Henry C. (Henry Clemens) Pearson.

The rubber country of the Amazon : a detailed description of the great rubber industry of the Amazon valley, which comprises the Brazilian states of Pará, Amazonas and Matto Grosso, the territory of the Acre, the Montana of Peru and Bolivia, and the southern portions of Colombia and Venezuela online

. (page 11 of 12)
Online LibraryHenry C. (Henry Clemens) PearsonThe rubber country of the Amazon : a detailed description of the great rubber industry of the Amazon valley, which comprises the Brazilian states of Pará, Amazonas and Matto Grosso, the territory of the Acre, the Montana of Peru and Bolivia, and the southern portions of Colombia and Venezuela → online text (page 11 of 12)
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pounds per tree, while an expert estimating on the same property put
the yield at 10 pounds per tree. Collins, in his report on the lower




AN INDIAN TAPPER WITH MODERN METHODS.

Amazon, spoke of a daily yield of 2 ounces per tree, which would
equal 22^2 pounds per season. Conway, speaking of yields in Bolivia,
estimated that they were never less than 3 pounds per tree, and never



190



THE RUBBER COUXTRY



more than 7. A French Bolivian syndicate however figured on 13
pounds a tree. Figures on the Purus give n pounds per tree, on the
Jurua 15 pounds, and the Acre 9 pounds per tree. For an average Sir

Martin Conway's figures would seem
to be very nearly' right.

At the same time no two estates
are alike in yield. Trees vary
not only in size but in productive-
ness. Trees that have been tapped
for years give somewhat less than
those that have only been tapped
for a short time. In addition to this
some gatherers tap every day, some
every other day, some when they
please, and few keep records that
are at all reliable. There are oc-
casional tales of unusual yields like
the following: A man in Manaos in
whom I have every confidence told
me of a huge Hevea tree on the
Madeira that gave 190 quarts of
latex in one year. I don't know
how thick the latex was, but that
would normally mean something like
150 pounds of rubber. Which to say
the least would be unusual.

In justice to the poor rubber
gatherer who is considered careless
and dishonest as a rule, I found
many that were careful of the trees.
For example, they did not cut into
the wood of the tree at all. They
were aware that a borer beetle, the
punilha, is likely to attack the ex-
posed wood and destroy the tree.
For this reason some refused to

pick the sernamby from the cuts, leaving it as nature's protection against
disease and insects.

The pelles of fine Para are usually of a size to be conveniently




HERRING BONE TAPPING OF "HEVEA
IN SOUTH AMERICA.



OF THE AMAZON



191




BUNGALOW ON THE LOWER AMAZON.



handled in smoking and for ease in packing. They weigh from 10
to 100 pounds. Occasionally, however, big balls are made to order
that are afterward exhibited as curios. For example, in 1897 two-




HUT OF A "SERINGUEIRO" NEAR PARA.



192



THE RUBBER COUNTRY



huge balls were made for a New York importer. One weighed 864
pounds, the other 1279 pounds. It took something like 2500 pounds
of milk to make the larger ball. In 1909 a rubber gatherer and his




SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN WITH BLOW GUN AND ARROWS, SKETCHED MY LIEUTENANT

GIBBON, U. S. N. 1851.



two sons made a ball that weighed 1118 pounds. They worked five
months upon it, and brought it down to Manaos in a boat by itself,
taking 25 clays for the journey.



194 THE RUBBER COUNTRY

The method by which export taxes are assessed in Para and Manaos
is very interesting. These duties are all ad valorem and are calculated
not on individual shipments but by official (weekly) valuation. The
office of state taxes, the recebedoria, receives every Monday morning
reports from the exporters of the different prices at which they pur-
chased the week preceding. These prices are averaged and the official
price, the pauta, is at once declared for that current week, being that
average.

This system applies to fine, coarse, and caucho, and has been in
vogue almost from the beginning of rubber export.



CHAPTER XXIV.

GOOD-BYE TO PARA WONDERFUL PHOSPHORESCENCE IN THE GREAT COAST CUR-
RENT SHORT STOP AT BARBADOS LANDING RUBBER CARGO AT BROOKLYN.

THE time came when I must say farewell to the fair city of Para
and the warm hearted and hospitable Brazilians. I spent the
last night at the home of a Brazilian friend ; then, the next
morning, starting early, went to the steamship office, where a score
of friends had gathered to say good-bye. A little later, boarding a
launch, I reached my steamer and we were soon en route for Bar-
bados.

