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ENGELMANN (W.). Bibliotheca Philo-
logica. Leipzig, 1853.

See Dictionaries.

Political Economy. McCtJLLOCH (J. R.) The
Literature of Political Economy, London, 1845.
This is a very valuable work up to the date of
publication, but a good bibliography of the subject
is still a desideratum. The late Professor Stanley
Jevons proposed to draw up a Handy Book of the
Literature for the Index Society, but, to the great
loss of bibliography, was prevented by other work
from undertaking it. He contributed a list of
Selected Books in Political Economy to the Monthly
Notes of the Library Association (Vol. 3, No. 7).

Poor. A Catalogue of Publications in the English
Language on subjects relative to the Poor will be
found in Eden's State of the Poor> vol. iii. pp.
ccclxvii ccclxxxvi.

176 How to Form a Library.

Printing. BIGMORE (E. C.), and WYMAN (C.
W. H.). A Bibliography of Printing, with Notes and
Illustrations. London, 1880. 410.

The Literature of Printing. A Catalogue

of the Library illustrative of the History and Art cf
Typogiaphy, Chalcography, and Lithography, by R.
M. Hoe. London, 1877. 8vo.

The following is a list of some of the
bibliographies of the productions of the
chief printers :

Aldus. Annales de 1'Imprimerie des Aide ou
Histoire des trois Manuce et de leurs editions. Par
Ant. Aug. Renouard. Paris, an XII. Seconde
edition. Paris, 1825. 8vo. 3 vols.

Caxton. The Life and Typography of William
Caxton, England's fiist Printer, with evidence of his
typographical connection with Colard Mansion, the
Printer at Bruges. Compiled from original sources
by William Blades. London, 1861-63. 2 vols. 4to.
A condensed edition was published under the following
title : The Biography and Typography of William
Caxton, England's first Printer. By William Blades.
Second edition. London, 1882. 8vo.

Elzevirs. Willems (A.). Les Elzevier. Histoire
et Annales Typographiques. Bruxelles, 1880. Svo.

C. Pieters. Annales de 1'Imprimerie des

Elsevier. Gand, 1858. Svo.

Special Bibliographies. 177

Plantin. La Maison Plantin a Anvers. Par
L. Degeorge. Deuxieme edition, augmentee d'une
liste chronologique des ouvrages imprimes par Plantin
a Anvers de 1555 a 1589. Bruxelles, 1878. 8vo.

Stephens. Annales de Hmprimerie des Estienne,
cm Histoire de la Famille des Estienne et de ses
editions. Par A. A. Renouard. Paris, 1837-38.
8vo. 2 parts.

Privately Printed Books. The second edition of
John Martin's Bibliographical Catalogue of Privately
Printed Books was published in 1854, and a newer
work on this important subject is much required.
Mr. W. P. Courtney has been engaged in the pro-
duction of such a work for some years, and the labour
could not be in better hands.

Proverbs. The Bibliographie Partmiologique of
Pierre Alexandre Gratet-Duplessis (1847), is one
of the most elaborate and carefully compiled biblio-
graphies ever published. Sir William Stirling Max-
well printed privately a catalogue of his collection of
books of proverbs, in which were specially marked
those unknown to Duplessis, or those published since
the issue of his catalogue.

Science. An article on the Scientific Libraries in
the United States was contributed by Dr. Theodore
Gill to the U.S. Report on Public Libraries (pp. 183-
217). It contains an account of the various periodical
records of work in the various departments of


1/8 How to Form a Library.

Shorthand. Thomas Anderson's History of Short-
hand, London (1882), contains Lists of Writers on
Shorthand in different languages.

Theology. There is an article on Theological
Libraries in the United States, in the U.S. Report on
Public Libraries (pp. 127-160). The following ex-
tract contains some particulars respecting these.
" There are reported twenty-four libraries, which
contain from 10,000 to 34,000 volumes ; and these
twenty-four libraries belong to ten different denomi-
nations. Three Baptist, two Catholic, two Congre-
gational, three Episcopal, one Lutheran, two Metho-
dist, seven Presbyterian, one Reformed (Dutch), one
Reformed (German), and two Unitarian. And, if we
include those libraries which contain less than 10,000
volumes, the list of different denominations to which
they belong is extended to fifteen or sixteen."

