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With an Introduction, Biographical and Explanatory-
Notes, etc. ■!,,>. , ■, '


Vol. IX



Copyright, 1909, by


[Printed in (he United States of America]




Vol. IX — America — I

John Smith — (Born in 1579, died in 1631.)

His Story of Pocahontas. (From the

'^ General History of Virginia") 3

William Bradford — (Born in 1590, died in


The Pilgrims Land and Meet the

Indians. (From the "History of

Plymouth") 11

Samuel Sew all — (Born in 1652, died in
How He Courted Madam Winthrop.
(From his ''Diary") .... 19
Cotton" Mather — (Born in 1663, died in
|i. In Praise of John Eliot. (From the

"Magnalia Christ! Americana") . 3S
William Byed — (Born in 1674, died in
At the Home of Colonel Spotswood.
(From ''A Visit to the Mines") 38
Jonathan Edwards — (Born in 1703, died in

Of Liberty and Moral Agencies.
(From the "Freedom of the Will") 44
Benjamin Franklin — (Born in 1706, died
in 1790.)
I His First Entry into Philadelphia.

(From the ''Autobiography") . 51


II Warnings Braddock Did Not Heed.

(From the "Autobiography") . 5-

III How to Draw Lightning from the

Clouds. (From a letter to Peter
Collision) f)!

IV The Way to Wealth. (From "Poor

Richard's Almanac") .... 61

V Dialog with the Gout 68

VI A Proposal to Madame Helvetius.

(A letter to Madame Uelvetius) 70
George Washington — (Born in 1732, died
in 1799.)
I To His Wife on Taking Command of
the Army. (A letter written on

June 18, 1775) 7;'

II Of His Army in Cambridge. (A letter

to Joseph Reed) T

HI To the Marquis Chastellux on His
Marriage. (A letter of April 25,

1788) 84

John Adams — (Born in 1735, died in 1826.)

I On His Nomination of Washington to

Be Commander-in-Chief. (From his

"Diary") S7

II An Estimate of Franklin. (From a

letter to the Boston Patriot) . . 90
Thomas Paine — Born in 1737, died in
In Favor of the Separation of the
Colonies from Great Britain.
(From "Common Sense") ... 94
Thomas Jefferson — (Born in 1743, died in
I When the Bastile Fell. (From his

"Autobiography") 98



II The Futility of Disputes. (From a

letter to his nephew) .... 106

III Of Blacks and Whites in the South.

(From the "Notes on the State of
Virginia") 108

IV His Account of Logan's Famous

Speech. (From the ''Notes on

Virginia") 114

DUVEENEUR MoRRis — (Born in 1752, died in
I The Opening of the French States-
General. (From a letter to Mi'S.

Morris) 117

II Of the Execution of Louis XVI.
(From a letter to Thomas Jeffer-
son) 120

EXANDER Hamilton — (Born in 1757, died
in 1804.)
I Of the Failure of Confederation.

(From The Federalist) .... 123
II liis Reasons for not Declining Burr's
Challenge. (From a statement
written before the day of the duel) 129
JOHJT QuiNCT Adams — (Born in 1767, died
in 1848.)
I Of His Mother. (From the ''Diary") 133
II The Moral Taint Inherent in Slavery.

(From the "Diary") .... 135
William E. Chaining — (Born in 1780, died
in 1842.)
Of Greatness in Napoleon. (From a
review of Scott's "Life of Napo-
leon") 139



John James Audubon — (Born in 1780, died i*?
in 1857.)
Where the Mocking Bird Dwells.
(From the ''Birds of America") 1
Washington Irving — (Born in 1783, died ,
in 1859.)

I The Last of the Dutch Governors of
New York. (From ''Knickerbock-
er's History of New York") . . 14
II The Awakening of Rip Van Winkle.

(From the "Sketch Book") . . 15i
ni At Abbotsford with Scott. (From the

"Crayon Miscellany") .... 161
Fenimgre Cooper — (Born in 1789, died in '
I His Father's Arrival at Otsego Lake.

(From "The Pioneers") . . . 17C
n Running the Gantlet. (From "The

Last of the Mohicans") . . • 17S
III Leather-Stocking's Farewell. (From

"The Pioneers") 1^

William Cullen Bryant — (Born in 1794,
died in 1878.)
An October Day in Florence. (From

a letter)

William H. Prescott— (Born in 1796, died

in 1859.)