It was then that I met the Peruvian physician, of whom I have
spoken, who was ill of beriberi and was seeking the salt water, which
is said to be a sure cure. He scouted the generally accepted theory
that the disease comes from eating polished rice, declaring that no
one as yet had any idea of its cause.

In case any reader needs the services of this very skilful phy-
sician in Iquitos, his charges are 3 arrobas* of rubber for an ordinary
prescription and 25 arrobas for an operation, 10 per cent, to be added
for shrinkage of the rubber.

The Peruvian doctor, by the way, told me of a young American
in Para, who bought a motor car called the "Reo." He was proud of
it and proud of the name Reo, that appeared in gilt letters on the
ladiator. He also speeded the machine very rapidly. The courtly
Brazilians named him "The Reo," some in all honesty and others with
a smile of appreciation. He was much nattered until, one day, in brush-
ing up his Portuguese, he discovered that the word meant "Criminal."

As we passed down the Tocantins the Captain pointed out a dozen
places with broad, sandy beaches in a fairly high land, that were con-
stantly cooled by the trade winds, where in his judgment Para should
have been located.

By 4 that afternoon only one shore was in sight. The water
was turning from a muddy yellow to a tawny green and the ocean

*One arroba equals about 32 1/3 pounds in Brazil.

195



196



THE RUBBER COUNTRY



CANOE HABEOR. PARA.




RUBBER IN CASES ON BROOKLYN DOCK.

(The long cases contain fine Para rubber just removed

from the steamer beyond.)



OF THE AMAZON



197



swell began to be felt. We left the mouth of the river just at sunset
and two hours later were fascinated by the wonderful spectacle of
a tropical phosphorescent sea. As the boat plowed through the water,
broad streamers of star sparkles undulated on each side and trailed
for hundreds of yards astern. Every breaking wave to the far horizon
was an island of white fire. So bright were these myriad lights that
we had difficulty in recognizing Salinas light, and were only sure of it
by its yellow color. Soon we picked up the pilot boat and watched with




BOAT LANDING, PARA.



interest the half-hour struggle of the man in her little tender to get
alongside and take off our pilot. Finally, by making a long jump, he
landed sprawling in the boat ; then we turned in and slept soundly.
The next day we found the great current that sweeps northward
up the coast of South America, and which all navigators seek in going
north but avoid in going south. The day was clear and bright, with
a strong breeze on our quarter. The big freighter, almost flat bottomed,
with no bilge keels, wallowed and rolled incessantly but pushed steadily



i 9 8



THE RUBBER COUNTRY




WEIGHING RUBBER AT BROOKLYN.

(The empty case is being weighed, the rubber appears in a pile
in the foreground.)




CRUDE RUBBER SAMPLE ROOM IN IMPORTER'S OFFICE, AMSTERDAM.



OF THE AMAZON



199



forward. Fresh from the smooth waters of the Amazon and some-
what enervated by the heat, captain, officers, crew and passengers were
all qualmish and sometimes frankly sick. Salines and fruit salts were
abundantly in evidence. In 24 hours, however, all had recovered and
were very proud that our ancient ark has made 237 miles. The next
day it was 281, and the day following exactly the same. Directly after
that we were being interviewed by a brisk, young physician in the road-
stead off Bridgetown, Barbados ; were given a clean bill of health, not




THE LAST OF THE CITY SUBURBS, PARA.



even being put under observation, and our $50 deposit given back to
Then we got in the "Lilywhite," were rowed ashore, and the



us.



tropical part of the (Brazilian) journey was finished.

Then followed the run to New York, to the rubber docks, for
it was a rubber boat that I was on, and a view of the handling of
the precious commodity as it was landed. The rubber is packed in
wooden boxes, a case of fine Para weighing 395 pounds, while one of
coarse in a larger case will weigh about 700 pounds. Caucho, on the
other hand, is shipped in all sorts of odd sized packages. The Para



2OO



THE RUBBER COUNTRY




PELLES OF PARA RUBBER IN THE STOREHOUSE.



cases are usually strapped and are very carefully stowed and cared
for from the time they leave Brazil. On their arrival in New York,
for example, the discharging begins at once, the amount for each con-




GREAT RUBBER STOREHOUSES, ST. KATHERINE S DOCK, LONDON.