A considerable number of Bibliographies of
Theology will be found in the British Museum
Hand-list. Darling's Cyclopcedia Bibliographica
(1854-59), Malcom's Theological Index (Boston,
1868), and Zuchold's Bibliotheca Theologica
(Gottingen, 1864), may be specially mentioned.

Topography. Gough's British Topography (2 vols.
4to. 1780) is an interesting and useful book, and
Upcott's Bibliographical Account of the principal
works relating to British Topography, 3 vols. 8vo.
(1818), forms one of the best specimens of English
bibliography extant.

Special Bibliographies. 179

Topography. Mr. J. P. Anderson's Book of British
Topography (1881) is an indispensable book. Mr.
Robert Harrison has prepared for the Index Society
an Index of Books on Topography, arranged in one
alphabet of places, which has not yet been published.
Mr. W. H. K. Wright contributed a paper on
"Special Collections of Local Books in Provincial
Libraries" to the Transactions of the First Annual
Meeting of the Library Association, 1878 (pp. 44-50).
Another paper on the same subject, by Mr. J. H.
Nodal, appears in the Transactions of the Second
Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 1879
(pp. 54-60), entitled "Special Collections of Bocks
in Lancashire and Cheshire," and in the Appendix
(pp. 139-148) is a full account of these collections in
Public Libraries and private hands.

An indication of some of the chief biblio-
graphies of particular counties and places
is here added

Cornwall : Boase & Courtney, 1874-82. 3 vols.
A model bibliography.

Devonshire : J. Davidson, 1852.

Plymouth (Three Towns' Bibliotheca), R.
N. Worth, 1872-73.

Dorsetshire: C. H. Mayo, privately printed, 1885.

Gloucestershire : Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, J. Wash-
bourn, 1823-25.

180 Hoiv to Form a Library.

Gloucestershire : Collectanea Glocestriensia, J. D.

Phelps, 1842.

Hampshire : Bibliotheca Hantoniensis, H. M. Gilbert,

List of Books, Sir W. H. Cope, 1879.
Herefordshire : J. Allen, jun., 1821.
Kent : J. Russell Smith, 1837.
Lancashire : H. Fish wick, 1875.
Man (Isle of ) : W. Harrison, 1876.
Norfolk : S. Woodward and W. C. Ewing, 1842.
Nottinghamshire : S. F. Creswell, 1863.
Sussex : G. S. Butler, 1866.

Yorkshire: Rt. Hon. John Smythe, Pontefract, 1809.
,, E. Hailstone, 1858.
W. Boyne, 1869.

Trade and Finance. Catalogue of Books, com-
prising the Library of William Paterson, Founder of
the Bank of England, in vol. iii. of the Collection of
his "Writings, edited by Saxe Bannister," (3 vols.
8vo. London, 1859).

Enslin und Engelmann. Bibliothek

der Handlungswissenschaft 1750-1845. Leipzig,

Trials. The Catalogue of the Library of the
Philosophical Institution of Edinburgh (1857) con-
tains (pp. 297-319) a very useful list of trials in
an alphabet of the persons tried. The table is
arranged under name, charge, date of trial, and

Special Bibliographies. 181

Voyages and Travels. Locke s Catalogue and
character of most books of Voyages and Travels is
interesting on account of Locke's notes. (Locke's
Works, 1812, 10 vols. 8vo., vol. x. pp. 513-564.)

There are catalogues of books of travels in Pinker-
ton's collection (1814), and Kerr's collection (1822).

Boucher de la Richaderie, Bibliotheque

Universelle des Voyages, Paris, 1808. 6 vols. Svo.

Engelmann (W.). Bibliotheca Geo-

graphica. Leipzig, 1858.

