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Michelet & Vowics

Will You Review-

IBSEN'S TERJE, by Michelet and Vowles.
Price $0.35


322 Cedar Avenue,
Minneapolis - Minn.

Formerly published by us:

Michelet's FIRST YEAR NORSE $1.25

Jonas Lie's STORIES AND POEMS, edited
with Notes and Vocabulary, by Professor
I. Dorrum $0.75

Then we have of other publishers :

Bj0rnson's, EN GLAD GUT, edited with Intro-
duction, Composition Exercises, Notes and

Vocabulary, by Guy Richard Vowles $0.80

Henrik Ibsen, BRAND, edited with Introduc-
tion and Notes by Prof. Julius Olson, Univer-
sity of Wisconsin. 349 pp. Cloth $1.50

KONGSEMNERNE, edited for schools with
Introduction, Notes and Vocabulary, by J. A.
Holvik and P. J. Eikeland. 244 pp. Cloth. $0.90

Bj0rnstjerne Bj0rnson's, EN FALLIT. Edited
with Introduction, Notes and Vocabulary, by
Prof. A. J. Holvik ... $0.90

If you cannot conveniently review TERJE and
SYNN0VE in some newspaper or magazine, an
expression from you as to the merits of the books,
will be greatly appreciated.





Edited with


Maren Michelet, B. L.

Instructor in Norse in the South High School,
Minneapolis, Minn.,

Guy Richard Vowles, M. A. (Oxon.)

Professor of

Latin Language and Literature
at Fargo College


The Free Church Book Concern






In presenting this little school text of Ibsen's
Terje Viken for use in secondary schools,
colleges, seminaries and universities the editors
sincerely hope to supply a want long felt. Terje
Viken is one of the most popular and best known
classic poems in the Norse language. Nearly
every boy and girl in Norway who is at all
versed in Norse literature is familiar with it,
just as every English boy and girl knows Tenny-
son's Enoch Arden.

Owing to the lack of a convenient text it is
little known to those who study the Norse lan-
guage in this country. It is worthy of far
greater recognition than it has hitherto received.
May it prove a source of pleasure and profit
where it makes its advent.

Being a story of the sea, the poem abounds
in nautical terms and many poetic turns of fancy,
rendering it difficult for students unaided to
make a detailed and intelligent study of it. Real-
izing this the editors have compiled with care a
complete vocabulary, supplemented by ample
notes bearing on nautical terms, unusual con-
structions and historical data.

The text, as far as rime and meter would
allow, has been revised in accordance with



S. Juell T0nnessen's Retskrivnings-Ordbok over
det norske Riksmaal (1915) ; Brynildsen's Norsk-
Engelsk Ordbog (1917) has, however, been fre-
quently consulted in compiling the vocabulary.
Among the books to which the editors are
indebted for valuable suggestions may be men-
tioned Digte for Middelskolen* by Kr. Lassen
and B. Pauss, Norske Digte** by Nordahl Rolf-
sen and Lcesebok i morsmaalet*** by Broch and


August 28, 1917.

* Cammermeyers Boghandel, Christiania, 1899.
** Jacob Dybvads Forlag, Christiania, 1913.
*** J. W. Cappelens Forlag, Christiania, 1911.


Henrik Ibsen was born March 20, 1828, in
Skien, Norway. His father was a merchant be-
longing to an old Danish skipper family which
had immigrated to western Norway about the
year 1720. His mother belonged to a German
family, which, a few generations back, had come
to Norway and settled there. Scotch blood, too,
had in the course of time been mingled with the
Danish and the German. Norse admixture might
possibly be traced back on the mother's side.

In spite of his foreign extraction Ibsen was
distinctively Norwegian, even characterized as
being "peculiarly Norse". He became the torch-
bearer of his own little people, and the life of
the small fatherland was the one subject on
which he wrote. The flame from his torch shone
far out over the world and has opened the eyes
not only of his own countrymen, but of all
literary Europe and even more remote realms
across the seas.