OF THE AMAZON



201



signee being placed by itself. After the whole cargo has been unloaded,
the cases are weighed with the rubber in them. The rubber is then care-
fully unpacked and the case weighed. It is then repacked and de-
livered to the consignee.

No one knows better than the quiet, skillful stevedores the value
of the product they handle. The bartenders at the nearby saloons are
also aware of its value and are perfectly willing to accept it as legal
tender in exchange for drinks. In spite of the vigilant watch of those




INTERIOR OF STORAGE VAULTS IN RUBBER WAREHOUSES, ST. KATHERINE's
DOCK, LONDON.



interested, considerable rubber is lost on the dock or in transit to the
warehouses of the consignee. The thief may be detected or he may
not. The fact that he has the rubber in his possession is not proof
that it was stolen. The pelles look so much alike that it is often im-
possible to establish title to them.

The value of the rubber cargoes is very great. In a single month
four steamers discharged at the Brooklyn docks 2,000,000 pounds of
rubber each, worth, at market price at that time, considerably more
than $10.000.000.



SKETCH MAP
OK THE

MADEIRA-MAMORE RY.

Nov. 1909



PORTO VELHO



N




UEQEISD

Paifroad Coos-frucfed (Irvelre gauge)
Cons^rue-ti'on in Progress
Location Surveys in Progress
Probable Poufe of Location
Falls of fne Madeira R/ver

Scale Ki^orri^res ^^^ g ^^ |
Scale Miles



APPENDIX A

I WISH to express my thanks to Dr. Joao Antonio Luiz Coelho, Governor of
the State of Para, and to Colonel Antonio Clemente Bittencourt, Governor
of the State of Amazonas, for their personal assistance, and for that of
other officials which made my trip through the Amazonian rubber country so
fruitful. The hospitality and helpfulness of the Manaos Commercial Association,
and of the Brazilian, German, English, and American business men was of
untold value, and I take pleasure in acknowledging my appreciation.



213



APPENDIX B



EXPORTS OF RUBBER FROM THE AMAZON VALLEY.

THE figures which follow relate to the quantity of rubber shipped, by years,
from 1836 to 1909, inclusive. Prior to 1836, say for ten years, considerable
rubber was exported, but the records are fragmentary and unreliable.
The figures have been compiled from the records at Para, covering the whole
output of the Amazon and its tributaries. Succeeding tables give details of
exports from Bolivia and Peru, which figures are embraced in the total in
the first table. The statistics of caucho, beginning with 1888, are in addition
to the output in each year of Para rubber.



PARA RUBBER.
Pounds. Years.



Years.

1836 416,295

1837 624,624

1838 535,986

1839 861,894

1840 854,172

1841 746,328

1842 594,792

1843 748,473

1844 992,673

1845 1,235,223

1846 1,482,195

1847 1,374,318

1848 1,982,475

1849 2,152,392

1850 3,226,410

1851 3,480,510

1852 3,592,446

1853 5,207,092

1854 5,974,320

1855 4,833,279

1856 4,192,584

1857 3,979,173

1858 3,839,682

1859 5,883,108

1860 5,879,478

1861 5,532,186



Pounds.

1862 7,381,836

1863 : 9,676,678

1864 7,624,881

1865 7,800,870

1866 11,957,198

1867 12,818,964

1868 12,432,761

1869 12,926,509

1870 14,523,577

1871 14,883,866

1872 18,078,570

1873 19,341,005

1874 16,974,408

1875 17,005,972

1876 17,400,148

1877 20,273,825

1878 20,302,871

1879 22,300,117

1880 19,094,691

1881 19,145,552

1882 22,159,542

1883 17,202,766

1884 24,657,600

1885 25,920,400

1886 27,918.000

1887 29,458,000



214



OF THE AMAZON 215

PARA RUBBER CONTINUED AND CAUCHO.

Years. Para. Caucho.

