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XXVIII

Han hvitnet om kindet, det lo om hans mund,
245 lik et smil cler omsider faar magt.

Indover bar det, og h0it paa grand

stod lordens praegtige yacht.

"Den svigtet kommando! I baatene ned!

Mylord og mylady med mig!
250 Den slaar sig i splinter, jeg vet besked

men indenfor ligger den trygge led;

mit kj^lspor skal vise jer vei !"



TERJE VIKEN 15



XXIX

Morilden brgendte der skjegten f!0i

mot land med sin dyre last.
255 Agter stod lodsen, sterk og h01,

bans 0ie var vildt og hvast.

Han skottet i lae mot Gjaeslingens top

og til luvart mot Hesnes-sund ;

da slap ban ror og stagseilstrop,
260 ban. svinget en aare med bladet op

og hug den i baatens bund.

XXX

Ind stod sj0en med skumhvitt spruit

der raste paa vraket en strid ;

men moderen 10ftet sin datter h0it

265 paa armen, av rsedsel hvid.

"Anna, mit barn !" bun skrek i sin ve,
da bsevret den graaspraengte mand ;
ban fattet om skj^tet, drev roret i lae,
og baaten var fast som en fugl at se,

270 slik for den i brott og brand.



16 TERJE VIKEN



XXXI

Den t^rnet, cle sank; men havet var smult
derindenfor braendingens kreds ;
opover rak sig en langgrund skjult,
der stod de i vandet tilknses.
275 Da ropte lorden: "Kjend, baaens ryg
den svigter, det er ingen flu !"
Men lodsen srnilte: "Nei, vaer De tryg;
en sunken skjegte med tre tender byg
er baaen som baer' os nu."

XXXII
280 Der jog et minde om halvglemt daad

lik et lyn over lordens trsek ,

ban kjendte matrosen som laa med graad

i knae paa korvettens daek !

Da skrek Terje Viken : "Alt mit du holdt
285 i din haand, og du slap det for ros.

Et 0ieblik endnu, og gjengjseld er voldt "

da var det den engelske stormand stolt

bjzfide knse for den norske lods.



TERJE VIKEN



XXXIII

A fen Terje stod st0ttet til aarens skaft,
290 saa rank som i ungdovnmens aar;

Jians 0ine brandt i ubsendig kraft,

for vinden flommet bans haar.

"Du seilet i niak paa din store korvet,

jeg rodde min ringe baat;
295 jeg trrellet for mine til d^den traet,

clu tok deres br0d, og det faldt dig saa let

at haane min bitre graat.

XXXIV

Din rike lady er lys som en vaar,

hendes baand er som silke fin,
300 m i n bustrus baand den var grov og haard

men bun var nu allikevel min.

D i t barn bar guldbaar og pine blaa,

som en liten Vorherres gjest;

m i n datter var intet at agte paa,
305 bun var, Gud bedre det, mager og graa,

som fattigfolks b0rn er flest.



IS TERJB VIKEN



XXXV

Se, d e t var min rigdom paa denne jord,
det var alt hvad jeg kaldte for mit,
det tyktes for mig en skat saa stor % ,

310 men det veiet for dig saa litt.

Nu er det gjengjgeldelsens time slaar,
ti nu skal du friste en stund >
som vel kommer op mot de lange aar
der bo'ide min nakke og blekte mit haar

315 og ssenkte min lykke paa grund."

XXXVI

Barnet ban grep og svinget det frit,
med den venstre om ladyens liv.
"Tilbake, mylord ! Et eneste skridt,
og det koster dig barn og viv !"
320 Paa sprang stod britten til kamp paa ny ;
men armen var vek og mat;
hans aande brsendte, bans 0ine var sky,
og hans haar saa kjendtes ved f^rste gry
blev graat i den eneste nat.



TERJE VIKEN



XXXVII

325 Men Terjes pande bar klarhet og fred,

hans bringe gik frit og stilt.

^rb^dig lj?iftet ban barnet ned

og kysset dets haender mildt.

Han aandet, som Ip'st fra et fsengsels hvselv,
33C hans stemme 10Y1 rolig og jevn :

"Nu er Terje Viken igjen sig selv.

