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secretly took part against the Jews, and the gov-
ernments which protected them did so more from
fear, because they suspected a demagogical move-


ment behind the outbreaks against the Jews. Ref-
erence was afterwards made to these outrages, as
ilhistrating the feeHng, or rather ill-feeHng towards
the Jews, to withhold equal rights from them.

The zenith of Teutomaniac Jew hatred was
reached by the inflammatory pamphlet which
appeared at this time of excitement, " The Mirror
of the Jews" (November, 1819). Hartwig Hundt,
a man of adventurous life, boldly advocated the
slaughter of the Jews. He made most laudable
propositions, which, he flattered himself, would sat-
isfy the "Hep, hep " people.

" Although I for my part hold the killing of Jews neither a sin nor
a crime, but only a police offence, I would nevertheless never counsel
that they be condemned and punished unheard, as seems to be the
fashion now."

What then ? His proposals were : —

" Let the children of Israel be sold to the English, who could
employ them in their Indian plantations instead of the blacks. That
they may not increase, the men should be emasculated, and their
wives and daughters be lodged in houses of shame. The best plan
would be to purge the land entirely of this vermin, either by extermi-
nating them, or as Pharaoh and the people of Meiningen, Wiirzburg,
and Frankfort did, by driving them from the country."

The " Hep, hep " storm and Hundt's murderous
lessons were the poisonous fruit of the seeds w^hich
Fichte and Schleiermacher had sown, and which had
shot up quickly and abundantly.

Hundt's inflammator}^ book, in which every word
is an abomination, was as ravenously swallowed by
the German reading public, as his bad novels.
Only at the request of Jews it was forbidden and
confiscated by the censorship, which had become
omnipotent through the Carlsbad regulations. In
Portugal, at about the same time, a motion was
brought forward in the Cortes to re-admit the ban-
ished Jews and atone for the crime perpetrated
against them, whilst in Germany authors and states-
men justified this crime, and wished it to be repeated
in the nineteenth century. Hundt did not stand

CH. XIII. JULIUS VON voss. 533

alone in his advocacy of the extirpation of the Jews.
Who cares to enumerate all the virulent, hostile
writings against the Jews of the years of the " Hep,
hep " storm ? Conversation on questions of the
day, however remote from the subject of the Jews,
always ended in abuse of them. If an author glori-
fied Sand and his murder of Kotzebue, and praised
his Christian religious spirit, he did not fail to add
that " Christian hate would call down a day of judg-
ment upon the Jews, the accomplices of financiers
who worked the ruin of the state, even though no
writer had ever printed a syllable to the disadvan-
tage of the Jews."

Thus every man's hand was against them ; no
defender of any weight or influence appeared for
them, whose word, if it could not silence, might at
least curb the opposition. The aged Jean Paul
(Friedrich Richter) did not raise his voice for them,
although he had a predilection for the Jews ; nor
Varnhagen von Ense, although Rachel was his wife,
and was included in the general obloquy. Only one
writer overcame his prejudice, and defied public
opinion in order to take up cudgels on behalf of the
universally despised and downtrodden Jews. This
was thecomedy writer Julius von Voss, whose voice
certainly had no great weight, and whose disordered
affairs roused the suspicion that Jewish liberality
encourasfed his venturesomeness. Voss himself in
his comedies and novels had exposed the Jews to
ridicule, but from regret and remorse, he confessed,
he desired to protect the Jews against the " Hep,
hep" insults. His words were little regarded, and
even were derided. Still less impression was created
by the anonymous writings of various freemasons in
favor of the Jews, but their goodwill should be rec-
ognized. The converted Jews conducted them-
selves at this juncture in a shameful manner. Not
one of them, except Borne, came forward, in behalf
of their former brethren, with that just indignation


which violence against the defenseless ought to
inspire. Rachel von Varnhagen, it is true, wrote
to her brother, Ludwig Robert, who had been a
witness of the " Hep, hep" storm, in the following
manner : —

" I am intensely moved, as I have never yet been, on account of the
Jews. They are to be preserved, but only for torture, for contumely,
for insult, for brutal outrage. The hypocritical newborn love for the
Christian religion (God forgive me for my sin !), for the Middle Ages
with their art, poetry, and hideousness, incites the people to the only
abomination to which, mindful of all past experiences, it can still be
incited. It is not the action of the people, who are taught to cry
"Hep, hep." The professors Fries and Riihs, and others, such as
Arnim, Brentano, ' our connections,' and yet greater persons are
filled with prejudices."