1888 30,701,350 2,323,116

1889 33.094,083 1,863,031

1890 33,947,463 2,121,363

1891 36,654,101 2,482,590

1892 37,738,681 2,981,132

1893 39,473,626 2,612,812

1894 39,940,822 2,901,292

1895 42,092,752 3,600,326

1896 43,697,417 3,826,706

1897 45,019,282 4,560,627

1898 43,877,636 4,322,179

1899 50,368,083 5.577,937

1900 52,793,538 6.053,520

1901 57,918,540 8,720,556

1902 55,790,687 7,018,829

1903 59,145,050 9,263,822

1904 57,640,3% 9,776,704

1905 60,403,160 13,223,994

1906 62,560,813 13,928,248

1907 66,789,166 15,741,968

1908 67,389,821 16,349,551

1909 68,522,657 18,272,190

1910 36,999,965 12,940,76?

TOTAL EXPORTS OF BOLIVIAN RUBBER.
[Para, including a little Caucho.]

Years. Pounds. Years. Pounds.

1890 646,800 1900 7,691,728

1891 759.000 1901 7,623,138

1892 799,480 1902 4.186,585

1893 868,600 1903 2,906,274

1894 1,391,500 1904 3.456,481

1895 1,804,902 1905 3,720,908

1896 2,509.566 1906 4,245,138

1897 3,683,295 1907 3,606,664

1398 6.943,100 1908 4,027,128

1899 4,708,000 1909 6,715,399

PERUVIAN RUBBER (PARA AND CAUCHO) SHIPPED FROM IQUITOS.

Years. Pounds. Years. Pounds.

1900 2,019,851 1905 5,166,110

1901 2.552,686 1906 5,747,625

1902 3,104,114 1907 6,903,237

1903 4,528,625 1908 6,781.573

1904 ..4.017,193 1909 6,086,375



APPENDIX C

SHRINKAGE OF RUBBER.

CRUDE stock of nearly all kinds is measured by certain standards that are
absolute. The price paid depends entirely upon purity as compared with
the fixed standard. Sugar, for example, is carefully tested by the
polariscope, and the price paid for it depends upon the amount of the saccharine
matter found.

There is no standard for crude rubber. The highest grade of rubber, old
dry Fine Para, is not a standard, for no one knows what the shrinkage will be.
With new crop rubber it is the same. The shrinkage may be one figure, or it
may be 10 per cent. more. There is first the shrinkage en route or in store,
which is considerable, through the water drying out. Then there is the greater
shrinkage when the moisture, the carbon from the smoke, and other foreign
substances have been thoroughly removed by washing in the factory.

Para shrinkages, from Bolivian to Islands, vary about as follows : Fine, 15
to 20 per cent. ; medium, 16 to 22 per cent. ; coarse, 20 to 33 per cent. This in a
measure, is why Para and Manaos statistics do not jibe with New York and
Liverpool figures, for example.

Various grades of Para and Caucho rubber, showing percentage of shrinkages :

Class. Fine. Medium. Coarse.

Upriver 16-18 17-19 18-25

Peruvian 15-17 16-18 20-25

Bolivian 15-17 16-18 20-25

Mollendo 15-17 16-18

Madeira 15-18 16-19 20-25

Manaos 16-17 17-18 18-22

Angostura 16-18 17-19 25-30

Matto Grosso 16-18 17-19 18-25

Islands 18-20 18-22 25-35

Caviana 16-18 18-20 25-30

Itaituba 17-18 18-19 20-25

Cameta 30-35

Caucho balls 25-35

Caucho slabs or strips 35-42

RUBBER SELLING CONDITIONS.

Crude rubber is sold to the manufacturer in the main about as follows :

1. The seller draws up, signs, and sends a contract to the buyer, stating
conditions of sale. Silence on the part of the buyer is acceptance of contract.

2. Any change must be made 10 days from the dating of the contract.

216



OF THE AMAZON



217



3. The rubber becomes purchaser's property as soon as it leaves the seller's
hands, the buyer paying the freight.

4. Stealing en route is the buyer's loss.

5. If the shipment is questioned as to quality, if bought by sample, that
is compared. If not up to sample, seller must replace the lot with what he
agreed to deliver.

6. The buyer is not allowed to select the good and reject the bad of any
lot. He must take all or none.

7. If the seller fails to make deliveries on or before the last week day of the
month specified, the buyer can enter the open market and purchase, charging
the loss to the seller. This, however, is very rarely done.

Rubber is purchased by the manufacturer by samples, the price depending
not only upon the grade, but also upon its dryness and cleanliness. Years ago,
when it took many months to get fine Para into the market, the water had dried
out of it, so that "old fine" meant a comparatively dry rubber.