Incltil nu gik niit blod som en stenet elv ;

for jeg m a a 1 1 e jeg m a a 1 1 e ba bevn !

XXXVIII

De lange aar i "prisonens" kvalm,
335 de gjorde mit hjerte sykt.

Bakefter laa jeg som heiens halm,

og saa i et braadyp stygt.

Men nu er det over; vi to er kvit;

din skyldner for ei med svik.
340 Jeg gav det jeg hadde, du tok alt mit,

og kra?v, om du tror du bar uret licit,

Vorherre, som skapte mig slik."



20 TERJE VIKEN



XXXIX

Da dagningen lyste, var hver mand frelst;

yachten laa laengst i havn.
345 Med nattens saga taug de nok heist,

men vidt for dog Terjes navn.

Dr0mmenes uveirsskyer graa

feide en stormnat vaek;

og Terje bar atter saa rank, som faa,
350 den nakke der kr^ktes hin dag ban laa

i knae paa korvettens daek.

XL

Lorden kom, og mylady med,

og mange, mange med dem ;

de rystet hans baand til farvel og Guds fred,
355 der de stod i hans ringe hjem.

De takket for frelsen da stormen pep,

for frelsen fra sj^gang og skjaer;

men Terje str^k over barnets slaep:

"Nei, den som frelste, da vserst det knep,
360 det var nok den lille der!"



TERJE VIKEN 21



XLI

Da yachten dreiet for Hesnes-sund,
den heiste det norske flag.
Litt Isengere vest er en skumklsedt grund,
der gav den det glatte lag.
365 Da tindret en taare i Terjes blik,
nan stirret f ra heien ud :
"Stort liar jeg mistet, men stort jeg fik.
Bedst var det, kanhande, det gik som det gik,
og saa faar du ha tak da, Gud!"

XLII
370 Slik var det jeg saa ham en enkelt gang,

han laa ved bryggen med fisk;

hans haar var hvitt, men han lo og sang

og var som en ungdom frisk.

Til pikerne hadde han skjemtsomme ord,
375 han spefkte med byens btfrn,

han svinget s) dvesten og sprang ombord,

saa heiste han fokken, og hjem han for

i solskin, den gamle 0rn.



2-2



TERJE VIKEN



XLlli

Yed Fjaere kirke jeg saa en grav,
380 den laa paa en veirhaard plet;

den var ikke skjdttet, var sunken og lav,

men bar dog sit sorte bret.

Der stod "TH^RIE \VIIGHEX" med hvitmalt skrift,

samt aaret han hvile fandt.
385 Han lagdes for solbrand og vindes vift,

og derfor blev grsesset saa stridt og stivt,

men med vilcle blomster iblandt.




NOTES.

In 1807 Napoleon and the Russian Czar had a meet-
ing at Tilsit, in Prussia. They then agreed that Russia
should have Finland ; but Napoleon was to be allowed
to take the great Norse-Danish fleet and use it against
England. The English caught wind of this and in the
greatest haste sent a fleet against Copenhagen. The
crown prince Frederick fled to Holstein in company
with his mentally unbalanced father and the ruling gov-
ernment. The English immediately bombarded the
Danish capital, set fire to five hundred buildings and
took the entire fleet. Then Frederick joined forces
with Napoleon and declared war against both England
and Sweden.

Norway, being at that time under Danish rule, was
drawn into the conflict. In consequence misfortune and
distress befell the country. The Norsemen had for a
long period of years been carrying on an extensive
commerce with Great Britain ; they shipped a large part
of their lumber to England and received other wares
in return, and besides, Norwegian ships carried con-
considerable other freightage from England to other
countries.

It was at that time, even to a greater extent than
now, very difficult for Norway to supply her own
population with bread ; she was obliged to import a
great deal of grain from Denmark, and especially
Jutland. After the bombardment of Copenhagen all
this intercourse with Denmark was cut off, and the
British controlled all the waterways leading from Nor-
way to other countries. Almost unhindered the Eng-
lish ruled the North Sea, capturing and destroying all



24 TERJE VIKEN

Norwegian merchantmen which they happened to come
across. They almost rendered impossible all seafaring
and thus also hampered all importation to Norway. This
occasioned keen distress in the years following 1807,
because crop failures and years of scarcity visited the
land. When seafaring, exportation of lumber and for-
eign trade ceased, hard times followed.