I The Fate of Egmont and Hoorne.

(From "Philip II") . . . .

n The Genesis of Don Quixote. (From

the "Miscellanies")



ORGE Bancroft — (Bom in 1800, died in
The Fate of Evangeline's Country-
men. (From the ** History of the

United States") 217

iPH Waldo Emerson — (Born in 1803,

died in 1882.)
I Thoreau's Broken Task. (From the

"Funeral Address") .... 223
II The Intellectual Honesty of Mon-
taigne. (From "Representative

Men") 229

III His Visit to Carlyle at Craigenput-

toek. (From "English Traits") 231
''athaniel Hawthorne — (Born in 1804,
died in 1864.)
I Occupants of an Old Manse. (From

"Mosses from an Old Manse") . . 235
II Arthur Dimmesdale on the Scaffold.

(From "The Scarlet Letter") . 242
ni Of Life at Brook Farm. (From "The

Blithedaie Romance") .... 248
W The Death of Judge Pyncheon. (From

"The House of the Seven Gables " ) 252


1579 — 1891

IX— 1


Born in England in 1579, died in 1631; served against
the Turks, captured, but escaped and returned to England
in 1605; sailed "or Virginia in 1606, and helped to found
Oamestown; captured by Indians and his life saved by
Pocahontas the same year; explored the Chesapeake to its
head; president of the Colony in 1608; returned to London
in 1609; in 1614 explored the coast of New England;
captured by the French in 1615 and escaped the same
year; received the title of Admiral of New England in
1617; published his "True Relation" in 1608, "Map of
Virginia" in 1612, "A Description of New England" in
1616, -'New England's Trials" in 1620, and his "General
History" in 1624.


Here more than two hundred of those grim
Courtiers stood wondering at him [John Smith],
as he had beene a monster ; till Powhatan "
and his train had put themselves in their
greatest braveries. Before a fire upon a
seat like a bedsted, he sat covered with a great
robe, made of Raroweun skinnes, and all the
tayles hanging by. On either hand did sit a
young wench of 16 or 18 years, and along on
each side the house, two rowes of men, and be-
hind them as many women, with all their heads

t From Smith's "Generall Historic of Virginia."
* Powhatan was chief of a confederacy of Indians known
as the Powhatans, which he had raised from one com-
prizing only seven tribes to one of thirty. The word Pow-
hatan means "falls in a stream," and was originally applied
to the falls in the James river at Richmond.


and shoulders painted red ; aiany of their heads
bedecked w.t'i the -vhite downe of Birds; but
every one with something: and a great chain of
V7hite beads about their necks.

At his entrance before the King, all the people
gave a great shout. The Queene of Appamatuck
was appointed to bring him water to wash his
hands, and another brought him a bunch of feath-
ers, instead of a towel to dry them. Having
feasted him after their best barbarous manner
they could, a long consultation was held, but the
conclusion was, two great stones were brought
before Powhatan: then as many as could laid
hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon
laid his head, and being ready with their clubs,
to beate out his braines, Pocahontas the King's
dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile,
got his head in her armes, and laid her owne
upon his to save him from death: whereat the
Emperour was contented he should live to make
him hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper;
for they thought him as well of all occupations
as themselves. For the King himselfe will make
his owne robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, pots;
plant, hunt, or doe any thing so well as the
rest. . . .

To conclude our peace, thus it happened. Cap-
taine ArgalP having entered into a great ac-
quaintance with Japazaws, an old friend of Cap-
taine Smith's, and so to all our Nation, ever
since hee discovered the Countrie: hard by him

» Argall, through intimidation or bribery, had made Poca-
hontas a captive in 1612, when she was the wife of an
Indian attached to her father as a Bubordinate chief or


there was Pocahontas, whom Captaine Smith's
Relations intituleth the Numparell of Virginia,
and tho she had beene many times a preserver
of him and tho whole Colonie, yet till this ac-
cident shee was never seene at James towne since
his departure, being at Patawomeke, as it seemes,
thinking her selfe unknown, was easily by her
friend Japazaws perswaded to goe abroad with
him and his wife to see the ship, for Captaine
Argall had promised him a Copper Kettle to
bring her but to him, promising no way to hurt
her, but keepe her till they could conclude a
peace with her father. The Salvage for this
Copper Kettle would have done any thing, it
seemed by the Relation; for tho she had seene
and beene in many ships, yet he caused his wife
to faine how desirous she was to see one, and
that he offered to beat her for her importunitie,
till she wept.

