Henry Benjamin Wheatley.

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Collections of Thomas Hearne" (vol. I, July 4, 1705-
March, 19, 1707), edited by C. E. Doble, M.A.
Both these volumes are supplied with temporary
Indexes. 3, "The Early History of Oxford, 727-
lioo," by James Parker j 4, "Memories of Merton
College," by the Hon. George C. Brodrick ; 5,
" Collectanea." First Series. Edited by C. R. L.
Fletcher.

The Middlesex County Record Society was formed in



216 How to Form a Libraiy.

1885 "for the purpose of publishing the more in-
teresting portions of the old County Records of
Middlesex, which have lately been arranged and
calendared by order of the Justices." Nothing has
been published as yet, but Mr. Cordy Jeaffreson is
engaged upon the first two volumes, one of which
will be issued shortly.

The Rev. Dr. A. B. Grosart has himself printed by
subscription more works of our Old Writers than
many a Society, and therefore it is necessary to
mention his labours here, although a complete list of
them cannot be given. The chief series are : " The
Fuller Worthies Library," 39 volumes ; " The
Chertsey Worthies Library," 14 vols. 410., and
" The Huth Library."




CHAPTER VIII.
CHILD'S LIBRARY.
|HE idea of a Child's Library is to a
great extent modern, and it is not
altogether clear that it is a good
one, except in the case of those children
who have no books of their own. It is fai
better that each child should have his own
good books, which he can read over and
over again, thus thoroughly mastering their
contents.

It is a rather wide-spread notion that
there is some sort of virtue in reading for
reading's sake, although really a reading
boy may be an idle boy. When a book
is read, it should be well thought over
before another is begun, for reading with-
out thought generates no ideas.



2i8 Hoiv to Form a Library.

One advantage of a Child's Library should
be that the reader is necessarily forced to be
careful, so as to return the books uninjured.
This is a very important point, for children
should be taught from their earliest years to
treat books well, and not to destroy them as
they often do. We might go farther than
this and say that children should be taught
at school how to handle a book. It is really
astonishing to see how few persons (not
necessarily children) among those who have
not grown up among books know how to
handle them. It is positive torture to a
man who loves books to see the way they
are ordinarily treated. Of course it is not
necessary to mention the crimes of wetting
the ringers to turn over the leaves, or turning
down pages to mark the place ; but those
who ought to know better will turn a book
over on its face at the place where they
have left off reading, or will turn over
pages so carelessly that they give a crease to
each which will never come out.

For a healthy education it is probably
best that a child should have the run of



Child's Library. 219

a library for adults (always provided that
dangerous books are carefully excluded).
A boy is much more likely to enjoy and find
benefit from the books he selects himself
than from those selected for him.

The circumstances of the child should be
considered in the selection of books ; thus
it is scarcely fair when children are working
hard at school all day that they should be
made to read so-called instructive books in
the evening. They have earned the right
to relaxation and should be allowed good
novels. To some boys books of Travels and
History are more acceptable than novels,
but all children require some Fiction, and,
save in a few exceptional cases, their
imaginations require to be cultivated.

It will soon be seen whether children
have healthy or unhealthy tastes. If healthy,
they are best left to themselves ; if unhealthy,
they must be directed.

It is easy for the seniors to neglect the
children they have under them, and it is
easy to direct them overmuch, but it is
difficult to watch and yet let the children



22O How to Form a Library.

go their own way. We are apt, in arranging
for others, to be too instructive ; nothing is
less acceptable to children or less likely
to do them good than to be preached at.
Moral reflections in books are usually
skipped by children, and unless somewhat
out of the common, probably by grown-up
persons as well. Instruction should grow
naturally out of the theme itself, and form
an integral part of it, so that high aims
and noble thoughts may naturally present
themselves to the readers.

One of the chapters in the United States
Libraries' Report is on "School and Asylum
Libraries" (pp. 38-59), in which we are
informed that New York was the pioneer
in founding school libraries. "In 1827
Governor DeWitt Clinton, in his message to
the legislature, recommended their forma-
tion ; but it was not till 1835 that the friends
of free schools saw their hopes realized in
the passage of a law which permitted the
voters in any school district to levy a tax of
$ 20 to begin a library, and a tax of 10 each
succeeding year to provide for its increase."



Child's Library. 221

Another chapter in the same Report is on
" Public Libraries and the Young " (pp. 41 2-
418), in which Mr. Wm. J. Fletcher advo-
cates the use of the library as an addition
to the school course. He writes, " It only
remains now to say that, as we have before
intimated, the public library should be
viewed as an adjunct of the public school
system, and to suggest that in one or two
ways the school may work together with
the library in directing the reading of the
young. There is the matter of themes for
the writing of compositions; by selecting
subjects on which information can be had
at the library, the teacher can send the
pupil to the library as a student, and readily
put him in communication with, and excite
his interest in, classes of books to which
he has been a stranger and indifferent."