The events which this poem relates happened during
these years of hardship and gloom. The main char-
acter of this story is scarcely known elsewhere. He is
decidedly a Norse type, but many of the happenings
of this narrative are related elsewhere, so that the
poem in the main is historically true.

Already in his youthful productions Ibsen revealed
in his poetry a wealth of possibilities which he later
developed as a world poet. Many years of struggle
and hardship brought a rich harvest of ripe fruitage.
He became a great master of style both in prose and
poetry and exercised the utmost precision in detail
of execution. This is clearly exemplified in Terje
Viken. He frequently violates the rules of inverted
order, employs unusual constructions and uses many
poetic and archaic expressions and forms. All this he
does for the sake of the rhythm and rime. The poem
is written in the narrative style and follows closely
the regular stanza of the old ballads of the four-stress
type, with extra light syllables admitted anywhere yet
not in great numbers. The long alliterative lines have
with studied preciseness four stresses, but in the shorter
lines, generally the second and the fourth, etc., the
fourth stress is lost. This is often termed the "tumb-
ling verse," regular in rhythm and rime, but indifferent
to the number of syllables. Where most regular it
approximates closely the regular four-stress anapestic,



NOTES



as exemplified in the scansion of the first verse of the
poem, as follows :

Der bod'ide en uii|derlig graa|spraengt en

paa den yt|terste, n0g\ne 6; -

ban gjofjde visst in tet men|neske me"6

hvef|ken paa land"| eller sjo;

dog stun'dom gnis^ret bans 0fjne styg't,

heist j mot urojlig veif,

og da | mente folk' [ at ban vaf | forryk't;

og da ' var der faa | som u]ten fryg't

kom Tef|je Vfken nser.



The story of the poem Terje Viken may properly
be divided into two main parts, marking two epochs in
the life of the hero. Part I comprises the verses iv
to xxv inclusive, and Part II the verses xxvi to xlii
inclusive.

The first two verses of the poem introduce the read-
er to the hero of this narrative and awaken our in-
terest in him by the portrayal of a certain period of
his earlier life in sharp contrast to a later period when



26 TERJE VIKEN

we really learn to know him. Each of the main parts
contains recurring lines and passages found in these
beginning verses. Note will be made of this as we
proceed.

The third verse is really the introduction to the story
that follows, and which ends with the forty-second
verse.

The forty-third, the last verse of the poem, is the
resume or close, and gives us a picture of Terje's ex-
posed and weather-beaten grave which seems to typify
the hero himself.

*****

Line 6, heist mot urolig veir, especially when there
was a forecast of unsettled weather, or when stormy
weather was brewing.

Line 10, siden jeg saa ham, note the violation of rule
for inverted order. See Michelet's First Year Norse,
page 47.

Line 10, en enkelt gang, once in a while, at rare oc-
casions, occasionally.

Line 16, sydvest, a southwester (called by the sailors
a sou'wester), a sailor's broad-brimmed tarpaulin, or
waterproof canvas storm hat. It takes its name from
the southwester, a wind, gale, or storm from the south-
west which generally brings rain.

Line 17, fok (of Dutch origin), the triangular fore-
sail before the foremast of a boat.

Line 18, t solskin, literally, in sunshine: in good
humor.

Line 18, 0rn, literally, eagle : the old seaman may well
be called an eagle, partly because he sails over the sea,
and partly because of his sharp features and his keen
glance.

Line 24, vel, has many meanings in various con-
structions. Might be translated here: to be sure.



NOTES 27

Line 25, stod hos, in this phrase ham is understood :
were with him, were at his bedside.

Line 27, trcs, abbreviated form for tresindstyve (ire
ganger tyve), the Danish method of counting which was
formerly used in Norway, especially in the Eastland.
It is fast becoming obsolete. They now say seksti.
See Michelet's First Year Norse, page 67. Translate
i de tres, in the sixties.