There was a sharp contrast in the tempera-
ments of Ibsen's parents. The father was austere,
yet cheerful, vivacious and sociable; the mother
was morose, shy, reticent and reserved. The
father was witty; his keen wit was of the good-
natured sort, but his sarcasm was biting at times.



His fellow citizens felt it and feared his cutting
remarks. Of the mother one of the children
once wrote: "She was a quiet, lovable woman,
the soul of the household, and everything to her
husband and children. It was not in her to be
bitter and reproachful."

It is quite certain that Ibsen's satire and wit
were deeply rooted in the old merchant. On
the other hand we may readily trace the idealism
and morose underlying sentiments which per-
meate all Ibsen's works to his mother.

When Henrik Ibsen was born his father
was a prosperous merchant. The two-story
corner building facing the town square, and in
the heart of the town, was the scene of a thrifty
trade and the center of much sociability.

When Henrik, the eldest of the children, was
in his eighth year there came an abrupt end to
all this glory. Merchant Ibsen failed in business
and lost everything but a small countryseat near
the outskirts of the town. He withdrew with his
family to this place and there led a lonely, se-
cluded, rural life in the struggle for an existence.

The young Henrik seemed to have no play-
mates in his country home. He did not join his
younger brothers and sisters in their play, but
withdrew to his little room near the kitchen and
securely fastened the door. There he dwelt in
his own little world. He read the old Icelandic


sagas, made sketches, constructed a little theatre
and there enacted his childish dramas.

His brothers and sisters thought him tedious
because he would not join them in their noisy
play, and would often disturb him, bombarding
his little workshop. A wild chase about the
house and yard followed, in which Henrik was
the fierce pursuer. But he soon tired of the
chase and returned to his little retreat.

He went to school at Skien for a while, but
as soon as he was confirmed he was obliged to
shift for himself. He was sent to a small coast
town called Grimstad, where he became an ap-
prentice to the sole apothecary of the place.

This dwarf hamlet on the rocks out among
the breakers, away from the hustle and bustle of
the busy outer world, was a tedious, sleepy little
place. The only thing which was great, inspir-
ing, overwhelming was the ocean which rolled
and roared without. It was the one mighty factor
which produced powerful impressions on the
still slumbering genius of the young Ibsen.

"By the sea where the poet
Sees imaged his flight,"

as limned by himself, he undoubtedly formed
those impressions of the ocean and seaman's life
that later crystalized into the powerful epic poem
Terje Viken appearing in 1860. The scenes


pictured in this narrative are all laid in familiar
places near and about Grimstad. Ibsen's famil-
iarity with these localities may not have been the
only reason for choosing them. A personal in-
terest may also have been a consideration. His
grandfather, like his great-grandfather and his
great-great-grandfather, had been a skipper. He
commanded and owned his ship. Once in a
storm he with every soul on board went down
with the ship off Hesnes, near Grimstad. Only
fragments, including the name board of the ves-
sel, drifted ashore, and told the story of the

The monotonous life of this little out-of-the-
way corner of the world, the antiquated indi-
viduals who dwelt there, and the trivial affairs
about which all their interests centered soon be-
came the target for Ibsen's wit and satire.

He became a close student of human nature,
and the many observations he made gave him
rich stores from which he later in life drew many
of the characters and scenes for his modern

The young apothecary's apprentice had not
been in Grimstad long before he began to create
quite a stir and arouse a great deal of bitterness
by his satirical verses aimed at certain indi-
viduals of the community.

While at Grimstad he also wrote his first


drama, Catilina, a feverish outburst of revolu-
tionary enthusiasm kindled to a flame by the
thrilling events of 1848, the revolution in France,
the uprisings of the Magyars and the war in Sles-
vig-Holstein. In the preface to this his first
drama he writes : "I fell out with many, on
account of epigrams and caricature sketches, who
deserved better of me, and whose friendship 1
prized at heart. Altogether, while a heavy storm
was raging without, I found myself on a war-
footing with the little community to which I was
bound by circumstances."