A very interesting book on this subject is
entitled " Libraries and Schools. Papers
selected by Samuel S. Green. New York
(F. Leypoldt), 1883." It contains the fol-
lowing subjects : " The Public Library and
the Public Schools;" "The Relation of the



222 How to Form a Library.

Public Library to the Public Schools";
"Libraries as Educational Institutions";
"The Public Library as an Auxiliary to the
Public Schools"; "The Relation of Libraries
to the School System"; and "A Plan of
Systematic Training in Reading at School."

" Books for the Young, a Guide for Parents
and Children. Compiled by C. M. Hewins.
New York (F. Leypoldt), 1882," is an
extremely useful little book. It contains
a valuable list of books arranged in classes.
Certain marks are used to indicate the
character of the books, thus the letter (c)
indicates that the book is especially suitable
for children under ten, (Z>) that it is especi-
ally suitable for boys, and (g) that it is
especially suitable for girls.

Prefixed are eight sensible rules as to
how to teach the right use of books.

Perkins's "Best Reading" contains a
good list of books for children (pp. 299-

303)-

The children's books of the present day
are so beautifully produced that the elders
are naturally induced to exclaim, " We never



Child's Library. 223

had such books as these," but probably we
enjoyed our books as well as our children
do theirs. What a thrill of pleasure the
middle-aged man feels when a book which
amused his childhood comes in his way :
this, however, is seldom, for time has laid
his decaying hand upon them

' All, all are gone, the old familiar faces."

The children for whom Miss Kate Greenaway
and Mr. Caldecott draw and Mrs. Gatty and
Mrs. Ewing wrote are indeed fortunate, but
we must not forget that Charles and Mary
Lamb wrote delightful books for the young,
that Miss Edgeworth's stories are ever fresh,
and that one of the most charming children's
stories ever written is Mrs. Sherwood's Little
Woodman.

A short list of a Child's Library is quoted
in the Library Journal (vol. viii. p. 57) from
the Woman's Journal. The family for whom
it was chosen consisted of children from
three to twelve, the two eldest being girls.
The books are mostly American, and but
little known in this countrv



224 How to Form a Library.

Snow-bound. Illustrated. Whittier.

Life of Longfellow. Kennedy.

A Summer in the Azores. Baker.

Among the Isles of Shoals. Celia Thaxter.

The boys of '76. Coffin.

The boys of '6 1. Coffin.

Story of our Country. Higginson.

Sir Walter Raleigh. Towle.

Child's History of England. Dickens.

Tales from Shakespear. Lamb.

Tales from Homer. Church.

TheWonder-book. Illustrated. Hawthorne.

Young folks' book of poetry. Campbell.

Poetry for childhood. Eliot.

Bits of talk about home matters. H. H.

The Seven Little Sisters. Andrews.

Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates. Dodge.

Room for one more. Mary T. Higginson.

King Arthur for boys. Lanier.

Doings of the Bodley family. Scudder.

Mother-play and Nursery-rhymes.

Children's Robinson Crusoe.

The four-footed lovers.

Mammy Tittleback and her family. H. H.

The Little Prudy books. Six volumes.



Child? s Library. 225

The editor of the Library Journal remarks
on the list, "Guest's Lectures on English
History is better than Dickens's, and the
* Prudy ' children are so mischievous, so
full of young Americanisms, and so far from
being ' wells of English undefiled,' that they
are not always good companions for boys
and girls. I have known a child's English
spoiled by reading the Prudy books."

Some of the old-fashioned children's
books have been reprinted, and these will
generally be found very acceptable to
healthy-minded children, but some of the
old books are not easily met with. No
Child's Library should be without a good
collection of Fairy Tales, a careful selection
of the Arabian Nights, or Robinson Crusoe
Gulliver's Travels is very unsuited for children,
although often treated as a child's book.
Berquin's Children's Friend, Edgeworth's
Parent's Assistant and the Aikins's Evenings
at Home, will surely still amuse children,
although some may think their teaching too
didactic. It is only by practical experience
that we can tell what children will like.

15



226 How to Form a Library.

Sandford and Merlon is, I believe, usually
considered as hopelessly out of date, but
I have found young hearers follow my
reading of it with the greatest interest. The
Pilgrim's Progress will always have as great
a fascination for the young as it must have
for their elders ; but there is much preach-
ing in it which must be skipped, or the
attention of the hearers will flag.