Zoology. Agassiz's Bibliographia Zoologicce et
Geologic*, published by the Ray Society, 1848-54,
was a useful book in its day, but it is oi no value
bibliographically, and the titles being mostly taken
at second-hand, the work is full of blunders.

Carus and Engelmann's Bibliotheca Zoo-

logica, Leipzig 1861, forms a Supplement to the
Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis of Engelmann.

A large number of bibliographies of
particular authors have been published in
this country and abroad, and it may be
useful here to make a note of some of these.

Ariosto, Orlando Furioso : Ulisse Guidi, Bologna,

1861, 1868. G. J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1881.
Boccaccio: M. Landau, Napoli^ 1881.

1 82 Hoiv to Form a Library.

Burns : J. Mackie, Kilmar, 1866.
Calderon : E. Dorer, Leipzig, 1881.
Camoens : Adamson's Life of Camoens, vol. 2, 1820.
Cervantes : E. Dorer, Leipzig, iSSi.
Corneille : E. Picot, Paris, 1876.
Dante : Bibliografia Dantesca, Prato, 1845-46. C.
U. J. Chevalier, 1877. G. A. Scartazzini, Dante
inGermania, 1881. J. Petzholdt, Dresden, 1880.
Goethe : S. Hirzel, 1878.
Luther: E. G. Vogel, Halle, 1851. J. Edmands,

Philadelphia, 1883.
Manzoni : A Vosmara, Milano, 1875.
Moliere : P. Lacroix, Paris, 1875.
Montaigne : J. F. Payer, Paris, 1837.
Persius : J. Tarlier, Bruxelles, 1848.
Petrarch : Marsand, Milano, 1826.

,, A. Hortis, Trieste, 1874.

,, G. J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1877. C. U. J.

Chevalier, Montplliard, 1880.
Rabelais : J. C. Brunei, Paris, 1852.
Schiller : L. Unflad, Miinchcn, 1878.
Tasso : G. J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1880.
Voltaire : G. Bengesco, Paris, 1882,

Browning: F. J. Furnivall, Browning Society, 1881-2.
Carlyle : R. H. Shepherd, 1882.
Defoe: M. Stace, 1829; Wilson, 1830; Lee, 1862.
Dickens : R. H. Shepherd, 1881.
J. Cook, Paisley, 1879.

Special Bibliographies. 183

Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb: A. Ireland, 1868.

Ruskin : R. H. Shepherd, 1882.

Shakespeare : J. Wilson, 1827 ; J. O. Halliwell, 1841 ;

Moulin, 1845; Sillig and Ulrici, 1854; H. G.

Bohn, 1864; F. Thimm, 1865-72; K. Knortz,

1876; Unflad, 1880; Justin Winsor (Poems);

Birmingham Memorial Library Catalogue (J. D.


Shelley : H. B. Forman, 1886.
Tennyson : R. H. Shepherd, 1879.
Thackeray: R. H. Shepherd, iSSl.
Wycliffe : J. Edmands, 1884.

Dr. Garnelt commenced a MS. list of
such special bibliographies as he came
across in Treatises on the different subjects.
This list is added to and kept in the Read-
ing Room for use by the Librarians. I was
allowed the privilege of referring to this
very useful list.


LARGE amount of important
information is to be found in
the publications of the numerous
Societies formed for the purpose of sup-
plying to their subscribers valuable works
which are but little likely to find publishers.
These publications have in a large number
of instances added to our knowledge of
history and literature considerably. The
Societies have much increased of late
years, but no record of the publications is
easily to be obtained, since the full account
given in Bohn's Supplement to Lowndes's
Bibliographer's Manual.

The earliest of Publishing Societies was the
Dilettanti Society, instituted in London in 1734,

Publishing Societies.

which issued some fine illustrated volumes of classical
travel. A long period of time elapsed without any
societies of a similar character being formed.

