the census of 177G gave the town a po[)nlation of ITjOO, we can see
in part to what extent these patriotic fathers gave service and life, to
found the nation. Their children should never forget at what a price
they gained freedom for themselves and coming generations.
This chapter may fitly close with the tax list for 177(i, with such
memoranda appended as, in the absence of a map, Avill help those
who are iulcrt'sted to locate most of these patriotic tax-payers, and
revive the memory of the town as it was one hundred 3'ears ago.
8 Massiichusetts Archives: Coat Holls, 178-8(1, is^; and Vol. XXII, No. 5C0.
* Massachusetts Archives. Vol. XIX. Muster Rolls, No. '38. ^'ol. XXVI, No. 10.
'< Massacliii setts ArMves : /iolls. \'ol. ,\LI.
<â– â– Massachusetts Archives .- Rolls. Vols. XIX, No. 7(\, and XXVI, l.!.,' and L'l:!.
' Mas.iachusetls Archives. Vols. .\XI, 185, and XXVII, UKK
8 Massarhit.fetts Archives. Vols. XXIX, 7, and'XX.WII, 17.
" Massachusetts Archives: ^fllsler /lolls, ^'ol. XXIX, No. (io.
1" Massachusetts Archives: Muster /lolls. Vol. .\ L, No. i:t.
TAX-UST. â€” irro, Df:ckmbkk.
[Residences known to the compiler are added. Some are only approximate. The East
Road is the road runninf;- from the foot of "rocTiey hill," east of the village, to the Wohnrn
Road, near the Shawshin; and by the Shawshin Iioad I designate the road which rnns east
from this road to the river, and thence north to the Wilmington Ro.ad. The .Shawshin
District is east of the river, between the AVoburn and Wilmington ro.ads. The "Corner,"
here and elsewhere, designates the locality at the foot of the liill, on Long Street, near
the Concord River briilge. The two roads between the Woburn and Bedford roads 1 call
"Lexington" and "East Lexington."]
lleiirv Crosby place. Woburn Road.
Old Fletclicrhouse, East RoatL
Sanborn place. we.st of L(jng- St.
Paul Hiir.s place, ea^t of Connnon.
Wilniin<>'t()n Road. J)ea. King's pi.
Miss Sophia Allen. East Road.
Abbot. David, jr.
Baldwin. Benj.. jr.
Baldwin, .John. jr.
Blanchard. Sam', jr.
Bowers. Josiah. jr.
Bi'idge. Col. Ebenezer
lirown. Sam'. ji\
< arlcton. John
Carleton. .lohn. jr.
Joel Baldwin's, Shawsliin Road.
West of Long Street, north of Win.
Holden place. Shaw.-hin Road.
Stearns pi., north of How'e School.
Near Catholic Church.
East Road, Asa Holden place.
Burrows place, east of Woburn St.
Clough pi.. East Lexington Road.
Dr. Xoyes" pi.. Lexington Street.
East Lexington Road.
Near Mr. Cowdry's, west side.
Hotel w. of Long St.. so. end village.
East of Long Street Hotel, near Mr.
Kimball jilace. Andover St. [Proud-
Old Danforth place, on West St.
Bowman ])lace, on Lexington Road.
Head of the lane east of Long St.
Near Henry Duranfs, west side.
AVilmington Road, near the school-
Isaac BroA\'n place.
Probably at North Billerica.
Road to Winnino-'s Pond.
HISTORY OF IJILLEKICA.
Crosby, .Josiali. ^V'id. Ko.
Cumings. Kev. Henry.
Danforth. do.' Jos.VVarie
Dows, Benj'^, jr.
Dows, Eben\ jr.
- Dutton, Benj
Easte. Benj. [)tot <>ii Ust
Farmer. Edward, jr.
French, Ei)en'. jr.
TA.\-LI8T. â€” Coiitiitual.
Â£ 13 1 2 .
â– 2 1 J
â€¢2 1 10 2
2 1 3
3 13 11 2
1 1 4
4 8 2
13 1 2
3 !) 11
3 12 'J 2
2 13 12
1 12 2 2
2 1 7
1 12 10
3 T) 4
1(1 10 2
5 10 2
Harrington pi., Shawshin District.
Crosby i)lace, Shawshin lload.
Crosby j)!.. east of Nutting's Pond.
Knowles ]tl.. near S. School-house.
Mason place, near S. School-house.
Fisk place, south of Nutting's.
Dr. Hubbard's. Bedford Street.
Near P^ssex i)lace. East Road.
31 1-. ^\'ilitmanâ– s, Bedford Street.
Davis ))lace. T^ong Pond Road.
