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Mr. WALTER SCOTT has pleasure in announcing
that he will shortly publish the fijth vobwie of Ibsen's Prose
Dramas, which will co7nplete the series. This fifth volume
will contain ''^ Ros?nersholm" ^^ The Lady from the Sea,"
and Ibsetis New Drai7ia, translated by Mr. William
Archer. A special interest is attached to the forthcoming
volu77ie, in view of its contai7iing this new dra77ia, the latest
which Ibsen has written.

1/ / -f-




Drama in Five Acts ..... i


Drama in Five Acts ..... 157


It was during his first stay in Rome, in 1864, that
Ibsen conceived and partly executed the double-
drama of Emperor and Galilean {Kejser og Galilcser).
In point of origin, then, it immediately follows TJie
Pretenders, and precedes all the modern dramas
except Lovers Comedy. But the mood of indignation
in which the poet had turned his back on his native
country imperatively demanded utterance. The first
plunge into Italy and antiquity had distracted his
thoughts for a time ; but they soon turned northward
again. Libanius and Ammian, Gibbon and Neander,
were put aside ; and to the two years of intense
productivity which followed, we owe the most dis-
tinctively northern of all Ibsen's works, Brand and
Peer Gyni — poems of fiord and glacier, scaur and
tarn. Then came JJie League of Youth, first of the
social dramas, published in the autumn of 1869.
There can be little doubt that Ibsen now conceived
the idea, which he has carried out perhaps too
resolutely, of devoting himself for the future to
" actuality," realism and prose. But in the war
of 1870 he saw an epoch-making event, the in-
fluence of which, upon society and upon himself,
could not at once be realised. He was conscious,


perhaps, of a state of fermentation within and
around him which would take time to settle down.
In this frame of mind he reverted to his scheme
for a drama on the subject of Julian the Apostate,
and determined to get it out of hand before devoting
himself finally to his new line of thought and form of
utterance. If this conjecture be correct, and we owe
to the Franco-German war the postponement of the
later social plays and the completion of Emperor and
Galilean, I, for one, feel grateful to Prince Bismarck ;
though he would not, perhaps, appreciate the gratitude
which regards his "world-historic drama" in the light
of a mere prologue or prelude to Ibsen's. Be this as
it may, we find the poet busily at work upon " a new
poem of some length " in the early days of 1872 ; and
in 1873 Emperor and Galilean was published, nine
years after its inception.

In my introductory note to Lady Inger and The
Pretenders^ I gave a short sketch of the historic
foundation on which these dramas were con-
structed. Such a sketch, in the present instance,
would be superfluous if not impertinent. Nor-
wegian history is somewhat beyond the ken of
the general reader ; but Julian the Apostate, unlike
Inger Gyldenlove and Earl Skule, belongs in every
sense to world-history. The sources from which
Ibsen has drawn his material are open to all. Much
has been written, and may yet be written, as to his
treatment of history; but this is a matter of opinion
rather than of fact, and I have been careful, in
these brief introductions, not to stray into criticism.
The chief modern authorities upon Julian, apart from


the indispensable Gibbon, are Neander, Der Kaiser
Julian und sein Zeitalter (Leipzig, 1813), translated
by G. V. Cox (1850); D. F. Strauss, Der Romantiker
auf dem Throne der Cdsaren, a lecture of strong
political tendency delivered in 1847, and included
in the author's Gesaimnelte Schriften, vol. i. (Bonn,
1876); C. G. Semisch, Julian der Abtriinnige : Ein
Charakterbild {^r&s\dM, 1868); Friedrich Rode, Ges-
chicJite der Reaction Kaiser Julians gegen die Clirist-
liche Kirche (Jena, 1877); H, Adrien NaviWe, Julian
VApostat (Paris, 1877); and Gerald Henry Rendall,
The Emperor Julian ; Paganisjn ajtd CJiristianity,
Hulsean Essay for 1876 (Cambridge, 1879). I need
scarcely remind the reader that as Emperor and
Galilean was published in 1873, Ibsen cannot have
consulted Rode, Naville, or Rendall. Mr. Rendall,
indeed, whose interesting work contains a full biblio-
graphy of the subject, makes several quotations from