In March, 1850, Ibsen left Grimstad for
Christiania to prepare for his entrance to the
University, where he intended to study medicine.
Together with Vinje, Bj0rnson, Lie and others
who later gained eminence and renown as writers,
Ibsen attended for a while Heltberg's "student
factory". In the meantime, however, he lost all
interest in the study of medicine and began in-
stead to delve in literature and write verses.

This did not afford him even a scant liveli-
hood. He was obliged many a time to go with-
out his meals. Finally he was engaged as direc-
tor of the Norse theatre at Bergen, where he
remained for several years. Later he returned
to Christiania and held a similar position at the
theatre there. During all these years he con-
tinued to write and put forth the one drama after


the other, meeting opposition and severe criti-
cism each time a new play made its advent.

In 1864 he went abroad, dissatisfied and dis-
couraged because his literary achievements had
been accorded so little recognition and apprecia-
tion. From that time on, for a period of twenty-
seven years, he made but one visit to the father-
land. He lived a life of voluntary exile, spend-
ing most of the time in Italy and Germany.

His longing for the land of his birth, how-
ever, manifested itself in many of his poems, and
he came to feel that he must see the home land
once more. In the poem Burned Sh ips he writes
these lines so full of longing:

"To the huts of the snowlands
Every night of the year,
From these sunlit lowlands
Speeds a cavalier."

(From William Morton Payne's Henrik Ibsen.)

In 1872, when Norway commemorated the
thousandth anniversary of Harold Fairhaired's
victory at Havsfjord, he sent home his great
poem "For the Millennial Festival" with this
greeting to his people :

"My countrymen, who made for me to flow
That tonic draught, bitter, but strong to save,
That gave the poet, standing by his grave,


New strength to fight beneath the sun's fierce


Who then to me the staff of exile gave,
Of fear the sandals, and the pack of woe;
Who sent me with such outfit forth to roam,
Here from the world I send this greeting home.

"I send, and thank you for the griefs that harden
And cleanse the soul with flow of bitter tears ;
For all the flowers which bloom in life's rich


Are firmly rooted in those bygone years ;
That here in full luxuriant life they grow
To chilling blasts sent from afar they owe;
Mist-nurtured, in the sun they here expand,
For these best gifts I thank my native land."

(From William Morton Payne's Henrib Ibsen.)

In 1891 Ibsen became suddenly possessed with
an intense longing to visit Norway again, and to
see once more the mountains, the fjords and the
enchanted far north. After a summer's cruise
in northern waters he returned to Christiania.
He prolonged his stay there week after week,
month after month, until Norway one day awoke
to the realization that her great and gifted son
had come home to stay, to spend in serenity and
quietude the eventide of life, beloved and honor-
ed by the whole nation.

The Norwegian people paid him all possible


homage. If they had formerly shown him a lack
of appreciation, he now received so much the
more recognition, and each new work from his
pen was awaited with intense expectations.

Ibsen ranks high as a lyric poet. His songs
excel in both form and content. Woven into his
dramas are many of the most beautiful lyrics to
be found in the Norse tongue. Among them
may be mentioned Agnes in Brand, Solveig's
Song in Peer Gynt, The Cradle Song in The
Pretenders and 0rnulf's Draapa in The War-
riors. Other poems worthy of mention here are
The Eider Duck, The Miner, Fear of Light,
King Haakon's Guild Hall, For the Millennial
Festival and his longer epic Terje Viken appear-
ing in this text.

But it is as a dramatist that Ibsen has reached
the highest pinnacle and won the greatest re-
nown. His earliest dramas give us grand and
powerful pictures of Norway's early history re-
vealed in a masterly way in the saga style so
characteristic of the people of the saga age.
Among these historical dramas may be men-
tioned Fru Inger at 0steraat, The Warriors and
The Pretenders.

Emperor and Galilean is one of the very few
of his works which take their themes from
universal history ; it portrays the desperate strug-
gle of heathendom against Christianity.


Beginning with Love's Comedy, which ap-
peared even earlier than The Pretenders, Ibsen
presents to his readers his modern dramas of
romanticism written in blank verse. Brand and
Peer Gynt are the other two dramas of this
group and constitute the very essence of his art.