Line 28, krabat, wild, unmanageable fellow, rascal.
Terje's childhood and early youth were wild, perhaps
more mischievous, foolhardy and daring than really
vicious, like many a sailor lad's in the western coast
towns of Norway. Often such boys were sent to sea
to be disciplined, or the lure of the sea tempted them
to stow away on some vessel bound for foreign lands.
The term krabat had formerly the disparaging mean-
ing, but has come to bear more the jesting, good-na-
tured meaning of rascal. It is derived from the word
kroat (Croat). The Croats were known in the Thirty
Years' War as a band of wild soldiers.

Line 30, dravat (derived from the Dutch), eddy-
wind followed by thunder and lightning and storm. It
is used metaphorically here to symbolize Terje's hard-
ships, or adversity.

Line 31, jungmand, a sailor who has not yet been
rated as an "able" seaman, has not yet served his
years of apprenticeship.

Line 32, Siden han r0mtc, note the violation of the
rule of inverted order.

Line 33, nok, like vcl, has many and varied transla-
tions. Might be translated here : I dare say.

Line 37, var han vokset sig, common usage demands
the use of the auxiliary at ha instead of at v&re with
reflexive verbs. Ibsen deviates from the rule in this
passage.



28 TERJE V1KEN

Line 40, sagtens (an adverb), like the word vel, has
man>' and varied meanings. May be translated here:
I dare say.

Line 42, ryste sorgcn av, to cease to mourn, to cast
off his sorrow.

Line 49, paa ct s&t (paa sect og vis), in some way, in
a way, in a fashion.

Line 50, Saa levet han under sit eget tag

Terje was not slow in forgetting his sorrow. The
same giddiness and thoughtlessness of his earlier youth
manifested itself in his hasty marriage. He soon be-
gan to live his former free and easy life, although his
wife sought to keep him away from the dizzy whirl
(sus og dus) by making the home as cheerful, cozy
"and attractive as possible.

Line 55, lindrcirsbffr, the wind that brings a thaw,
or open weather.

Line 56, briggen, the brig, a two-masted, square-
rigged vessel. The use of the post-positive definite
article here is undoubtedly to designate the particular
vessel with which Terje was accustomed to sail.

Line 58, han mptte den unden'ds, note here the vio-
lation of the rule for inverted order.

Line 59, vegt, a weight. When he neared home he
was weighed down by the thought of the duties that
lay upon him as a married man, and which would
deprive him of unrestrained freedom and the gay and
easy seaman's life, in which he still felt much at home,
because he was still full of buoyant spirits (sterk og
ung).

Line 63, for baugen, literally, before the bow, mean-
ing before him, in the near future.

Line 65, landlor, furlough, shore leave. When reach-
ing port the sailors cannot leave the vessel without
being granted a leave of absence.



NOTES 29

Line 70, hesple, or hespe, to reel yarn from the spin-
dle of the spinning wheel, or to wind yarn or thread
into balls from a reel.

Lines 73 and 74, Der sagdes at Terjes sind med ett
fik alvor fra denne stund. It suddenly dawned upon
Terje how domestic and worthy his wife was, and the
feeling toward their little child tamed his wild and
unyielding nature ; he was transformed as by a leap
from boyhood into manhood.

Lines 77 to 79, Om sfndagskvelden sine gladestc

viser fftin hjemme sang, note the violation of the rule
for inverted order for the sake of rhythm.

Line 80, lillc Anna (den lille Anna), the pre-positive
article may be omitted when the adjective becomes a
part of a pet name, e.g., lillemand, lillemor.

Line 82, krigens aar, the war had already begun in
1807, but probably the effects of the war were not so
keenly felt until a few years later.

Line 89, ingen (a dative form), render ingen til
gavn, of benefit to no one.

Line 92, note the repetition here of line 42. Terje's
character and his old habit of shaking off sorrow and
grief again manifests itself.

Line 97, stiv, literally, stiff, a seaman's term describ-
ing a strong wind, or gale.

Line 98, da vindcn kulet Terje Viken rodde

o. s. v., note the violation of rule for inverted order.

Line 98, mv (a poetic form almost obsolete), Old
Norse vif, same root as the English wife.

Line 100, skjegte, in southern Norway this is the
name of a small sailboat, sometimes a four-oared boat.