The following translation is to a large extent
founded (by arrangement) on Miss Catherine Ray's
version of Kejser og Galilceer (entitled The Emperor
and the Galilean') which, appeared in 1876, and has long
been entirely out of print. To Miss Ray belongs the
credit of having been the first English translator of
Ibsen, as Mr. Gosse was his first expositor. My
principles of translation differ so widely from Miss
Ray's, that I have probably not adopted a hundred
phrases of her version in their integrity ; yet her
labours have been of great assistance to me, even
where the two renderings may seem to be utterly




The Emperor Constantius.

The Empress Eusebia.

The Princess Helena, the Em-
peror'' s sister.

Prince Gallus, the Ejnperor's

Prince Julian, Galluses younger

Memnon, an Ethiopian, the Em-
perors body-slave.

Potamon, a goldsmith.

Phocion, a dyer.

Eunapius, a hair-dresser.

A Frtiit-seller.

A Captain of the Watch.

A Soldier.

A Painted Woman.

A Paralytic Man.

A Blind Beggar.

Agathon, the son of a Cappado-
cian vine-grower.

Libanius, a Philosopher,

Gregory of Nazianzus.

Basilius of C^sarea.

Sallust of Perusia.

Hekebolius, a Theologian,

Maximus the Mystic.

EuTHERius, Julians chamber-

Leontes, a QucBstor.

Myrrha, a slave.

Decentius, a Tribune.

SiNTVLA, /ulian's Master cf the



Oribases, a Physician,

' y subalterns.
Varro, I

Maurus, a Standard- Bearer.

Soldiers, church-goers, heathen
on-lookers, courtiers, priests,
students, dancing girls, ser-
vants, attendantson the Qucestor,
Gallic zaarriors.

Visions and voices.


The first act passes in Constantinople, the second in Athens, the third
in Ephesus, the fourth in Lutetia in Gaul, and the fifth in Vienna
[ Vienne'\ in the same province. The action takes place during the ten
years between h.V). 351 and A.,T). 361.



Ad First.

{^Easter 7iight tjt Constantinople. The scene ts an open place,
with trees, bushes, and overthrown statues, in the vicinity
of the Imperial Palace. In the background, fully illumin-
ated, stands the Chapel Royal. To tJie right a marble
balustrade, from which a staircase leads down to the water.
Between the pines and cypresses appear glimpses of the
Bosphorus and the Asiatic coast.)

{Service in the church. Soldiers of the Imperial Guard stand
on the church steps. Great crowds of worshipt)ers stream in.
Beggars, cripples, and blind people at the doors. Heathen
on-lookers, fruit-sellers, and water-carriers fill up the place.)

Hymn of Praise {inside the church).

Never-ending adoration

to the Cross of our salvation !

The Serpent is hurled

to the deepest abyss;

the Lamb rules the world ;

all is peace, all is bliss !
POTAMON THE GOLDSMITH {carrying a paper lantern,
enters from the left, taps one of the soldiers on the
shoulder, and asks : ) Hist, good friend — when is the
Emperor coming ?

4 Cesar's Apostasy. [Act I.

The Soldier. I cannot tell.

Phocion the Dyer (/« the crowd, turning his
head). The Emperor? Was not some one asking
about the Emperor ? The Emperor is coming a little
before midnight — ^just before. I had it from Mem-
non himself.

EUNAPIUS THE Barber {rushes in hastily and
pushes a Fruit-seller aside). Out of the way, heathen !

The Fruit-seller. Softly, sir !

POTAMON. The swine grumbles !

EUNAPIUS. Dog, dog !

Phocion. Grumbling at a well-dressed Christian!
— at a man of the Emperor's own faith !

EUNAPIUS {knocks the Fruit-seller down). Into the
gutter with you !

POTAMON. That's right. Wallow there along with
your gods !

Phocion {beating him zuiih his stick). Take that —
and that — and that !