But at last he told her, if Pocahontas would goe
with her, he was content: and thus they betrayed
the poore innocent Pocahontas aboord, where they
were all kindly feasted in the cabin. Japazaws
treading oft on the Captaine 's foot, to remember
he had done his part, the Captaine when he saw
his time, perswaded Pocahontas to the gun-roome,
faining to have some conference with Japazaws,
which was only that she should not perceive he
was any way guiltie of her captivitie: so sending
for her againe, he told her before her friends,
she must goe with him, and compound peace be-
twixt her Countrie and us, before she ever should
see Powhatan, whereat the old Jew and his wife
began to howle and crie as fast as Pocahontas,
that upon the Captaine 's fair perswasions, by


degrees pacifying her selfe, and Japazaws and
his wife, with the Kettle and other toys, went
merrily on shore, and she to James towne. A
messenger forthwith was sent to her father, that
his daughter Pocahontas he loved so dearly, he
must ransome with our men, swords, pieces,
tooles, etc., he trecherously had stolne. . . .

Long before this. Master John Rolfe, an honest
Gentleman, and of good behaviour, had beene in
love with Pocahontas, and she with him, which
thing at that instant I made knowne to Sir
Thomas Dale by a letter from him, wherein hee
intreated his advice, and she acquainted her
brother with it, which resolution Sir Thomas Dale *
well approved. The bruit of this mariage came
soone to the knowledge of Powhatan, a thing
acceptable to him, as appeared by his sudden
consent, for within ten days he sent Opachisco,
an old Uncle of hers, and two of his sons, to see
the manner of the mariage, and to doe in that
behalfe what they requested, for the confirmation
thereof, as his deputie; which was accordingly
done about the first of Aprill. And ever since
we have had friendly trade and commerce, as
well with Powhatan himself, as all his sub-
jects. . . .

The Lady Rebecca,^ alias Pocahontas, daughter
to Powhattan, by the diligent care of Master John
Rolfe her husband and his friends, as taught to

* Dale was colonial governor of Virginia in 1611 and
again in 1614-16. In the latter year he returned to Eng-
land, taking with him Captain Rolfe and Pocahontas.

* Under that name Pocahontas had been baptized in the
original Jamestown church. A legend has survived that
an old font, now preserved in the church at Williaiasburg,
is the one from which she was baptized.



speake such English as might well bee understood,
well instructed in Christianitie, and was become
very formal and civil after our English manner;
she had also by him a childe which she loved most
dearely and the Treasurer and Company tooke
order both for the maintenance of her and it,
besides there were divers persons of great ranke
and qualitie had beene very kinds to her; and
before she arrived at London, Captaine Smith
to deserve her former courtesies, made her quali-
ties knowne to the Queene's most excellent Maj-
estic and her Court, and writ a little booke to
this effect to the Queene: An abstract whereof

"To the most high and vertuous Princesse
Queene Anne of Great Brittanie.

"Most Admired Queene,

"The love I beare my God, my King, and
Countrie hath so oft emboldened me in the worst
of extreme dangers, that now honestie doth con-
straine mee presume thus far beyond my selfe,
to present your Majestie this short discourse:
If ingratitude be a deadly poyson to all honest
vertues, I must bee guiltie of that crime if I
should omit any meanes to bee thankful. So it
is, that some ten yeers agoe being in Virginia,
and taken prisoner by the power of Powhatan
their ehiefe King, I received from this gieat
Salvage exceeding great eourtesie, especially from
his son Nantaquaus, the most manliest, comeliest,
boldest spirit, I ever saw in a Salvage, and his
sister Pocahontas, the King's most deare and
well-beloved daughter, being but a childe of
twelve or thirteene yeers of age, whose compas-
sionate pitiful heart, of desperate estate, gave


me much cause to respect her: I being the first
Christian this proud King and his grim attend-
ants ever saw: and thus inthralled in their bar-
barous power, I cannot say I felt the least occa-
sion of want that was in the power of those my
mortal foes to prevent, notwithstanding all their
threats. After some six weeks fatting among
those Salvage Courtiers, at the minute of my
execution, she hazarded the beating out of her
owne braines to save mine, and not only that, but
so prevaild with her father, that I was safely
conducted to James towne, where I found about
eight and thirtie miserable poore and sicke crea-
tures, to keepe possession of all those large ter-
ritories of Virginia. Such was the weakness©
of this poore Commonwealth, as had the Salvages
not fed us, we directly had starved.