Woburn Koad. near line.
Blood's place, west side.
Near Deacon Spaulding's.
Near Corner, just south of road to
South of his brother Edward.
Bet\ve<'n Andover Street and Eong
Probably East Road.
East Road, near Andover Street.
11 10 2
TAX-Ll.ST. â€” Continued.
Henry. John. jr.
Hill. Joseph, jr.
Jaquith. Abr'". jr.
Jefts. Henry, jr.
Â£1 17 4 2
G 9 11
S 13 1
Kidder. Will. jr.
I.,evistone, Seth. [
2 12 17
1 10 6
1 12 7
5 19 10
1 19 10
Mr. Perrin's i)lace.
The Lyons place. Bedford Street.
Mrs. Boyden's place. Bedford St.
Over Concord River.
Over (A)ncord River.
Mrs. Judkins's place, Bedford St.
South of Dr. Hosmer's.
East of Bedford St.. south part.
Near iron brido-e. west side.
I'arker place, .south of West Street.
East of road beyond the ( orner.
McEUitrotfs, on Bedford Street.
Probably near Mr. Elliofs. North
Wilmington Road, near Shawshin.
East Road, ]Mr. Sanborn's.
Lowell Road, at the turn lo North
One of these cousins lived at the
Andover, near Salem. Road.
Andover, near Salem. Road.
HISTORY or BILLERICA.
^larshall. Isaac, jr.
X'ickli's. do. for fiitlR'i's
XMckles. John. ji\
Patten. .John. jr.
iJichardson. El)e/,', jr.
Pichardson. Jon', jr.
Picliardson. Sam'. Jr.
Jiichanlson. Ste]>li n
Kog'ers. Zebadiali. jr.
TAX-IJ.ST. â€” Continued.
1 10 1 2
1 17 (I
2 7 2 2
â– A !)
â€¢ (i â€¢
Cutler jilace. west side.
Jesse 3Ianniiig's place. Treble-Cove
(iarrison-house. ( helmsfoi'd IJoad.
Old Marshall place, East Koad.
Xear South Cemeterj-.
In ( 'arlisle.
South of Common.
Wilmin^lon Koad. near Shawshin.
West of Long Street, near Corner.
East of Eordway.
Southeast of P'ordway. [Street.
South of John I'arker's. on Boston
Spaulding" i)I.. south Howe School.
East Road, near Web's Brook.
Woburn IJoad. Spaulding place.
East Road, near Pusho i)lace.
Disused road, from Andover Street
[near Salem to Sliawshin Road.
Corner, near old Cemetery.
X'ear railroad station.
Shawshin Dist.. near Wilmington.
Mrs. Sage's. Bedford Street.
Corner. .Fones jilai-e.
llolden ])lace. near AVinning's.
TAX-LIST. â€” CuidiHued.
Shed, Joseph, jr.
Sprake. Nicholas, jr
Sprake. Sam', jr.
Stearns, Isaac, jr.
Stickney. Will. Estp
Sticknev. Will. jr.
Tarbell. W'". jr.
Trull. Sam', jr.
^Vlntingâ€¢. Sam', [not
^V inning. Alex'
AV inning. John
AV right. John
Kitclien place, near railroad, south-
[east of North liillerica.
Some of these lived on Long Pond
Koad lieyond Davis"; others to-
ward North Billerica.
Sjjaulding pi., west of Long Sti'eet.
East of Bedfoi-d Street, near Mr.
Near iron bridge, west side.
Shawshln District, near Burlington.
Edmands place. Shawshin Koad.
West part of town, Simonds place.
< 'olson ])lace, North F)ilieiica.
Near Fordway. Xoi4h Billeiica.
Dea. Greenwood's place, near Con-
[cord Kiver and Bedford line.
Merriam i)lac(>. near Bedford line.
AVest of Boston Koad. south of the
AA'est of Boston Koad. south of the
Pillsbury place, west of I^ong St.
Near Irving Fletcher's. Shawshin
Tuft's i)lace. end of lane.
Near canal. Nortli Billerica.
Wol)urn Koad. near Shawsliin.
Sheldon place. North Billerica.
East Lexington Koad. near Bedford.
AVilson place, on Boston Street.
South of C'harnstafte Lane.
Near AVinning's Poml.
Putney place. Shawshin Koad.
Near Bedfoi-d and Burlington.
And there are twenty-one names of men who lived in Woburn. Concord,
Tewksburv. Bedford, and Chelmsford.