EUNAPIUS {kicking him). And this — and this!
I'll baste your god-detested skin for you I
{The Fruit-seller hastens away.)

Phocion {with the evident intention of being heard
by the Captain of the Guard). It is much to be
desired that some one should bring this scene to our
blessed Emperor's ears. The Emperor has lately
expressed his displeasure at the way in which we
Christian citizens hold intercourse with the heathen,
just as if no gulf divided us

POTAMON. You refer to that placard in the
market-places? I too have read it. And I hold that,
as there is both true and false gold in the world

Act I.] Cesar's Apostasy. 5

EUNAPIUS. we ought not to clip every one

with the same shears ; that's my way of thinking.
But there are still zealous souls among us, praise be
to God !

Phocion. We are far from being zealous enough,
dear brethren ! See how boldly these scoffers hold
up their heads. How many of this rabble bear the
sign of the cross or of the fish on their arms, think

POTAMON. Not many — and yet they actually
swarm in front of the Chapel Royal

Phocion. on such a sacred night as this

EUNAPIUS. blocking the way for true sons of

the Church

A Painted Woman {in the crozvd). Are Donatists
true sons of the Church ?

Phocion. What ? A Donatist ! Are you a
Donatist ?

EUNAPIUS. What then ? Are not you one ?

Phocion. I ? I ! May the lightning blast your
tongue !

POTAMON {j)iakiiig the sign of the cross). May
plague and boils !

Phocion. A Donatist ! You carrion ; you rotten

POTAMON. Right, right !

Phocion. You brand for Satan's furnace !

POTAMON. Right ! Give it him ; give it him, dear
brother !

Phocion {pushing the Goldsmith azvay). Hold
your tongue ; get you behind me. Now I know you ;
— you are Potamon the Manichsean !

6 CiESAR's Apostasy. [Act I.

EUNAPIUS. A Manich^an ? A stinking heretic!
Faugh, faugh !

POTAMON {Jiolding up his paper lantern). Heyday!
Why, you are Phocion the Dyer, of Antioch ! The
Cainite I

EuNAPIUS. Woe is me, I have held communion
with falsehood !

Phocion. Woe is me, I have helped a son of
Satan !

EUNAPIUS {boxing his ear). Take that for your

Phocion {retumiJig the bloiv). Oh, you abandoned
hound !

POTAMON. Accursed, accursed be you both !

{A general fight ; laughter and derision among
the onlookers^
The Captain of the Guard {calls to the soldiers).
The Emperor is coming !

( The combatants are parted and carried with the
stream of other worshippers into the church^
Hymn of Praise {from the high altar) —
The Serpent is hurled
to the deepest abyss ; —
the Lamb rules the world, —
all is peace, all is bliss !
{The Court enters in a long procession frojn the left.
Priests with censers go before ; after them men-
at-arms and torch-bearers, courtiers and body-
guards. In their midst the EMPEROR CON-
STANTIUS, a man of thirty-four, of distinguished
appearance, beardless, with brown curly hair ;
his eyes have a dark, distrustful expressioti ; his

Act I.] Cesar's Apostasy. y

gait and whole deportnicfit betray uneasiness and
debility. Beside hini^ on his left, zvalks the
Empress Eusebia, a pale, delicate zvovian, the
same age as the Emperor. Behind the imperial
pair follows PRINCE JULIAN, a yet imdeveloped
youth of nineteen. He has black hair, a beard
beginning to grow, sparkling brozvn eyes ivith
a rapid glance ; his court-dress sits badly upon
him ; his manners are awkzvard, eccentric, and
abrupt. The Emperor s sister, the PRINCESS
Helena, a voluptuous beauty of twenty -five,
follows, accompanied by maidens and older
women. Courtiers and men-at-arms close the
procession. The E^nperor's body-slave, Memnon,
a heavily -built, magnificently-dressed EtJiiopian,
is amofig ihon.)

The Emperor {stops suddenly, turns round to
Prince Julian, and asks sharply). Where is
Gallus ?