"And this relief e, most gracious Queene, was
commonly brought us by this Lady Pocahontas,
notwithstanding all these passages when incon-
stant Fortune turned our peace to war, this tender
Virgin would still not spare to dare to visit us, and
by her our jars have beene oft appeased, and
our wants still supplyed; were it the policie of
her father thus to imploy her, or the ordinance
of God thus to make her His instrument, or her
extraordinary affection to our Nation, I know
not: but of this I am sure: — when her father
with the utmost of his policie and power, sought
to surprize mee, having but eighteene with mee,
the darke night could not affright her from com-
ming through the irkesome woods, and with
watered eyes gave me intelligence, with her best
advice to escape his furie; which had hee knowne,
hee had surely slaine her. James towne with her



wild traine she as freely frequented, as her fath-
er's habitation; and during the time of two or
three yeeres, she next under God, was still the
instrument to preserve this Colonie from death,
famine and utter confusion, which if in those
times had once beene dissolved, Virginia might
have line &» it was at our first arrival to this
day. Since then, this businesse having beene
turned and varied by many accidents from that
I left it at: it is most certaine, after a long and
troublesome war after my departure, betwixt her
father and our Colonie, all which time shee was
not heard of, about two yeeres after she her selfe
was taken prisoner, being so detained neere two
yeeres longer, the Colonie by that meanes was
relieved, peace concluded, and at last rejecting
her barbarous condition, was maried to an Eng-
lish Gentleman, with whom at this present she
is in England; the first Christian ever of that
Nation, the first Virginian ever spake English,
or had a childe in mariage by an Englishman,
a matter surely, if my meaning bee truly con-
sidered and well understood, worthy a Prince's
understanding, . . .

The small time I staid in London, divers Cour-
tiers and others, my acquaintances, hath gone
with mee to see her, that generally concluded,
they did thinke God had a great hand in her con-
version, and they have seen many English Ladies
worse favored, proportioned and behaviored, and
as since I have heard, it pleased both the King
and Queene's Majestic honorably to esteeme her,
accompanied with that honorable Lady the Lady
De la Warre, and that honorable Lord her hus-
band, and divers other persons of good qualities,



both publikely at the maskes and otherwise, to
her great satisfaction and content, which doubt-
lesse she would have deserved had she lived to
arrive in Virginia.*

^ Pocahontas in England gave birth to a son. She died
at Gravesend in tlie following year, in 1617. The parish
records of Gravesend describe her as "a Virginia lady borne,
here was buried in ye chauncell." In London a well-known
street preserves a memorial of her in its name — La Belle
Sauvage. Her son, Thomas Rolfe, after living many years
in England, settled in Virginia. Several families in that
State have traced their descent from him. One of these
was the famous John Randolph of Boanoke.



Born in England in 1590, died at Plymouth, Mass., in
1657; governor of Plymouth Colony from 1627, except for
five years, to 1657; wrote a "History of the Plymouth
Plantation" for the period 1602-47, the manuscript of which
was lost in England, but after the lapse of about seventy-
five years it was found in a library in 1855, and in the
following year published.



Having the wind good, we sailed all that day
along the coast about fifteen leagues; but saw
neither river nor creek to put into. After we
had sailed an hour or two, it began to snow and
rain, and to be bad weather. About the midst of
the afternoon the wind increased, and the seas
began to be very rough; and the hinges of the
rudder broke, so that we could steer no longer
with it, but two men, with much ado, were fain
to serve with a couple of oars. The seas were
grown so great that we were much troubled and
in great danger; and night grew on. Anon, Mas-
ter Coppin bade us be of good cheer; he saw
the harbor. As we drew near, the gale being

1 From what was long known as "Mourt's Relation,"
published in London in 1622, but more properly, and now
generally, called the "Journal," or diary, of Bradford and
Edward Winslow. This important historical document covers
the first year of the Plymouth colony.



stiff, and we bearing great sail to get in, split
our mast in three pieces, and were like to have
cast away our shallop. Yet, by God's mercy,
recovering ourselves, we had the flood with us,
and struck into the harbor.