CHAPTER IX.
ONE HUNDRED BOOKS.

|N the Fourth Chapter of this Volume
two lists of selected books are
given, viz. The Comtist's Library,
and a list of one hundred good novels.
Since that chapter was written and printed,
much public attention has been drawn to
this branch of our subject by the publication
of Sir John Lubbock's list of books which
he recommended to the members of the
Working Men's College, when he lectured
at that place on " Books." The comments
by eminent men, which have appeared in
the Pall Mall Gazette, have also attracted
attention, and it seems desirable that some
note on this list should appear in these
pages.



228 How to Form a Library.

The list issued by the Pall Mall Gazette
is as follows :

NON-CHRISTIAN MORALISTS.
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations.
Epictetus, Encheiridion.
Confucius, Analects.
Aristotle, Ethics.
Mahomet, Koran.

THEOLOGY AND DEVOTION.
Apostolic Fathers, Wake's Collection.
St. Augustine, Confessions.
Thomas a Kempis, Imitation
Pascal, Penstes.

Spinoza, Tractatus TJieologico-Politicus.
Butler, Analogy.

Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living and Holy Dying.
Keble, Christian Year.
Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress.

CLASSICS.
Aristotle, Politics.
Plato, Phtedo and Republic.
^Esop, Fables.
Demosthenes, De Corona.
Lucretius.
Plutarch.
Horace.
Cicero, De Officiis, De Amicilid, and De Stncctute.



One Hundred Books. 229

EPIC POETRY.
Homer, ///#</ and Odyssey.
Heslod.
Virgil.

Niebelungenlied.
Malory, Morte d' Arthur.

EASTERN POETRY.

Mahabharata and Ramayana (epitomised by Talboys

Wheeler).

Firdausi, Shah-nameh (translated by Atkinson),
She-king (Chinese Odes).

GREEK DRAMATISTS.
/Eschylus, Prometheu^ The House of Atretis, Trilogy,

or Persce.

Sophocles, CEdipus y Trilogy.
Euripides, Medea.
Aristophanes, The Knights.

HISTORY.
Herodotus.
Thucydides.
Xenophon, Anabasis.
Tacitus, Germania.
Gibbon, Decline and Fall.
Voltaire, Charles XII. or Louis XIV.
Hume, England*
Grote, Greece.

PHILOSOPHY.
Bacon, Novum Organum.



230 How to Form a Library.

Mill, Logic and Political Economy.
Darwin, Origin of Species.
Smith, Wealth of Nations (selection).
Berkeley, Human Knowledge.
Descartes, Discourse sur la Methode.
Locke, Conduct of the Understanding*
Lewes, History of Philosophy.

TRAVELS,
Cook, Voyages.
Darwin, Natttralist in the Beagle.

POETRY AND GENERAL LITERATURE,
Shakspeare.
Milton.
Dante.
Spenser.
Scott.

Wordsworth.
Pope.
Southey.
Longfellow.

Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield.
Swift, Gulliver's Travels.
Defoe, Robinson Crusoe.
The Arabian Nights.
Don Quixote.
Bos well, Johnson.
Burke, Select Works.

Essayists Addison, Hume, Montaigne, Macaub.y,
Emerson.



One Hundred Books. 231

Moliere.

Sheridan.

Carlyle, Past and Present and French Revolution,

Goethe, Faust and Wilhclm Master,

Marivaux, La Vie de Marianne.

MODERN FICTION.

Selections from Thackeray, Dickens, George Eliot,
KLigsley, Scott, Bulwer-Lytton.

It must be borne in mind by the reader
that this list, although the one sent round
for criticism by the editor of the Pall Mall
Gazette, is not really Sir John Lubbock's.
This will be found on p. 240. Sir John
Lubbock's address was not given in full,
and the list drawn up by the Pall Mall,
from the reports in the daily papers, con-
tained in fact only about 85 books.

It seems necessary to allude particularly
to this imperfect list, because it is the only
one upon which the critics were asked to
give an opinion, and their criticisms are
peculiarly interesting, as they give us an
important insight into the tastes and
opinions of our teachers. In itself it is
almost impossible to make a list that will



232 How to Form a Library.

be practically useful, because tastes and
needs differ so widely, that a course of
reading suitable for one man may be quite
unsuitable for another. It is also very
doubtful whether a conscientious passage
through a "cut-and-dried" list of books
will feed the mind as a more original selec-
tion by each reader himself would do. It
is probably best to start the student well
on his way and then leave him to pursue
it according to his own tastes. Each book
will help him to another, and consultation
with some of the many manuals of English
literature will guide him towards a good
choice. This is in effect what Mr. Bond,
Principal Librarian of the British Museum,
says in his reply to the circular of the
editor of the Pall Mall Gazette. He writes
"The result of several persons putting
down the titles of books they considered
'best reading' would be an interesting but
very imperfect bibliography of as many
sections of literature;" and, again, "The
beginner should be advised to read histories
of the literature of his own and other



One Hundred Books. 233

countries as Hallam's 'Introduction to the
Literature of Europe,' Joseph Warton's
4 History of English Poetry/ Craik's 'History
of English Literature/ Paine's History, and
others of the same class. These would give
him a survey of the field, and would quicken
his taste for what was naturally most con-
genial to him."