She thought that the Christian priests ought to step
forward to check the outrages of the people. " Aye,
the priests." But neither Rachel, nor her brother
Robert, nor her husband \ arnhagen, who elabor-
ated their periods for every childish folly, and had a
voice in public opinion, raised it against violence,
and against the rule of oppression.

The Jews had, it is true, their own literary expo-
nents to protect them. In Germany alone there
were nearly forty Jewish writers who could address
the German public. They possessed two Jewish
organs, and the daily journals occasionally opened
their pages to them. They advanced boldly to the
battle-field to ward off the universal accusations
aofainst their race. Even the acred David Fried-
lander raised his voice, wrung his hands over the
enemies of the Jews and their persecutions in Ger-
many in the nineteenth century, and could not con-
ceive — he who considered official Christianity and
the State as ideal — how these gods could wallow in
so much filth. He addressed himself to the Coun-
tess Von der Recke, and reminded her of the time
when eminent Christians conversed pleasantly with
Jews, and both received Instruction from each other.
This sounded like a forgotten fairy tale from
ancient days. But the Jewish combatants only


threw light missiles, and could scarcely prick the
thick hide of prejudice. For this purpose sharp and
heavy harpoons were necessary. At this point the
Guide of all history, who had not abandoned the
Jews, awakened for them two avenging angels, who
with fiery scourges lashed the perverseness of the
Germans. These avenging spirits, who brought
the Germans more blessinofs even than their gfuar-
dian angels, were Ludwig Borne and Heinrich



Borne and Heine — Borne's Youth — His Attitude to Judaism — His Love
of Liberty — His Defense of the Jews— Heine : his Position with
Regard to Judaism — The Rabbi ofBacharach — Heine's Thoughts
upon Judaism — Influence of Borne and Heine.

1819— 1830 C. E.

Why should not Borne and Heine have a page in
Jewish history? Not only did Jewish blood flow in
their veins, but they were imbued with true Jewish

The lightning darts which they flashed across
Germany, now in the colors of the rainbow, again in
glaring sheets, were charged with the electricity of
Jewish Talmudism. Both Borne and Heine renounced
Judaism, but only like combatants who, appropriating
the enemy's uniform and colors, can all the more
easily strike and annihilate him. Both expressed,
with a clearness which left nothing to be desired,
how much they cared for the religion of the cross,
which they professed. There is, therefore, not the
slightest reason why Christianity should count Borne
and Heine as members of its flock on account of
the idle ceremony through which they passed in
church. One of them, in spite of his changing
moods, at heart remained truer to Judaism than the
Friedlanders who constituted themselves its repre-
sentatives. These two gifted individuals, the pride
of Germany, are still greater ornaments to Judaism.
To these two Jews, the Germans owe their pure
taste, their feeling for truth, and their impulse for
liberty — to these two Jews persecuted through life
by the abominable " Hep, hep." The mists of the
Middle Ages, with which the Germans artificially



surrounded themselves in order to obscure the truth,
were dispersed by the flashes of wit of Borne and
Heine, and light in its purity was restored. They
grafted wit and life on German literature, and
banished that clumsiness and awkwardness which
had aroused the ridicule of the neighboring nations.
In their childish spite against the Jews, the Teu-
tomaniacs, the Riihses and Hundts, asserted that
Judaism could not produce a man of forcible character,
or gifted with a true sense of art. History at once
gave them the lie, and put them to shame. Judaism
furnished forth a vigorous apostle of liberty, with
language recalling that of the prophets and the
Roman Catos, who confounded all the ideas of the
Germans concerning law ; and it supplied a poet,
with artistic sense characterized by a mixture of
pathos and cutting irony, who abolished all their
hard and fast rules of art. The rich, varied blossoms
of the Borne-Heine mind sprang from Jewish soil,
and were only w'atcred by European culture. Hence-
the close connection between them in spite of their
dissimilarity and mutual antipathy. Not only was
their wit Jewish, but also their love of truth, their
aversion to vain display, their hatred of veiling and
palliating wrongs, their contempt for official pomp,
for obscuring clouds of incense, for ringing of bells,
ambrosial organ tones covering slavery, per-
version of justice, and oppression. The democratic,
freedom-loving spirit, noticeable in Borne more than
in Heine, and the analytical, Spinoza-like mode of
reasoning, more characteristic of Heine than of
Borne, are Jewish to the core. Had they been born
Christians, and brought up in the atmosphere of
red-tapeism, neither of them would have developed
as rescuing powers, which with laughing mien
helped to banish deeply-rooted perversions and
absurdities. The slaves became deliverers, and
saved their enemies from the double yoke of political
and social inferiority. The Teutomaniacs almost