The founders of New England were careful and prompt to pro-
vide for the education of all the children. As early as 1642 a law
was enacted, enjoining the selectmen to ''have a vigilant e_ye over
their brethren and neighbors, to see first that none of them shall
sutler so much barbarism in any of their families as not to endeavor
to teach, bv themselves or others, their children and apprentices so
much learning as may cnalde them perfectly to read the English
tongue." The penalty was twenty shillings for each neglect. The
same act required Ihat parents " give religious instruction to their
children and a})prentices, aud bring them up in some honest, lawful
calling, labor, or employment, either in husbandrj' or some other
trade profitable for themselves and the commonwealth, if they will
not or can not train them up in learning to fit them for higher
em[)lovments." In 1G47 a free school was made '^ompulsory. If
there Avere fifty iDUseiiolders, the town must appoint a teacher, and
towns of one hundred householders must have a grannnar school of
such grade that youth " ma\' be fitted for the luiiversity."
Billcrica could not at once meet this requirement. But, " 1, ">, ()1.
The Townsmen doe agree y' Lieftenent Will tfrench and Kalph Hill,
senior, doe take care and [examine] the seurll famelies in or Towne,
wlietlir tliei-e children and servants are Taught in the precei)ts of
I'elidione, in reding and Lcrninge there Catechism." How this duty
was discharged is suggested in the record by the selectmen : "10,
".)'", ()S. they apoint y*" next seconday to go y'' rounds to examine
y" teaching of children & youth, acording to law." If we could
accompany these selectmen on that annual examination, we shoukl
learn somi'thiug of education under difficulties : and might gain
respect for the fathers, with ap[)reciatiou of the fact of [)rogress
in two centuries.
Mi;. Whiting's name first appears in this record, "19 March,
'74-5. In reference to the catechising of y*" youth of y*' towne and
examining tliem concerning tlieir reading, a duty imposed on y'^
select'" by y^ Hon"^ Court, to take care that cliildren and youth be
instructed in both. The selectmen doe order, that all children and
youth, single psons from eight years old upward, their pareuce and
masters shall send such their children and servants to y^ Reverend
Mr. Samuel Whiting, at such times as shalbee afterward appointed
by him, to be examined of both, as hoping this might I)e a good
expedient for y^ encouragement of all superiours and youth."
We ma}' jvell believe that such an examination, by the pastor,
would be no small incentive to study on the part of the '"youth"
who must appear before him. But many of the parents could give
but little instruction, and another step in advance greatly needed
was taken when, "19, 11'", 79, P^ns. Tompson Avas chosen school-
master, to teach such to read and to write as shall come to him to
learn." Joseph Tompson, Billerica's first school-master, was the son
of a minister, and, with the possible exception of Dauforth, was the
best educated man in town. He continued to be the school-master
for more than thirt}' 3-ears. Of the studies pursued we are not
informed, nor of the "times and seasons"; but the culture of the
town owes much, ^ve may be sure, to Ensign Tompson's school, and
we may remember with interest the place to wdiich the children of
two hundred years ago wended their way for the instruction he had
to give them. His house w'as in the southeast part of the A-illage,
at the end of the lane where now INlr. Tufts lives. Whether the
services of Mr. Tompson w^ere gratuitous or he had a tuition fee
does not appear ; but no item is found among the town charges until
1710, when he received one pound as school-master, and another the
About the same time the question of a new^ school-master was
raised. V/e ma}' hope that the reason was not because Captain
Tompson found occasion in his age to charge something for his
services. Perhaps after thirty years his methods had become too
old-fashioned, and a younger man was called for. In the autuum
of 1709, one object of a town meeting was "to incoridg a schoole-
master for Reading and Writing" ; and, judging from the records
of Mr. Needham, the new town clerk, there was need of a new
school-master. But four years later a master was still needed, and,
November IG, 1713, "it was voted, that the selectmen shaill mak
254 nisToijv OK ni[,LEin('.\.
3011.S of tlu'ir l)e.st clescrastiou in proxidiug a .scoiiU-nuister for a
quarter of a yearo" : ami, Janiuu y 18, the selectmen were instructed
"to se out for a schoolinaster against March Court, and to provide a
house." Towns wei'e frequently complained of for neglect to provide
good schools, and the last record implies that Billerica had been thus
charged, as it had been at least once before, in 1G92, "for want of
a scliole." Probably Mr. Tompson's labors were occasionally sus-
pended and resumed. The same presentment was made in 1718,
and answered by Captain ^^'hiting, at C'harlestown.