There probably is no better course of
reading than that which will naturally occur
to one who makes an honest attempt to
master our own noble literature. This is
sufficient for the lifetime of most men with-
out incursions into foreign literature. All
cultivated persons will wish to become
acquainted with the masterpieces of other
nations, but this diversion will not be ad-
visable if it takes the reader away from
the study of the masterpieces of his own
literature.

Turning to the comments on the Pall
Mall Gazettes list, we may note one or two
of the most important criticisms. The
Prince of Wales very justly suggested that
Dryden should not be omitted from such



234 How to Form a Library.

a list. Mr. Chamberlain asked whether the
Bible was excluded by accident or design,
and Mr. Irving suggested that the Bible
and Shakespeare form together a very com-
prehensive library.

Mr. Ruskin's reply is particularly interest-
ing, for he adds but little, contenting himself
with the work of destruction. He writes,
" Putting my pen lightly through the need-
less and blottesquely through the rubbish
and poison of Sir John's list I leave enough
for a life's liberal reading and choice for
any true worker's loyal reading. I have
added one quite vital and essential book
Livy (the two first books), and three plays
of Aristophanes (Clotids, Birds, and Plutus].
Of travels, I read myself all old ones I can
get hold of; of modern, Humboldt is the
central model. Forbes (James Forbes in
Alps) is essential to the modern Swiss
tourist of sense." Mr. Ruskin puts the word
all to Plato, everything to Carlyle, and every
word to Scott. Pindar's name he adds in
the list of the classics, and after Bacon's
name he writes " chiefly the Ntw Atlantis"



One Hundred Books. 235

The work of destruction is marked by
the striking out of all the Non-Christian
Moralists, of all the Theology and Devotion,
with the exception of Jeremy Taylor and
the Pilgrim's Progress. The Nibelungenlied
and Malory's Morte d* Arthur (which, by
the way, is in prose) go out, as do Sophocles
and Euripides among the Greek Dramatists.
The Knights is struck out to make way for
the three plays of Aristophanes mentioned
above. Gibbon, Voltaire, Hume, and Grote
all go, as do all the philosophers but Bacon.
Cook's Voyages and Darwin's Naturalist
in the Beagle share a similar fate. Southey,
Longfellow, Swift, Hume, Macaulay, and
Emerson, Goethe and Marivaux, all are so
unfortunate as to have Mr. Ruskin's pen
driven through their names. Among the
novelists Dickens and Scott only are left.
The names of Thackeray, George Eliot,
Kingsley, and Bulwer-Lytton are all erased.
Mr. Ruskin sent a second letter full of
wisdom till he came to his reasons for
striking out Grote's " History of Greece,"
" Confessions of St. Augustine," John Stuart



236 How to Form a Library.

Mill, Charles Kingsley, Darwin, Gibbon,
and Voltaire. With these reasons it is to
be hoped that few readers will agree.

Mr. Swinburne makes a new list of his
own which is very characteristic. No. 3
consists of " Selections from the Bible :
comprising Job, the Psalms, Ecclesiastes,
the Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Joel ;
the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke,
the Gospel and the First Epistle of St. John
and Epistle of St. James." No. 12 is
Villon, and Nos. 45 to 49 consist of the
plays of Ford, Dekker, Tourneur, Marston,
and Middleton ; names very dear to the
lover of our old Drama, but I venture to
think names somewhat inappropriate in a
list of books for a reader who does not make
the drama a speciality. Lamb's Selections
would be sufficient for most readers.

Mr. William Morris supplies a full list
with explanations, which are of considerable
interest as coming from that distinguished
poet.

Archdeacon Farrar gives, perhaps, the
best test for a favourite author, that is, the





f



One Hundred Books.

selection of his works in the event of all
others being destroyed. He writes, "But
if all the books in the world were in a blaze,
the first twelve which I should snatch out
of the flames would be the Bible, Imitalio
Chrisii, Homer, ^Eschylus,- Thucydides,
Tacitus, Virgil, Marcus Aurelius, Dante,
Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth. Of
living authors I would save first the works
of Tennyson, Browning and Ruskin."