deserve thanks for having tormented the Jews with
their reactionary measures. They roused, if not
Heine, certainly Borne, who was incHned to idle spec-
ulation, and furnished him with the dart that wounded
the enemy.

Ludwig Borne, or Lob Baruch (born in Frankfort-
on-the-Main, 1 786 ; died in Paris, 1837), saw the light
in the same year when it w^as extinguished for Men-
delssohn, as though history wished to compensate
the bereaved Jews for the loss of the sage of Berlin.
Borne resembled Mendelssohn in some respects :
in his timid, bashful, somewhat awkward bearing, in
his self-control, his strength of character, and his
strict adherence to an adopted system of morality.
Both became the objects of admiration by accident,
in spite of themselves. Both drew up for them-
selves aesthetic rules of conduct without havinofbeen
trained to do so.

Borne despised the Jews of his time, and spoke
of them as if he were their arch-enemy. Jewish
antiquity, misrepresented to him in his youth, and
still more dimmed by his Berlin and Halle friends,
he looked upon as a caricature. The ancient Jews
from the day of Abraham until the time of "wealthy
Solomon " appeared to him " as if they had wished
to parody history." He did not suspect how much
his inward self, the truthfulness of his nature, owed
to Judaism. The filth of Lucinde, consecrated by
Schleiermacher, so disgusted Borne at the age of
sixteen, that even a stealthy perusal of the book
possessed no charm. The sobriety with which
Judaism had endowed him showed Borne the right
way of balancing his ideal nature, and avoiding too
harsh a discord with the real world. At an early
age he became acquainted with a goddess to whom
he was devoted in extravagant love, and to whom
he remained faithful until his dying breath. " The
true nature of virtue may be expressed in a few
words. What is virtue? Virtue is bliss. And

en. XIV. borne's love of liberty. 539

bliss ? It is liberty. We cannot further inquire, what
is liberty, for liberty is in accord with reason, in accord
with God, and in accord with the unconditional —
it explains itself. " So thought Borne, and so he wrote
in his diary at the age of eighteen ; and this idea
governed his inner being as long as he lived, and
was the motive power of all his actions. Virtue is
liberty, and liberty is virtue ; they necessitate and
produce bliss. Yet Borne limited his love of liberty ;
he guarded himself from overstepping that narrow
boundary at which the pursuit of an ideal turns to

May not his Jewish blood, or at any rate, the sad
pages of Jewish history, explain his worship of liberty,
which influenced his body and mind ? How hard and
degrading the absence of liberty was could be felt
only by a Jew, in comparison with whom an Indian
or a Russian bondsman was a free man. Frankfort,
the birth-place of Borne, with its disgraceful laws
concerning the residence of Jews, effectually taught
him love of liberty. When, only a boy, he was pro-
hibited from walking on the footpath, and had to
keep to the dusty road for vehicles, when every
ragged Christian beggar, or drunkard, was allowed
to call to him, " Mach Mores, Jud ! " the thought may
have struck him that the absence of liberty was
damnation and the presence of liberty salvation.
" I, a slave from my birth, love liberty more than
you ; yea, because I was trained in servitude, I under-
stand liberty better than you ! " he often said. His
much admired style, his perfect, captivating manner,
his profound epigrams, recall the gnomic wisdom of
Bible and Talmud. In short. Borne owes his favor-
able points to Judaism. But he neither was grateful
for his gifts, nor did he acknowledge their origin,
which he estimated no more than did his Berlin
friends. On one occasion, indeed, he said :

"I should not deserve to enjoy the light of the sun, were I, on
account of mockery upon which I have always looked with contempt,


ungrateful for God's great favor, in having made me at once a
German and a Jew : for I l<now how to value the undeserved fortune
of being at the same time a German and a Jew, to be able to strive
after all the virtues of the Germans without participating in their

He added, addressing the Germans : —

" I pray you, do not despise my Jews. If only you were as they are,
you were better. You have deprived the Jews of air, they have thus
been preserved from rottenness ; you have strewn the salt of hatred
into their hearts, their hearts have thus been kept fresh. You
have imprisoned them for the whole long winter in a cellar, and
stopped up the cellar door with dung ; but you, exposed to the frost,
were half frozen to death. When spring arrives, we shall see who
will blossom first, Jew or Christian."