To-day with the much quicker transportation and the immediate use to which
rubber is put, most of the grades contain much more moisture.

PRICES AND SPECULATIONS.
Average Monthly and Yearly Prices of New Upriver Fine Para Rubber for Eleven Years.



Jan


1900
.$1.09


1901
$ 90


1902
$ 81


1903
$ 89


1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910
$ 99 $1 22 $1 26 $1 22 $ 78 $1 21 $1 82


Feb ..


1 07


87


75


87


1 04 1 27 27 1 21 71 1 23 1 98


Mar . ..


. 1 12


85


74


91


1 09 1 31 27 1 18 76 1 24 2 33


April


. 1.00


89


73


91


1 09 1 32 26 1 16 81 1 ?3 2 75


May .


96


91


73


92


1 13 1 33 25 1 14 88 30 2 57


June ....


. 93


88


71


91


1 12 I 32 24 I 10 91 43 2 34


July .


. .95


.86


.71


.95


1 15 1 29 1 23 1 12 93 72 2 23


August . .
Sept
Oct


. .96
. 1.01
. .97


.88
.89
.87


.73

.76

.77


.97
1.05
1.04


1.19 1.28 1.23 1.11 .93 .87 2.03
1.15 1.30 1.23 1.08 .99 .52 1.73
1 15 1.25 1 23 1 02 1 08 08 1 43


Nov
Dec


. .86
93


.85
.86


.80
.85


.97
95


1.23 1.23 1.23 .99 1.21 .98 1.44
1 24 1 26 1 23 84 1 19 89 1 43














Average )
annual J


$ .99


$.871


$.751


$ .941


$1.13 $1.28 $1.241 $1.091 $.93 $1.56 $2.01






The existence of speculation in crude rubber is both affirmed and denied
by those interested. In the Amazon country when rubber is low the producers
claim that speculators are at work. The higher it goes the more they talk of
the law of supply and demand. Normally the price of rubber is fixed by whatever
city, Brazilian, European or American, that may have the largest stock of fine Para.
Among manufacturers, whenever the price of rubber goes up it is laid to speculation,
and when it goes down they talk about the law of supply and demand. Never-
theless the whole business is speculative. There is no absolute standard as
to grade. No one can forecast what a crop season will produce. The manu-
facturers are unable to say what they will need a year ahead. Add to this, with
a rate of exchange constantly changing, how can anybody help doing some
speculating?



218 THE RUBBER COUNTRY

Most large manufacturers buy for future delivery, in itself a speculation,
but a wise one.

Such a valuable product as Para rubber would naturally attract the attention
of big speculators, and "corners" would be attempted. A brilliant Brazilian
Baron, beginning in 1882, almost cornered Para rubber four different times, and
in doing this succeeded in forcing the price up to figures then thought prohibitive.
An American importing company also came very near effecting a corner on
rubber in fact, did so until the banks got tired of carrying stocks ; then prices
dropped very suddenly.

A line of speculation followed in the past by strong outside interests was
the securing of large quantities of rubber from the producers at exceedingly low
figures, when a marked rise in the market was not only in sight but practically
assured. This "bearing" of the market by outside interests has been taken in
hand by the Brazilian government. Branches of the Banco do Brasil have been
established on the Amazon. These banks are authorized to make substantial
advances on rubber in the hands of Brazilian producers, which means that the
rubber may be held until what is deemed a fair price be offered for it. In other
words, this is an adaption of the "valorization" plan that Brazil put in force to
keep the price of coffee where she believed it belonged.

Baron de Gondoriz who once, nay four times nearly cornered Para rubber,
thus arraigned the United States for her awkward commercial arrangements
with Brazil. Although written long ago it is pertinent to-day.

"If North America really desires more reciprocal trade relations with Brazil
they might be secured through the agency of a carefully managed bank at Para
based on American capital. The value of the business done here monthly is more
than $2,500,000, all through English banking houses, which make their money on
this large exchange. Two and a half millions are paid each month for the natural
products of the Amazon valley, two thirds of which go to the United States.
The rubber men of the United States pay gold coin through English banks for
crude rubber, and the rubber producer here pays the producer in merchandise
making room for a heavy profit, by the way. The business in exchange is so
great that it is said that there is a broker for each firm in trade, the fluctuations
in the price of exchange being something which the uninitiated find it hard to
comprehend. Usually when a foreigner's occupation is gone as a manager or
banker, he does not leave the company which he has severely condemned, but
he becomes a 'broker' and continues to live among the same objectionable people."