The Roxburghe Club was formed in the year 1812
in commemoration of the sale of the magnificent
library of John third Duke of Roxburghe (died
March 19, 1804). It was chiefly intended as a
Social Club, and a long list of bibliographical toasts
was run through at the banquets. The publications
were not at first of any great literary value, although
some of them were curious and interesting. After
a time competent editors were employed, and some
important works produced. Sir Frederick Madden's
editions of " Havelok the Dane" was issued in 1828,
of the Romance of " William and the Werwolf " in
1832, and of the old English version of "Gesta
Romanorum" in 1838. The valuable " Manners and
Household Expenses of England in the Thirteeenth
and Fifteenth Centuries," edited by T. Hudson
Turner, was presented to the Club by Beriah
Botfield in 1841 ; Payne Collier's edition of the
"Household Books of John Duke of Norfolk, and
Thomas Earl of Surrey, 1481-1490," was issued
in 1844, and his " Five Old Plays illustrative of the
Early Progress of the English Drama" in 1851;

1 86 How to Form a Library.

the Rev. Joseph Stevenson's edition of "The Owl
and the Nightingale, a Poem of the Twelfth
Century," was issued in 1838, and his edition of
"The Ayenbite of Inwyt " in 1855; John Gough
Nichols's edition of the "Literary Remains of King
Edward the Sixth" appeared in 1857 and 1858
(2 vols.), and Dr. FurnivalPs edition of Henry
Lonelich's "Seynt Graal" in 1863-1864.

Several years elapsed before the second great
Printing Club was founded. In 1823 The Bannatyne
Club was started in Edinburgh, chiefly by Sir Walter
Scott, for the purpose of printing works illustrative
of the History, Antiquities and Literature of Scotland.
It derives its names from George Bannatyne (born
Feb. 22, 1545, died 1607). A long series of books
have been issued by the Club to its members, many
of which are of great interest. The Catalogue of the
Abbotsford Library was presented in 1839 to the
members "by Major Sir Walter Scott, Bart., as
a slight return for their liberality and kindness
in agreeing to continue to that Library the various
valuable works printed under their superintendence."
In the same year appeared Sir Frederick Madden's
edition of Sir Gawayne. Bishop Gawin Douglas's
" Palace of Honour" was printed in 1827, and his

Publishing Societies. 187

translation of Virgil's "^Eneid" in 1839 (2 vols.).
The Club was closed in 1867.

The Maitland Club, which derived its name from
Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington (born in 1496,
died March 20, 1586), was instituted in Glasgow in
1828. A volume containing " The Burgh Records of
.the City of Glasgow, 1573 to 1581," was presented
to the Club in 1832-34 ; the Poems of Drummond of
Havvthornden in 1832 ; Robert Wodrow's "Collection
upon the Lives of the Reformers and most eminent
Ministers of the Church of Scotland " in 1834-45
(2 vols.). Dauncey's Ancient Scottish Melodies in
1838. Sir Bevis of Hamtoun in the same year, the
Metrical Romance of Lancelot du Lak in 1839 ;
Wodrow's Analecta, or Materials for a History of
Remarkable Providences, in 1842-3 (4 vols.). Henry
Laing's Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Seals, in
1850. The Club was closed in 1859.

The Abbotsford Club was founded in honour of Sir
Walter Scott in 1834, by Mr. W. B. D. D. Turnbull.
The first book (issued in 1835) was a volume of
"Ancient Mysteries from the Digby MS." ; " Arthur
and Merlin, a Metrical Romance," was printed in
1838; "Romances of Sir Guy of Warwick and
Rembrun his Son," in 1840; "The Legend of St.

I 8 How to Form a Library.

Katherine of Alexandra," in 1841 ; " Sir Degaree, a
Metrical Romance of the end of the nineteenth
century," in 1849. The Club was closed in 1866.

These Printing Clubs were select in their constitu-
tion, and the books being printed for the members
in small numbers, they are difficult to obtain and their
price is high.

With the foundation of the Camden Society an
entirely new system was adopted, and the general
body of book lovers, poor as welt as rich, were
appealed to with great success, and valuable books
were supplied to the subscribers at a price which
would have been impossible without such means.
The Camden Society is entitled to this honour on
account of the general interest of its publications, but
the Surtees Society was actually the first to inaugurate
the new system. The subscription fixed was double
that which the founders of the Camden Society
adopted, but it was, perhaps, a bolder step to start
a Society, appealing to a somewhat restricted public
with a two guinea subscription, than to appeal to the
whole reading public with a subscription of one pound.
Before saying more of the Surtees and Camden
Societies, it will be necessary to mention some other
printing clubs which preceded them.