Julian {grows pale). Gallus? What would you
with Gallus?

The Emperor. There, I caught you !

Julian. Sire !

The Empress {seizing the Emperor's hand).
Come ; come !

The Emperor. Your conscience cried aloud.
What are you two plotting ?

Julian. We ?

The Emperor. You and he !

The Empress. Oh, come ; come, Constantius !

The Emperor. So black a deed ! What did the
oracle answer?

8 Cesar's Apostasy. [Act I.
Julian. The oracle ! By my Holy Redeemer

The Emperor. If any one maligns you, he shall
pay for it at the stake. {Draws the PRINCE aside.)
Oh, let us hold together, Julian ! Dear kinsman, let
us hold together 1

Julian. Everything lies in your hands, my be-
loved lord !

The Emperor. My hands !

Julian. Oh, stretch them in mercy over us !

The Emperor. My hands ? What was in your
mind as to my hands?

Julian {grasps his hands and kisses tJient). The
Emperor's hands are white and cool.

The Emperor. What else should they be?
What was in your mind ? There, I caught you again !

Julian {kisses them again). They are like rose-
leaves in this moonlight night.

The Emperor. Yes yes yes, Julian !

Tpie Empress. Forward ; it is time.

The Emperor. To go in before the presence of
the Lord 1 I — I ! Oh, pray for me, Julian ! They
will offer me the consecrated wine. I see it ! It

glitte/s in the chalice like serpents' eyes

{Shrieks.) Bloody eyes ! Oh, Jesus Christ, pray

for me !

The Empress. The Emperor is ill !

The Princess Helena. Where is Csesarius?
The surgeon, the surgeon — fetch him !

The Empress {beckons). Memnon, good Memnon !
{She speaks in a low voice to the slave.)

JUj:.IAN {soptly). Sire, have pity, and send me far
from here.

Act I.] Cesar's Apostasy. 9

The Emperor. Where would you go ?

Julian. To Egypt. I would fain go to Egypt, if
you think fit So many go thither — into the great

The Emperor. Into the great desert? Ha!
In the desert one broods. I forbid you to brood.

Julian. I will not brood, if only you will let

me Here my anguish of soul increases day by

day. Evil thoughts flock around me. For nine days
I have worn a hair shirt, and it has not protected me ;
for nine nights I have lashed myself with thongs, but
scourging does not banish them.

The Emperor. We must be steadfast, Julian !
Satan is strangely active in all of us. Consult

The Slave Memnon {to the Emperor). It is
time now

The Emperor. No, no, I will not

Memnon {seizing him by the wrist). Come,
gracious lord ; — come, I say.

The Emperor {draivs himself ?//, and says ivith
dignity). Forward to the house of the Lord !

Memnon {softly). The other matter afterwards

The Emperor {to Julian). I must see Gallus.
(Julian folds his hands in supplication to the
Empress behind the Emperor's back.)

The Empress {hastily and softly). Fear nothing!

The Emperor. Remain outside. Do not enter
the church with these evil thoughts in your mind.
When you pray before the altar, it is to call down
evil upon mc. — Oh, lay not that sin upon your soul,
my beloved kinsman I

10 Cesar's Apostasy. [Act I.

{The procession moves fortvard towards the church.

On the steps, beggars, cripples, and blind 7nen

croivd round the EMPEROR.)

A Paralytic. Oh, mightiest ruler on earth, let

me touch the hem of thy garment, that I may

become whole.

A Blind Man. Pray for me, anointed of the Lord,
that I may receive my sight again !

The Emperor. Be of good cheer, my son !
Memnon, scatter silver among them. In, in !

( The Court moves forzvard into the church, the doors
of wJiich are closed ; the crowd gradjially dis-
perses, Prince Julian remaining behind in
one of the avenues^
Julian {looking towards the church). What does
lie want with Gallus ? On this sacred night he

cannot think of ! Oh, if I only knew {He

turns and jostles against the blind man, who is retiring.)
Look where you go, friend !
The Blind Man. I am blind, my lord !
Julian. Still ? Can you really not see so much
as yonder glittering star? Fie, man of little faith.
Did not God's anointed promise to pray for your
sight ?