Borne did not, however, himself beHeve in the
endurance of the Jews, and he gave utterance to
those words only because he was vexed, or in order
to vex the Germans. He said at the same time,
ironically : " You know how my heart beats for the

Since the time when his mind began to mature,
he beheld in the Jews only money-makers, as on the
Exchange at Frankfort, or deriders of religion
ashamed of their race, as in the salon of Henriette
Herz ; moreover, his education had made Judaism
seem so despicable that he did not judge it worthy
of consideration. Thus Borne never understood
what was most sacred to the Jews, and he was una-
ble to fathom the depths of his own mind, and dis-
criminate between what he owed to the general
state of culture and what to Judaism.

His healthy spirit, however, and love for the
oppressed guarded him from the unprincipled con-
duct of Rachel, of those who frequented the salons
at Berlin, and of many others who turned their
backs contemptuously upon the Jews. Even as a
youth Borne hated the idea that the word " Jew "
might be insultingly cast at him.

•' And when they come and tell you that you are a Jew," he wrote
in his diary, "how they bandy about the Jewish jargon, so that one
must almost die of laughter,


"Oh ! when I think of that, my mind is tossed as by a storm, my
soul would fain burst from its dwelling-place, and seek the body of a
lion, that it might meet the villain with jaw and claw."

His anticipations proved correct, he was not spared
the insiih, and his Hon's claw was shown. While a
student, he procured from the police of Frankfort a
passport, in which the spiteful police-clerk had
inserted the words : "Jew of Frankfort."

"My blood stood still, but I could neither say nor do anything, for
my father was present. I then swore in my heart : only wait, the
time will come when I shall write a passport for you, a passport for
all of you."

For a moment it seemed as if Borne would forget
his oath. The Jews of Frankfort had bought equal-
ity for half a million of money, and Borne, who had
studied law and shown himself a young man of
promise, was one of the first to receive a position in
the Frankfort police department. But if Borne was
inclined to forget that he was a Jew, and remem-
bered only that he was a German, the people of
Frankfort did not forget it, and imprudently and
brutally reminded him of his secret oath. He was
the first victim of the reaction ; he was expelled
from office, as soon as the Jews of Frankfort were
driven back into the Ghetto. The insolent manner
in which they were cheated out of trebly pledged
freedom revolted Borne's feeling for liberty, and he
sharpened his first arrows in defense of the mem-
bers of his own race. They were directed against
the narrow-minded citizens of Frankfort, who in the
nineteenth century had restored the lawsof 1616
concerning the residence of the Jews, "that romance
of malice," as Borne called them. The feelings
which agitated him during the years of ever-increas-
ing reaction against the Jews he put into the mouth
of a Jewish officer in a novel :

" You stole from me the pleasures of childhood, you arrant knaves !
You threw salt into the sweet cup of my youth, you placed malicious
slander and hateful derision in my road in manhood ; arrest me you

542 History of the jews. ch. xiv.

could not, but fatigued, vexed, without joyfulness, I reached my

goal That I cannot even revenge myself, that I should not

have the power to forgive, nor the weakness to chastise ! They are
out of my reach in their fox-hole ! .... You ask me why I shun
my fatherland. I have none ; I have never left my home. My home
is in dungeons ; where there is persecution I breathe the atmosphere
of my childhood. The moon is as near to me as is Germany."

Instead of revenging himself for the wounds
inflicted upon him and the members of his race by
German Jew-hatred, Borne undertook the difficult
task of extinguishing this hatred. In the " Waage,"
his organ, he erected ideal standards, by which he
measured the narrow, petty circumstances of the
Germans, and their short-sightedness.