Publishing Societies. 189

The Oriental Translation Fund was established
in 1828, with the object of publishing Translations
from Eastern MSS. into the languages of Europe.
When the issue of books was discontinued, the stock
of such books as remained was sold off, and many of
these can still be obtained at a cheap rate.

The lona Club was instituted in 1833, for the
purpose of investigating the History, Antiquities, and
early Literature of the Highlands and Islands of
Scotland, but little has been done in the way of pub-
lication. The first book was " Collectanea de Rebus
Albanicis," and the second, "Transactions of the
Club," vol. i. in 4 parts. A second volume was
announced, but never appeared.

The Surtees Society was founded at Durham in 1834
for the publication of inedited Manuscripts, illustrative
of the moral, the intellectual, the religious, and the
social condition of those parts of England and Scotland
included on the East, between the Humber and the
Frith of Forth, and on the west, between the Mersey
and the Clyde, a region which constituted the ancient
kingdom of Northumberland. The Society is named
after Robert Surtees, of Mainforth, author of the
"History of the County Palatine of Durham."
Although founded more than fifty years ago, the

190 Hoiv to Form a Library.

Society is still flourishing, and carried on with the
same vigour as of old. The series of publications
is a long one, and contains a large number of most
important works. The second book issued was "Wills
and Inventories, illustrative of the History, Manners,
Language, Statistics, etc., of the Northern Counties
of England, from the Eleventh Century downwards "
(Part 2 was issued in 1860) ; the third, "The Towneley
Mysteries or Miracle Plays"; the fourth, "Testa-
menta Eboracensia : Wills illustrative of the History,
Manners, Language, Statistics, etc., of the Province
of York, from 1300" (vol. i). The second volume
of this series was issued in 1855. "Anglo-Saxon
and Early English Psalter" was issued in 1843-44
(2 vols.) ; " The Durham Household Book ; or, the
Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham,
from 1530 to 1534," in 1844.

The Camden Society, instituted in 1838, has issued to
its subscribers a large number of books of the greatest
interest on historical and literary subjects. The set
of publications is so well known that it is not
necessary to enumerate titles here. Among the most
valuable are the several volumes devoted to the
correspondence of certain old families, such as the
"Plumpton Correspondence" (1839), " Egerton

Publishing Societies. 191

Papers" (1840), "Rutland Papers" (1842), and
"Savile Correspondence" (1858). The Romances
and Chronicles must also be mentioned, and the
remarkable edition of the oldest English Dictionary,
" Promptorium Parvulorum," which was fully and
learnedly edited by the late Mr. Albert Way. A
second series was commenced in 1871, which is still

The same year which saw the foundation of the
Camden Society also gave birth to The English
Historical Society. Sixteen works of considerable
value were issued, but the greatest of these is the
grand "Codex Diplomaticus JEvi Saxonici" of the
late J. Mitchell Kemble (1845-48).

The Spalding Club, named after John Spalding,
Commissary Clerk of Aberdeen, and founded at
Aberdeen in 1839 for the printing of the Historical,
Ecclesiastical, Genealogical, Topographical, and
Literary Remains of the North-Eastern Counties of
Scotland, was formed on the model of the exclusive
clubs ; but being affected by the more democratic
constitution of the later printing societies, its sub-
scription was fixed at one guinea. Amongst the
most interesting of the Club's publications are the
" Sculptured Stones of Scotland" (1856), " Barbour's

192 How to Form a Library.

Brus" (1856), and the "Fasti Aberdonensis : Selec-
tions from the Records of the University and King : s
College of Aberdeen from 1494 to 1854" (1854).

The year 1840 saw the foundation of three very
important Societies, viz. the Parker, the Percy, and
he Shakespeare.