The Blind Man. Who are you, that mock at a
blind brother ?

Julian. A brother in unbelief and blindness. {He
is about to go off to the left.)

A Voice {softly, among the bushes behind hijn).
Julian, Julian !

Julian {zuith a cry). Ah !
The Voice {nearer). Julian !

Act I.] Cesar's Apostasy. ir

Julian. Stand, stand ; — I am armed ! Beware !

A Young Man {poor-ly dad, and with a
traveller's staff, appears anioiig the trees'). Hush !
It is I

Julian. Stay where you are! Do not come near
me, fellow !

The Young Man. Oh, do you not remember
Agathon ?

Julian. Agathon! What do you mean? Agathon
was a boy

Agathon. Six years ago. I knew you at once.
{Coming nearer^

Julian. Agathon ; — ay, by the holy cross, I
believe it is !

Agathon. Look at me ; look well

Julian {embracing and kissing hifu). Friend of
my childhood ! Playmate ! Dearest of them all I
And you are here ? How wonderful ! You have
come all the long way over the mountains, and then
across the sea, — the whole long way from Cappadocia ?

Agathon. I arrived two days ago, by ship, from
Ephesus. Oh, how I have sought in vain for you
these two days. The guards would not let me pass
at the palace gates, and

Julian. Did you mention my name to any one?
or say that you were in search of me ?

Agathon. No, I did not dare to, because

Julian. There you did right ; never let any one
know more than is absolutely needful

Come here, Agathon ; out into the full moonlight,
that I may see you. — How you have grown, Agathon ;
— how strong you look.

12 Cesar's Apostasy. [Act I.

Agathon. And you are paler.

Julian. I cannot thrive in the air of the palace.
I think it is unwholesome here. — It is different from
Makellon. Makellon lies high. No other town in all
Cappadocia lies so high ; ah, how the fresh snow-
winds from the Taurus sweep over it ! Are you

weary, Agathon ?

Agathon. Oh, in no wise.

Julian. Let us sit down nevertheless. It is so
quiet and lonely here. Close together ; so ! {Draws
him down upon a seat beside the balustrade^ — " Can
any good thing come out of Cappadocia," they say.
Yes — friends can come. Can anything be better ?
{Looks long at hiui.)

How was it possible that I did not know you at
once ? Oh, my beloved treasure, is it not just as when
we were boys ?

Agathon {sinking down before him). I at your
feet, as of old.

Julian. No, no, no !

Agathon. Oh, let me kneel thus !

Julian. Oh, Agathon, it is a sin and a mockery
to kneel to me. If you but knew how sinful I have
become. Hekebolius, my beloved teacher, is deeply
grieved for me, Agathon. He could tell you

How thick and moist your hair has grown ; and
how it curls. — But, Mardonius — how goes it with
him ? He must be turning grey now ?

Agathon. He is white-haired.

Julian. How well Mardonius could interpret
Homer ! I do not believe my old Mardonius has his
equal at that. — Heroes embattled against heroes —

Act I.] Cesar's Apostasy. 13

and the gods above goading them on. I saw it, as
though with my eyes.

Agathon. Then your mind was set on becoming
a great and victorious warrior.

Julian. They were happy times, these six years
in Cappadocia. Were the years longer then than
now? It seems so when I think of all they con-
tained ■

Yes, they were happy years. We at our books,
and Gallus on his Persian horse. He swept over the
plain like the shadow of a cloud. — Oh, but one thing
you must tell me. The church ?

Agathon. The church ? Over the Holy Mamas's
grave ?

Julian {sviiling faintly). Which Gallus and I

built. Gallus got his aisle finished; but I ; mine

never seemed to come right. — How has it gone on
since ?

Agathon. Not at all. The builders said it was
impossible as you had planned it.

Julian {thoughtfully). No doubt, no doubt. I
wronged them in thinking them incapable. Now
I know why it was impossible. I must tell you,
Agathon ; — Mamas was a false saint.