Line 101, Skagensfart, Skagerack journey. The dis-
tance from Terje's home around Skagerack Point to
Fladstrand, Jutland (now known as Fredrikshavn),
where the Norwegian ships used to take on cargoes



30 TERJE VIKEN

of grain, is about ninety -three or ninety-four English
miles.

Line 103, slikt tyktcs ham (han is according to Las-
sen and Pauss, Digte for middelskolen, a misprint). It
is an impersonal expression with subject omitted: thus
it seemed to him the safest way, i. e., he felt safer in
this way.

Line 106, del jydske rev, the Jutland reef, a long
projecting sandbank dangerous in stormy weather.

Line 107, "man of war," from the English man-of-
war, an armed vessel belonging to the navy or military
marine, generally of considerable size. The word is
pronounced by Norwegian sailors manorar'.

Line 108, mers, a platform of wood some distance
up the mast used for a lookout. In the mers, or look-
out, on a man-of-war is stationed a lookout man.

Line 111, Fladstrand, a harbor located in eastern
Jutland.

Line 113, faring, from the verb at ffire, to carry,
hence a cargo.

Line 116, livsens frclse (livsens is an old genitive form
for livets), render lirscns frclse, life's salvation, sus-
tenance.

Lines 118-119, note that mand is nominative case and
subject; n&tter and dage are adverbial nouns.

Lines 120-121, den fjerde morgen, han skim-

tet o. s. v., note the violation of the rule for inverted
order.

Line 125, Imcncs-sadlcn, usually called Grimstadsalen,
a well-known seamark, a high mountain about three
English miles from Grimstad ; it can be seen far out
at sea. This mountain has a depression in the middle,
therefore the name "saddle."

The various names of places which occur in this
poem can clearly be seen on any map of southern Xor-



NOTES 31

way, and may be easily located between Grimstad and
Lillesand.

Line 128, han holder endiitt vel ud, note the viola-
tion of the rule for inverted order.

Line 130, han "car nar ved en bfin til Gud, Terje was
accustomed to depend upon himself alone, but the pros-
pect of bringing his dear ones at home relief from
hunger makes him tender-hearted and causes him to
turn to God from Whom all blessings flow.

Lines 133-134, gjennem skodden han saa en

korvet , note violation of rule for inverted

order.

Line 134, korvet (corvette), an old-fashioned war-
ship with three full-rigged masts, and with cannon only
on the upper deck; ranks next below a frigate.

Line 134, Hesncs-sund, a sound closed in by Hesnes
Islands just outside Grimstad.

Line 135, at duve, to move up and down in the sea.
Render the infinitive at duve by the English participle
tossing, or pitching.

Line 135, bakkedc (derived from the infinitive at
bakke, meaning to place the sails toward the wind in
such a way that they do not move the ship forward),
may be rendered here windward.

Line 138, solgangsi-ind, a wind that begins in the
north and east in the morning, and veers with the sun,
so that in the course of the day it is westerly.

Line 138, skral, literally means poor, or scanty. It
describes a wind that blows toward one, so it cannot
be used without tacking.

Line 140, jolle, a ship's boat, stubby aft.

Line 142, spant, the ribs of the boat.

Lines 142-143, med fptterne stemte han

rodde , note violation of rule for inverted

order.



32 TERJE VIKEN

Line 145, Gj(esHngen(e) (given in the singular in
text for the sake of meter, but generally written in the
plural), more commonly known and designated on the
map as Gaasungerne (goslings), shoals close by the
islet Gaasen about four English miles from Lillesand.

Line 146, pstenfor Homborg-sund, this is incorrect;
they lie southwest from Homborg Sound. (See Nor-
ske Digtc red Nordahl Rolfscn, page 343.) Homborg-
sund, or Homborsund, is east of Lillesand.

Line 150, havbliksdag, a day when the ocean lies
smooth like a mirror.

Line 151, dinning, swell, high sea, especially the roll-
ing sea which continues after the wind has died down.

Line 151, hull (long u), with high, hollow waves.

Line 152, smult (long u), calm, still.

Line 153, brcekkede bfilgedrag, surf breaking upon
the shore.