Henceforth Ibsen appears as a realist and
uses as his medium of expression the simple
modern prose form of the Norse language. In
creating the problem plays he ventured into
greater and broader fields, bringing messages
equally vital to all humanity.

The League of Youth marks the advent of
realism in Ibsen's writings. A long series of
dramas follows it, each succeeding one being
more eagerly awaited than the preceding. Among
them may be mentioned : Pillars of Society, A
Doll's House, Ghosts, An Enemy of the People,
The Wild Duck, Rosmersholm, The Lady from
the Sea, Hedda Gablcr, The Master Builder and
others. When We Dead Awake was his last
word to the world that he had puzzled with his
doubts and his mysterious problems.

Ibsen died in Christiania May 23, 1906, and
was laid to rest there. Representatives from
far and near came to pay him their tribute. In
foreign lands memorial tablets mark the homes
where he has dwelt and written the great master-
pieces which have immortalized his name.



So extensive indeed are the writings about
Ibsen and his works that no attempt will be made
in this little book to offer even an approximate
list of references.

Those wishing a more detailed list are refer-
red to Jaegers Illustreret Norsk Literaturhisto-
rie, Volume III, pages 709 and 710. We wish,
however, to make particular mention here of the
following :

Henrik Jaeger: Henrik Ibsen 18281888. Et
litercert livsbillede. (Kbhv. 1888) and Henrik
Jaeger : Henrik Ibsen og hans varker. En frem-
stilling i grundrids. (Kra. 1892). The first of
these two reference works appears in an English
translation entitled: Henrik Ibsen, A Critical
Biography by Henrik Jazger. From the Nor-
rvegian by William Morton Payne. Published
by A. C. McClurg and Company, Chicago, 1890.



Der bodde en underlig graaspraengt en
paa den ytterste, n0gne ;
ban gjorde visst intet menneske men
hverken paa land eller sj0;
5 dog stundom gnistret bans 0ine stygt,
heist mot urolig veir,
og da mente folk at ban var forrykt;
og da var der faa som uten frygt
kom Terje Viken nser.


10 Siden jeg saa ham en enkelt gang,

ban laa ved bryggen med fisk;

bans haar var hvitt, men ban lo og sang

og var som en ungdom frisk.

Til pikerne hadde ban skjemtsomme ord,
15 ban sp0kte med byens b0rn,

ban svinget sydvesten og sprang ombord,

saa heiste ban fokken, og hjem ban for

i solskin, den gamle 0rn.



Nu skal jeg fortaelle hvad jeg bar h0rt
20 *om Terje fra f0rst til sidst,

og skulde det stundom falde litt t0rt,

saa er det dog sandt og visst;

jeg bar det just ei fra bans egen mund,

men vel fra bans naermeste kreds,
25 fra dem som stod bos i bans sidste stund

og lukket bans 0ine til fredens blund,

da ban d0de holt opp' i de tres.


Han var i sin ungdom en vild krabat,

kom tidlig fra far og mor,
30 og hadde alt d0iet mangen dravat

som yngste jungmand ombord.

Siden han r^mte i Amsterdam,

men laengtes nok hjem tilslut,

og kom med "Foreningen", kaptein Pram
35 men hjemme var ingen som kjendte ham

der reiste som liten gut.


Xu var ban vokset sig smuk og stor,

og var dertil en velklsedt knegt.

Men d0de var baade far og mor,
40 og sagtens bans hele slegt.

Han sturet en dag, ja kanhaende to,

men saa rystet ban sorgen av.

Han fandt ei, med landjorden under sig, ro;

nei, da var det bedre at bygge og bo
45 paa det store, bplgende hav !


Et aar derefter var Terje gift,
det kom nok paa i en hast.
Folk mente ban angret paa den bedrift,
som bandt paa et saet ham fast.
50 Saa levet ban under sit eget tag
en vinter i sus og dus,
skj0nt ruterne skinnet som klareste dag,
med smaa gardiner og blomster bag,
i det lille r0dmalte bus.