APPENDIX D



THE following is a fairly complete list of latex producing trees in the
Amazon basin of the three important classes Hevea, Sapium and
Mimusops. The two latter are not rubber producers at present chiefly
because they are not tapped. Most of the rubber comes from the Hevea sorts, the
Brasiliensis particularly, which furnishes the Para grade, and the CastiHoas Ulei,
from which comes caucho.

SPECIES OF "HEVEA."



Xame. Botanist.

Hevea Guyanensis Aublet.

H. nigra Ule.

H. lutea Muel. Arg.

H. apiculata Muel. Arg.

H. cuneata Huber.

H. Benthamiana Muel. Arg.

H. Duckei Huber

H. paludosa Ule.

H. ' rigidifolia Muel. Arg.

H. minor Hemsley.

H. micro phylla Ule.



Xame. Botanist.

H. Randiana Huber.

H. Brasiliensis Muel. Arg.

H. Spruceana Muel. Arg.

H. sintilis Hemsley

H. discolor Muel. Arg.

H. pauci flora Muel. Arg.

//. confusa Hemsley.

H. nitida Muel. Arg.

H. viridis Huber.

H. Kunthiana . ..Huber.



SPECIES OF "CASTILLOA."
Cast ill oa Ulei Warburg.



SPECIES OF "SAPIUM."

Sapium Mannieri Huber.

5\ aereum Muel. Arg.

S. Pavonianum Huber.

5. Poeppigii Hemsley.

S. stenophyllum Huber.

S. tapuru Ule.

S. lanceolatum Muel. Arg.



SPECIES OF BALATA.

Mimusops densi flora Huber.

M. amazonica Huber.

M . elata Freire.

M. Amazonica Huber.

M. Paraensis Freire.

M. discolor . Freire.



219



APPENDIX E

IT will be news to most, but in 1850 Para had a big rubber shoe factory of its
own. It came about in this way. The city of Salem, Massachusetts, back in

the '40' s was most enterprising in fitting out trading vessels that went to all
parts . of the world. One of the best known captains brought to the ''city of
witches" a pair of pure gum unvulcanized rubber shoes on clay lasts. Some
bright Yankee saw that they could be made to take place of wool socks and
moccasins and imported several pairs which sold readily. The business in-
creasing, a Salem house established a rubber shoe factory in Para. Their shoes
were known under the name of Fabrica and sold all over the world, retailing
at 50 cents to $1.25 a pair.

These thick, awkward, ill shaped shoes, with their crude ornamentation may
still be seen in museums. A few venerable shoe dealers also recollect their
own part in preparing them for market. When a box of shoes was received from
Para, they were stored in a cool cellar to keep them away from heat. Then came
the preparing them for sale. They were truned inside out, relieved of their
stuffing of hay, thoroughly washed, and stretched over wooden lasts. Some had
round toes, some pointed ; some were thick, some thin ; there were no rights and
lefts. They were, however, paired up as well as possible, warmed and molded into
shape; trimmed and varnished, and they found a ready sale.

They became very soft when heated and under the influence of cold grew
rigid as iron. They drew the feet excruciatingly. But thousands of pairs were
sold and there are those to-day of course who lament the passing of the pure
rubber shoes.

Salem also imported rubber bottles about this same time, which bottles
were cut up into strips for suspender webs. How large a business this was for
a few years is on record in the Salem custom house, in the handwriting of
Nathaniel Hawthorne, as follows :

Years. Pounds.

1850-1851 43,000

1851-1852 1,969,000

1852-1853 1,407,000

1853-1854 2,056,000

After 1854 the business of importing rubber into Salem dropped off very
rapidly, and ceased entirely in 1861.



220



INDEX


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11

Online LibraryHenry C. (Henry Clemens) PearsonThe rubber country of the Amazon : a detailed description of the great rubber industry of the Amazon valley, which comprises the Brazilian states of Pará, Amazonas and Matto Grosso, the territory of the Acre, the Montana of Peru and Bolivia, and the southern portions of Colombia and Venezuela → online text (page 11 of 12)