The Parker Society took its name from the famous
Archbishop of Canterbury, Martin Parker, and its
objects were (i) the reprinting, without abridgment,
alteration or omission, of the best works of the
Fathers and early Writers of the Reformed English
Church published in the period between the accession
of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth ; (2) the printing
of such works of other writers of the Sixteenth
Century as may appear desirable (including under
both classes some of the early English Translations
of the Foreign Reformers), and (3) the printing of
some MSS. of the same authors hitherto unpublished.
The Society was an enormous success, and at one
time the list contained seven thousand members ; but
owing to the multitude of copies printed, and the
somewhat dry character of the books themselves,
many of them can now be obtained at a ridiculously
small sum, the price of a complete set usually
averaging little more than a shilling a volume. When

Publishing Societies. 193

the series was completed, a valuable General Index to
the whole was compiled by Mr. Henry Gough, 1855*

77ie Percy Society took its name from Bishop Percy,
author of the " Reliques of Ancient English Poetry"
(born 1729, died 1811), and was founded for the
purpose of bringing to light important but obscure
specimens of Ballad Poetry, or Works illustrative of
that department of Literature. The Society was
dissolved in 1853, but during the thirteen years of its
existence it produced a singularly interesting series of
publications. The number of separate works registered
in Bohn's Appendix to Lowndes's Bibliographer's
Manual is 94, besides "Quippes for Upstart New-
fangled Gentlewomen by Stephen Gosson," which
was suppressed, and "Rhyming Satire on the Pride
and Vices of Women Now-a-days, by Charles
Bansley," 1540, which was reprinted in 1841, but not
issued. The set is much sought after, and fetches
a good price.

The Shakespeare Society was founded in 1840, to
print books illustrative of Shakespeare and of the
literature of his time, and a very valuable collection
of works was issued to the subscribers during the
term of its existence. It was dissolved in 1853, and
the remaining stock was made up into volumes and


194 How to Form a Library.

sold off There was much for the Society still to do ;
but the controversy arising out of the discovery of the
forgeries connected with John Payne Collier's name
made it difficult for the Shakespearians to work
together with harmony.

In this same year the Musical Antiquarian Society
was founded, and during the seven years of its exis-
tence it issued books of Madrigals, Operas, Songs,
Anthems, etc., by early English composers.

In the following year (1841), the Motetl Society was
founded for the publication of Ancient Church Music.
Five parts only, edited by Dr. Rimbault, were issued.

In 1841 the Society for the Publication of Oriental
Texts was founded, and a series of works in Syriac,
Arabic, Sanscrit, and Persian was distributed to the
subscribers until 1851, when the Society was dissolved.

The Wodrow Society was instituted in Edinburgh
in 1841, for the publication of the early writers of the
Reformed Church of Scotland, and named after the
Rev. Robert Wodrow. Among its publications
are, "Autobiography and Diary of James Melvill,"
" Correspondence of the Rev. R. Wodrow " (3 vols.),
" History of the Reformation in Scotland, by John
Knox " (2 vols.). The Society was dissolved in

Publishing Societies. 195

The ALlfric Society was founded in 1842 for the
publication of those Anglo-Saxon and other literary
monuments, both civil and ecclesiastical, tending to
illustrate the early state of England. The publications,
which were not numerous, were edited by Benjamin
Thorpe and J. M. Kemble, and the Society was
discontinued in 1856.

The Chetham Society, founded at Manchester in 1843,
for the publication of Historical and Literary remains
connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and
Chester, was named after Humphrey Chetham (born
1580, died 1653). The Society, which still flourishes,
has now produced a very long series of important
works, and the volumes, which are not often met with,
keep up their price well.

The Sydenham Society for reprinting Standard
English Works in Medical Literature, and for the
Translation of Foreign Authors, with notes, was
founded in 1843. After printing a number of im-
portant works, the Society was dissolved in 1858, and
was succeeded by The New Sydenham Society.

The Spottisivoode Society was founded at Edinburgh
in 1843, for the revival and publication of the
acknowledged works of the Bishops, Clergy, and

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