Before Louis Baruch undertook his campaign
against German faults and prejudices, or rather
before he undertook the education of the Germans,
he renounced Judaism, was baptized in Offenbach,
and assumed the name Karl Ludwig Borne (June 5,
1818). How little he cared for the Christian faith
we may judge from his remark that he " repented
the money spent on baptism." He did not wish
the effect of his missiles to be lessened by the pre-
judice which might arise from the fact of their being
discharged by a Jew. It is, however, difficult to
excuse a man of Borne's character for deserting,
without any such struggle as Heine's with himself,
the colors of the weak and oppressed, who should
have been ennobled in his eyes by the very pain of
degradation ; deserting for a cause, moreover, in which
he did not believe. Germany soon discovered that
shehadgainedan author of Lessing's caliber, Borne's
wit was felt the more keenly, because at every turn
one could perceive the correctness of the picture
and observe the genuineness and integrity of the
painter. A glance revealed that he wrote with " the
blood of his heart and the sap of his nerves," hence
his words made the impression of weighty deeds.

He could not behold in silence the folly and
cruelty of the " Hep, hep " year, and he wrote " for

CH. XIV. borne's plea for the jews. 543

the Jews." " I should have said for right and Hb-
erty ; but if these terms were understood, nothing
need be said." He pointed his finger at fools, and
threw light on the faces of villains. " A sort of
fatal necessity," he said, " was connected in past
times w^ith Jew-massacres. They seem to have
arisen from an indistinct, inexplicable feeling
inspired by Judaism, which, like a scoffing and
threatening spirit, like the ghost of a murdered
mother, accompanied Christianity from its cradle."
Borne analyzed German Jew-hatred into its con-
stituents, and showed the absurdity of each. On
another occasion (1820) he told them the stern
truth :

" I pardon the German nation for its Jew-hatred, for it is a nation
of children, and for this reason, just Uke an infant, needs a go-cart to
enable it some day to stand firm, so that by means of the barriers to
liberty it may learn to do without barriers. The German nation
would collapse a hundred times a day if it were without prejudices.
But individual adults I cannot pardon for their Jew-hatred."

Dr. Ludwig Hoist, a newly-fledged Jew-hater,
who had developed his cult into a philosophical sys-
tem, and who, as Borne says, sounded " a meta-
physical Hep-hep," was attacked by him with scoffs
and sneers.

" Hatred of Jews is one of the Pontine bogs which poison the beau-
tiful land of our liberty. We see the hopeful friends of the fatherland
with pale faces wandering about liopelessly. German minds dwell
on Alpine heights, but German hearts pant in damp marshes. Hoist
wishes to kill the Jews, and if they resist, he turns round to his circle
of onlookers, and says : ' Now you see that I am right in taxing the
Jews with unparalleled insolence ; they will not suffer their heads to
be struck off ever so little, and they sulk.' .... You hate the
Jews, not because they have earned hatred, but because they earn

money What you call human rights, which, it must be

conceded you grant Jews, are only animal rights. The right of seek-
ing food, of devouring it, of sleeping, and of multiplying, are enjoyed
also by the beasts of the field — until they are slain, and to the Jews

you grant no more Men of Frankfort, Hamburg, Lvibeck,

and Bremen, answer me. You complain that Jews are all usurers,
yet you prevent the mental development of those who abandon
usury ! I will not be turned away ; I demand a reply. Men of
Frankfort, tell me : Why should the practice of medicine be restricted
to four Jews, and that of the law be allowed to none ? ... In the


same way in which you in your free city now storm against the Jews,
did you not twenty years ago storm against Catholics ? . . . . Do
you doubt the arrival of the day which will command you to look
upon Jews as your equals.? But you v;ish. to he forced / The Ger-
man is deaf. You will not obey voluntarily ; fate will have to take
hold of you and drag you hither and thither. ■ Shame upon you ! "
Borne remarks in conclusion : " I love neither Jew as Jew, nor
Christian as Christian ; I love them because they are human beings,
and born to be free. Liberty shall be the soul of my pen, until it
becomes blunted, or my hand is lamed."

But Borne wished the Jews to forget as a bad
dream their history of a thousand years, and to
become Germans. He did not possess the far-
sightedness of Heine.

Heinrich Heine (born in Diisseldorf, 1799, died in
Paris, 1854) in his innermost self was infinitely more
of a Jew than Borne ; indeed, he possessed to a
great extent all the favorable and unfavorable char-
acteristics of Jews. Who can paint this "wicked
favorite of the Graces and Muses" (as he was
called), this scoffing romancer and lyrical philoso-
pher, with his chameleon-like nature ? Borne's

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