55 Da isen 10snet for lindveirsbjzfr,

gik Terje med briggen paa reis;

om hasten, da graagaasen fl0i mot s0r,

ban m0tte den underveis.

Da faldt som en vegt paa matrosens bryst
60 ban kjendte sig sterk og ung,

ban kom fra solskinnets lysende kyst,

agter laa verden med liv og lyst,

og for baugen en vinter tung.


De ankret, og kammeratene gik
65 med landlov til sus og dus.

Han sendte dem endnu et Isengselsblik,

da ban stod ved sit stille bus.

Han glyttet ind bak det hvite gardin,

da saa ban i stuen to,
70 bans kone sat stille og hesplet lin,

men i vuggen laa, frisk og r0d og fin,

en liten pike og lo.



Der sagdes at Terjes sind med ett
fik alvor fra denne stund.

75 Han traellet og slet og blev aldrig trset
av at vugge sit barn i blund. ,

Om s^ndagskvelden, naar dansen klang
vildt fra den nsermeste gaard,
sine gladeste viser ban hjemme sang,

80 mens lille Anna laa paa bans fang
og drog i bans brune haar.


Saa lakket og led det til krigens aar
i attenhundred og ni.
Endnu gaar sagn om de traengselskaar

85 som folket da stedtes i.

Engelske krydsere staengte hver havn,
i landet var misvekst og n0d,
den fattige sultet, den rike led savn,
to kraftige armer var ingen til gavn,

90 for djzfren stod sott og d0d.



Da sturet Terje en dag eller to,
saa rystet ban sorgen av;
han mindtes en kj ending, gammel og tro :
det store, bplgende hav.
95 Der vester bar endnu bans gjerning liv
i sagnet, som djerveste daad :
"Da vinden kulet litt mindre stiv,
Terje Viken rodde for barn og viv
over havet i aapen baad !"

100 Den mindste skjegte der var at faa,

blev valgt til bans Skagensfart.

Seil og mast lot han hjemme staa,

slikt tyktes han bedst bevart.

Han mente nok, Terje, at baaten bar,
105 om sj0en kom litt paa tvers;

det jydske rev var vel svsert at gaa klar,

men vserre den engelske "man of war"

med 0rne0ine fra mers.



Saa gav ban sig trjztetig lykken i void
110 og tok til aarerne hvast.

Til Fladstrand kom ban i god behold

og hentet sin dyre last.

Gud vet bans faring var ikke stor:

tre tender byg, det var alt;
115 men Terje kom fra en fattig jord,

nu hadde ban livsens frelse ombord;

det var hustru og barn det gjaldt.


Tre naetter og dage til toften bandt

den sterke, modige mand;
120 den fjerde morgen, da solen randt,

ban skimtet en taaket rand.

Det var ikke flygtende skyer ban saa,

det var fjelde med tinder og skar;

men h0it over alle aasene laa
125 Imenes-sadlen bred og blaa.

Da kjendte ban hvor ban var.



Naer hj emmet var ban; en stakket tid

ban holder endnu vel ud !

Hans hjerte sig 10ftet i tro og lid,
130 ban var naer ved en b0n til Gud.

Da var det som ordet fr0s paa bans mund;

ban stirret, ban tok ikke feil,

gjennem skodden, som lettet i samme stund,

ban saa en korvet i Hesnes-sund
135 at duve for bakkede seil.


Baaten var r^bet; der 10d et signal,
og det nasrmeste 10p var lukt;
men solgangsvinden blafret skral,
mot vester gik Terjes flugt.
140 Da firte de jollen fra rselingens kant,
ban h0rte matrosenes sang,
med f^tterne stemte mot skjegtens spant
ban rodde saa sj0en fosset og brandt,
og blodet fra neglene sprang.



145 Gjaeslingen kaldes de blinde skjser

litt 0stenfor Homborg-sund.

Der bryter det stygt i paalandsveir,

under to fot vand er der bund.

