monk, thou hast to-day a march and a
strtiggle to'go through, such as neither I nor other great cap-
tains have seen in our most bloody battles ; but if thy cause be
just, go forward in God 's name ; he will not forsake thee. ' '
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