Another excellent test is that set up by
travellers and soldiers. A book must be
good when one of either of these classes
decides to place it among his restricted bag-
gage. Mr. H. M. Stanley writes, " You ask
me what books I carried with me to take
across Africa. I carried a great many
three loads, or about 180 Ibs. weight; but
as my men lessened in numbers, stricken by
famine, fighting and sickness, they were. one
by one reluctantly thrown away, until finally,
when less than 300 miles from the Atlantic,
I possessed only the Bible, Shakespeare,
Carlyle's Sartor Resartus, Node's Naviga-
tion, and Nautical Almanac for 1877.



238 How to Form a Library.

Poor Shakspeare was afterwards buined by
demand of the foolish people of Zinga.
At Bonea, Carlyle and Norie and Nautical
Almanac were pitched away, and I had only
the old Bible left." He then proceeds to
give a list of books which he allowed him-
self when " setting out with a tidy battalion
of men."

Lord Wolseley writes, "During the mutiny
and China war I carried a Testament, two
volumes of Shakespeare that contained his
best plays, and since then, when in the field,
I have always carried : Book of Common
Prayer, Thomas a Kempis, Soldier's Pocket
Book , , . The book that I like reading at
odd moments is ' The Meditations of Marcus
Aurelius.' " He then adds, for any distant
expedition, a few books of History (Creasy's
" Decisive Battles," Plutarch's " Lives,"
Voltaire's " Charles XII.," " Caesar," by
Froude, and Hume's " England "). His
Fiction is confined to Macaulay's " History
of England" and the "Essays."

Mr. Quaritch remarks that " Sir John's
* working man ' is an ideal creature. I have



One Hundred Books. 239

known many working men, but none of them
could have suggested such a feast as he has
prepared for them." He adds, "In my
younger days I had no books whatever
beyond my school books. Arrived in London
in 1842, I joined a literary institution, and
read all their historical works. To read
fiction I had no time. A friend of mine
read novels all night long, and was one
morning found dead in his bed." If Mr.
Quaritch intends this as a warning, he should
present the fact for the consideration of
those readers who swell the numbers of
novels in the statistics of the Free Libraries.
Looking at the Pall Mall Gazette's list, it
naturally occurs to us that it would be a
great error for an Englishman to arrange his
reading so that he excluded Chaucer while
he included Confucius. Among the names
of modern novelists it is strange that Jane
Austen and Charlotte Bronte should have
been omitted. In Sir John Lubbock's own
list it will be seen that the names of Chaucer
and Miss Austen occur. Among Essayists
one would like to have seen at least the names



240 Hew to Form a Library.

of Charles Lamb, De Quincey, and Landor,
and many will regret to find such delightful
writers as Walton and Thomas Fuller omitted.
We ought, however, to be grateful to Sir
John Lubbock for raising a valuable dis-
cussion which is likely to draw the attention
of many readers to books which might
otherwise have been most unjustly neglected
by them. 1

The following is Sir John Lubbock's list
It will be sen that several of the books,
whose absence is remarked on, do really
form part of the list, and that the objections
of the critics are so far met.

The Bible.



Marcus Aurelius, Meditations.

Epictetus.

Confucius, Analects.

Le Bonddha et sa Religion (St.-Hilairc).

Aristotle, Ethics.

1 The whole of the correspondence has been re-
issued as a Pall Mall "Extra," No. 24, and three-
pence will he well laid out by the purchaser of this
very interesting pamphlet.



One Plundred Books. 241

Mahomet, Koran (parts of).

Apostolic Fathers, Wake's collection.

St. Augustine, Confessions.

Thomas a Kempis, Imitation.

Pascal, Pensees.

Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.

Comte, Cat. of Positive Philosophy (Congreve).

Butler, Analogy.

Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living and Holy Dying.

Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress.

Keble, Christian Year. f

Aristotle, Politics.

Plato's Dialogues at any rate the Phado and Republic.

Demosthenes, De Corond.

Lucretius.

Plutarch.

Horace.

Cicero, De Officiis, De Amidtia, De Senectute.

Homer, ///#</ and Odyssey.

Hesiod.

Virgil.

Niebelungenlied.

Malory, Morte d' Arthur.

Maha-Bharata, Ramayana, epitomized by Talboys
Wheeler in the first two vols. of his History of India.

16



242 How to Form a Library.

Firdusi, Shah-nameh. Translated by Atkinson.
She-king (Chinese Odes).

yEschylus, Prometheus, House of Atreus t Trilogy, or


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