Line 154, Ditind Tcrjc Vikens skjegte for, note the
violation of rule for inverted order on account of
rime.

Line 155, brott og brand, both words mean the foam-
ing, frothing whirlpool in the surf; the sea is all
feather-white.

Line 158, brcendingens sits, the roar of the breakers.
Terje seems to doubt now whether the God of love,
to whom in verse xv he turns in prayer, will render
help in this hour of dire need.

Line 164, ved Lyngpr, at this place east of Grim-
stad, in 1812, the Norwegian frigate "Xajaden" was
destroyed by the English line-of-battle ship "Dictator."
Najaden, in order to escape the superior ship of the
enemy, had sailed in through a shallow and dangerous
waterway among the belt of islands; the English com-
mander boldly followed where he saw the top of the
masts of "Najaden," and although he did not have a



NOTES 33

pilot on board who knew these waters, he luckily got
in and overtook the Norwegian frigate, just as it
anchored in the harbor, and where it could not lay
to in an advantageous position; thus it was soon shot
to pieces and totally destroyed.

Line 168, og (ogsaa}, translate also, too.

Line 177, ccsingen, the gunwale, or lengthwise strip
covering the upper end of the framing timbers in a
boat.

Line 179, los, or loss, (pronounced laass), loose,
free.

Line 183, paa hytten, the quarter-deck, the part of
the after-deck reserved for the officers only.

Line 184, en attenaars gut, the British commander
who did the daring deed at Lyng0r was only twenty-
one; undoubtedly with this in mind Ibsen makes the
English commander in his narrative a mere boy of
eighteen years.

Line 186, ft (derfor), translate here consequently.

Line 187, raad, way out of the dilemma or predica-
ment.

Line 191, at aagre, to practice usury, to charge too
high interest for one's money, to seek to gain much
for little; in other words they let him beg and implore
in vain.

Line 1%, men dc som ham fanget, note the unusual
position of the direct object ham.

Line 1%, fandt scert, fandt (del} scert, found it
strange or peculiar.

Line 197, et noget, his forehead had had somewhat
the stamp of that love which filled his heart; now this
changed as if to stone.

Line 199, prisonen (pronounce pris'n as in English).

Line 203, noget han bar paa, men gav ei bcsked, some-
thing he brooded over, but unburdened it to no one.



34 TERJE VIKEN

Note the violation of rule for inverted order in han
bar paa.

Line 207, fortes hjem paa en svensk fregat, the fact
that the prisoners were sent home on a Swedish trans-
port shows that the fatherland was now helpless, and
a new turn of affairs had come about.

Line 208, Hjem me ved bryggen han steg i land, note
the violation of the rule for inverted order.

Line 209, patent, license, patent, letters of creation or
appointment, especially a pilot's license.

Line 212, en fremmcds (lius). Adjective used sub-
stantively. (See Michelet's First Year Norse, page 43).
Line 219, note in this line and those following the
recurring lines found in verse ii.

Line 228, yacht, derived from same root form as jagt
and has the same meaning. But when the English form of
spelling is retained it means a pleasure yacht. It should
then also have the English pronunciation, but in this
instance it ought to have the same pronunciation as
in verse xxviii where it rimes with magi.

Line 230, det r0de flag, at the topmast it is a signal
.for pilot wanted.

Line 232, stag, the ropes which go from the mast
forward to the prow and bear the foresails ; at gaa
over stag, to tack in order to turn the boat windward,
to beat up against the wind.

Line 233, slag for slag., by tacking, by cruising back
and forth against the wind.

Line 234, ombord, on the English boat ; hence it did
not take long before he reached the yacht.

Line 235, Han tyktes (tyktes is a deponent verb),
he seemed, he appeared.

Line 236, rat (pronounced rait}, steering wheel
which turns the rudder by means of ropes, or chains.



NOTES 35

Line 238, svam (archaic past tense form of the verb
at svtfmme) ; corresponds to the English swam.

Line 243, ror og rat, in this case both words mean
one and the same thing: the steering wheel.

Line 245, snril, Terje recognizes the lord, and is filled
with malicious glee when he finally can wreak the
vengeance for which he has been waiting so long.


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