Der sprpiter det hvitt, der glitrer det gult,
150 selv stilleste havbliksdag;

men gaar end d^nningen aldrig saa hult,

indenfor er det som tiest smult,

med braekkede bjzilgedrag.


Ditind Terje Vikens skjegte for
155 lik en pil mellem brott og brand;

men bakefter ham, i kj01vandets spor,

jog j oil en med femten mand.

Da var det ban skrek gjennem brsendingens sus

til Gud i sin h^ieste n0d:
160 "Inderst derinde paa strandens grus

sitter min viv ved det fattige bus,

og venter med barnet paa br0d !"



Dog h0iere skrek nok de f emten end ban ;

som ved Lyng^r, saa gik det her.
165 Lykken er med den engelske mand

paa rov mellem Norges skjaer.

Da Terje t0rnet mot baaens top,

da skuret og jollen paa grund;

fra stavnen b0d of ficeren "stop !"
170 Han haevet en aare med bladet op

og hug den i skjegtens bund.


Spant og planker for hugget brast,

sj^en stod ind som en f os ;

paa to fot vand sank den dyre last,
175 dog sank ikke Terjes trods.

Han slog sig gjennem de vsebnede msend

og sprang over sesingen ud,

ban dukket og sv^mmet og dukket igjen ;

men jollen kom los ; hvor ban vendte sig hen
180 klang sabler og rifleskud.



De fisket ham op, ban f0rtes ombord,
korvetten gav seierssalut;
agter paa hytten stolt og stor
stod chefen, en attenaars gut.
185 Hans fjzfrste batalje gjaldt Terjes baad,
ti kneiste ban nu saa kjaek;
men Terje visste ei Isengere raad,
den sterke mand laa med b0n og graad
i knse paa korvettens dsek.


190 Han kj0pte med taarer, de solgte ham smil,

de aagret ham spot for bjz!n.

Det kulet fra 0ster, tilhavs med il

stod Englands seirende s0n.

Da taug Terje Viken, nu var det gjort,
195 nu tok han sin sorg for sig selv.

Men de som ham fanget, fandt ssert hvor fort

et noget var likesom veiret bort

fra bans pandes skyede hvselv.



Han sat i "prisonen" i lange aar,
200 der siges, i fulde fern;

bans nakke bp'ide sig, graat blev bans haar

av drjzfmmene om bans hjem.

Noget ban bar paa, men gav ei besked,

det var som bans eneste skat.
205 Saa kom attenbundred og f jorten med f red ;

de norske f anger, og Terje med,

fortes hjem paa en svensk fregat.


Hjemme ved bryggen ban steg i land

med kongens patent som lods;
210 men faa kun kjendte den graaspraengte mand,

der reiste som ting matros.

Hans bus var en f remmeds ; hvad der blev av

de to, ban derinde erf or :

"Da manden forlot dem, og ingen dem gav,
215 saa fik de til slutning en fselles grav

av kommunen i fattigfolks jord."



Aarene gik, og han rj/Jgtet sin dont

som lods paa den ytterste 0;

han gjorde visst intet nienneske ondt

220 hverken paa land eller sjjzf;

men stundom gnistret bans jzfine stygt,
naar det br0t over baaer og skjser,
og da mente folk at han var forrykt,
og da var der faa som uten frygt

225 kom Terje Viken naer.


En maaneskinskveld meet paalandsvind
kom der liv i lodsenes f lok ;
en engelsk yacht drev mot kysten ind
med revnet storseil og fok.
230 Fra fortoppen sendte det r0de flag
et n^dskrik foruten ord.
Litt indenfor gik der en baat over stag,
den vandt sig mot uveiret slag for slag,
og lodsen stod staut ombord.


235 Han tyktes saa tryg, den graasprsengte mand;

lik en kjaempe i rattet han grep:

yachten lystret, stod atter fra land,

og baaten svam efter paa slasp.

Lorden, med lady og barn i arm,
240 kom agter; han tok til sin hat:

"Jeg gj0r dig saa rik som du nu er arm,
hvis frelste du bser' os av bramdingens larm."

Men lodsen slap ror og rat.

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