The first apj)earance of a successor to Mr. Tomi)son is in 1715,
when IVIr. Shattuck is p:iid i'S, los., and the t
"shall keep the school another half-year." Jn 171G, IMr. Isaac
Branch was employed, receiving â‚¬10 for two quarters and Â£22 for
the year 1717. Tlie gei'm of the system of school districts then
appears : "The Town Impowered the selectmen to order & appoint
in what parts of the town the school shall be kept & how long at a
l)lace." In November, 1718, the town votes "to hire our present
schoolmaster for another <|uarter, Provided he move to the several
Quarters of the town" ; also, ''to give but four shillings p. week for
the schoolmaster's board for the future." This master was John
Graham, and he boarded with Mr. Ruggles. December 29, 1718, it
was voted, that "for about five months the school should be moved
to accommodate the outscirts of the Town, and the Kest of the year
to be kept in the middle of the town" ; and a committee of five was
to order the places where it should l)e kept. It was also voted "to
give Mr. Grimes, our present schoolmaster, forty pounds for one
year, Provided that he board himself and keep a moving school."
In March, the selectmen gave leave to John Hartwell's wife "to
keep a school to Instruct children to Read." Mr. Josejih Houston
was master for three or four years from 1719, and was succeeded by
Benjamin Ruggles, the pastor's brother. Then for a short time the
Tnaster was Jonathan Fry, of Andover, the ill-fated young chaplain
of Lovewell's expedition. The next ^ear the town i)aid Mr. William
Smith for services, and also Nicholas Bowes, the future i)astor of
Bedford. Then comes Mr. Isaac Abbott, who was master for six
years, who was also em[)loyed to copy the early A'olume of records
of "â– Births, Marriages, and Deaths," in a new book. Benjamin
Bowers follows, 17.'lG-39; Jonathan Stedman. 1739; Joseph Man-
ning, 1740; Robert Cutler, 17-11-45, who found his wife here, and
became i)astor in Epping, New Hampshire ; and John Chandler, in
174G, who was thus intro(hicr(l to his future pastorate here. Joseph
Beau succeeded, aud then came Jouathau Kidder, iu 1753, who
served tlie town for a geueratiou. and whose fame lingers still among
the traditions of our older peo[)le.
A record, May, 1722, tells us something of the early methods :
"It was agreed that Mr. Houston shall make up three months in the
seenter of the town, aud then shall go one uiontli among the Hunts."
And, in June, "it was agreed that Mr. Houston shall have liberty
for a month or two, if he Pleas, after his uionth is out at Mr. Hunt's ;
and then at his Return shall go one month to the west side of Concord
River; and then uext one month to .John Stearns; the next one
month to Jonathan Bacon's ; then at Mr. Walker's three weeks ; then
next at the Kittridge's one month ; then three weeks at Dr. Tooth-
aker's ; then to be three months in the seenter of the Town, which
will compleat his 3ear."
The sections of the town where schools were kept were at first
and long called squadrons ; and a di\'ision of the school money to
the squadrons began to be made about 1760, with attending questions
and jealousy as to the division. A school-house is mentioned in
17(56, but had perhaps l)een built earlier; as the town in 1725 voted
grants of land to the squadrons for school-houses, to l)e located by
the selectmen. In 1742 a committee reported, that the school be
kept six months in the centre of the town, two in the east scpiadron,
(one of which should be east of the river,) two on the west side,
and one in the south squadron. In 1782 another report is found.
The centre squadron was to extend a mile and a half, and a gram-
mar school was to be supported there, the out squadrons drawing an
equal amount, to be expended ''in keeping good writing schools."
The houses which were to form the line of the centre scjuadron, on
the various roads, are designated: "on Wilmington road, Jonas
French's new house ; on the Frenchs' road, the house of Jacob
French ; on Boston road, the house of Oliver C'rosljy ; on Bedford
road, the house of Teter Hill ; on the road to Fitch's mill, the house
of John Blanchard ; on the road over middle bridge, John Carleton,
Jr. ; on Chelmsford road, the house of W". Laws ; on the road to
Carleton's mills, Josiah Danforth's ; on the road to Tewksbnry, by
French's dam, Benj. Davis." There were to be two squadrons on
the west side, to be divided as the inhabitants there pleased. The
east squadron was to include all north of John Patten, Jun.'s, and
William Tarbell's, aud east of the Long Pond Road ; the Shawshin
25(> HISTOKV OF lULLEUICA.
squadron "to begin at Samuel Dauforth's and take in Thomas Rich-
ardson, widow Hosley, Joseph Jones, & Ehenezer Richardson, Jr.,
on the Boston road, and lObenezer Richardson & Josiah Richardson
on the east road," with all on the east on Shawshin River except
,Iohn Skelton and Amos Wvman ; the southeast squadron included
"all south of the widow Farmer's and Hezekiah Crosby's, that live
between Boston road & Bedford road," except Timothy Jaquith and