Agathon. The Holy Mamas ?

Julian. That Mamas was never a martyr. His
whole legend was a strange delusion. Hekebolius has,
with infinite research, arrived at the real truth, and I
myself have lately composed a slight treatise on the
subject — a treatise, my Agathon, which certain phil-
osophers are said, strangely enough, to have spoken
of in laudatory terms in the lecture-rooms

14 Cesar's Apostasy. [Act I.

The Lord keep my heart free from vanity ! The
evil tempter has countless wiles ; one can never

That Gallus should succeed and I fail ! Ah, my
Agathon, when I think of that church-building, I see
Cain's altar

Agathon. Julian !

Julian. God will have none of me, Agathon !

Agathon. Ah, do not speak so ! Was not God
strong in you when you led me out of the darkness
of heathendom, and gave me light over all my days
— child though you then were !

Julian. Ah, all that is like a dream to me.

Agathon. And yet so blessed a truth.

Julian (sadly). If only it were so now ! Where
did I find the words of fire ? The air seemed full of

hymns of praise — a ladder from earth to heaven

{Gazes straight before him) Did you see it?

Agathon. What ?

Julian. The star that fell ; there, behind the two
cypresses. {Is silent a moment, then suddenly changes
his tone?) Have I told you what my mother dreamed
the night before I was born ?

Agathon. I do not recall it.

Julian. No, no, I remember — I heard of it after
we parted.

Agathon. What did she dream ?

Julian. My mother dreamed that she gave birth
to Achilles.

Agathon {eagerly). Is your faith in dreams as
strong as ever?

Julian. Why do you ask ?

Act L] Cesar's Apostasy. 15

Agathon. You shall hear ; it concerns what has
driven me to cross the sea

Julian. You have a special errand here? I had
quite forgotten to ask you

Agathon, A strange errand ; so strange that I am
lost in doubt and indecision. There is so much I
would like to know first — about life in the city —
about yourself — and the Emperor.

Julian {looks hard at him). Tell me the truth,
Agathon — with whom have you spoken before meet-
ing me ?

Agathon. With no one.

Julian. When did you arrive ?

Agathon. I have told you — two days ago.

Julian. And already you want to know ?

What do you want to know about the Emperor?

Has any one set you on to ? {Embraces him.)

Oh, forgive me, Agathon, my friend !

Agathon. What ? Why ?

Julian {rises and listens). Hush ! — No, it was
nothing — only a bird in the bushes

I am exceedingly happy here. Why should you
doubt it? Have I not all my family gathered here?
or at least — all over whom a gracious Saviour has
held his hand.

Agathon. And the Emperor is as a father to

Julian. The Emperor is beyond measure wise
and good.

Agathon {zuho has also risen). Julian, is the
rumour true that you are one day to be the Emperor's
successor ?

i6 C/esar's Apostasy. [Act I.

Julian {Jiastily). Do not speak of such dangerous
things. I do not know what foolish rumours are
abroad. — Why do you question me so much ? Not a
word will I answer till you have told me what brings
you to Constantinople.

AgathoN. I come at the bidding of the Lord

Julian. If you love your Saviour or your salva-
tion, get you home again. {Leatis over the balustrade

and listens?) Speak softly ; a boat is coming in

{Leads him over toivards the other side.)

What do you want here ? To kiss the splinter of
the holy cross ? — Get you home again, I say ! Do
you know what Constantinople has become in these
last fifteen months ? A Babylon of blasphemy. —
Have you not heard — do you not know that Libanius
is here ?

Agathon. Ah, Julian, I do not know Libanius,

Julian. Secluded Cappadocian ! Happy region,
where his voice and his doctrine are unknown.

Agathon. Ah, he is one of those heathen
teachers of falsehood ?

Julian. The most dangerous of them all.

Agathon. Surely not more dangerous than
.^desius of Pergamus ?

Julian. .^Edesius ! — who now thinks of yEdesius
of Pergamus ? i^dcsius is in his dotage

Agathon, Is he more dangerous than even that

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