Now he that thought that had been the place,
was deceived, it being a place where not any of
us had been before; and coming into the harbor,
he that was our pilot, did bear up northward,
which if he had continued, we had been cast away.
Yet still the Lord kept us and we bare up
for an island before us, and recovering of
that island, being compassed about with many
rocks, and dark night growing upon us, it pleased
the Divine Providence that we fell upon a place
of sandy ground, where our shallop did ride safe
and secure all that night; and coming upon a
strange island, kept our watch all night in the
rain upon that island. And in the morning we
marched about it, and found no inhabitants at
all ; and here we made our rendezvous all that
day, being Saturday, 10th of December. On the
Sabbath day we rested; and on Monday we
sounded the harbor, and found it a very good
harbor for our shipping. We marched also into
the land, and found divers cornfields, and little
running brooks, a place very good for situation.
So we returned to our ship again with good news
to the rest of our people, which did much comfort
their hearts. . . .

Some of us, having a good mind, for safety,
to plant in the greater isle, we crossed the bay,
which is there five or six miles over, and found
the isle about a mile and half or two miles about,
all wooded, and no fresh water but two or three



pits, that we doubted of fresh water in summer,
and so full of wood as we could hardly clear so
much as to serve us for corn. Besides, we judged
it cold for our corn, and some part very rocky;
yet divers thought of it as a place defensible, and
of great security. That night we returned again
a shipboard, with resolution the next morning to
settle on some of those places.

So in the morning, after we had called on God
for direction, we came to this resolution, to go
presently ashore again, and to take a better view
of two places which we thought most fitting for
us; for we could not now take time for further
search or consideration, our victuals being much
spent, especially our beer, and it being now the
19th of December. After our landing and view-
ing of the places, so well as we could, we came
to a conclusion, by most voices, to set on the
main land, on the first place, on a high ground,
where there is a great deal of land cleared, and
hath been planted with corn three or four years
ago ; and there is a very sweet brook runs under
the hill side, and many delicate springs of as
good water as can be drunk, and where we may
harbor our shallops and boats exceeding well;
and in this brook much good fish in their seasons;
on the further side of the river also much corn-
ground cleared. In one field is a great hill, on
which we point to make a platform, and plant
our ordnance, which will command all round
about. From thence we may see into the bay,
and far into the sea; and we may see thence
Cape Cod. Our greatest labor will be fetching
of our wood, which is half a quarter of an English
mile ; but there is enough so far off. What people



inhabit here we yet know not, for as yet we
have seen none. So there we made our rendez-
vous, and a place for some of our people, about
twenty, resolving in the morning to come all
ashore and to build houses.

But the next morning, being Thursday, the 21st
of December, it was stormy and wet, that we
could not gc ashore; and those that remained
there all night could do nothing, but were wet,
not having daylight enough to make them a
sufficient court of guard, to keep them dry. All
that night it bleAv and rained extremely. It was
so tempestuous that the shallop could not go on
land so soon as was meet, for they had no vic-
tuals on land. About eleven o'clock the shallop
went off with much ado with provision, but could
not return, it blew so strong; and was such foul
weather that we were forced to let fall our
anchor, and ride with three anchors ahead.

Friday, the 22d, the storm still continued, that
we could not get a land, nor they come to us
aboard. . . .

Saturday, the 23d, so many of us as could
went on shore, felled and carried timber, to pro-
vide themselves stuff for building.

Sunday, the 24th, our people on shore heard
a cry of some savages, as they thought, which
caused an alarm and to stand on their guard,
expecting an assault; but all "was quiet.

Friday, the 16th, a fair warm day toward.
This morning we determined to conclude of the
military orders, which we had begun to consider
of before, but were interrupted by the savages,
as we mentioned formerly. And while we were
busied, hereabout, we were interrupted again j



for there presented himself a savage, which
caused an alarm. He very boldly came all alone,
and along the houses, straight to the rendezvous;
where we intercepted him, not suffering him to
go in, as undoubtedly he would out of his bold-
ness. He saluted us in English, and bade us
''Welcome!" for he had learned some broken
English among the Englishmen that came to fish
at Monhiggon, and knew by name the most of
the captains, commanders and masters, that usu-
ally come. He was a man free in speech, so far
as he could express his mind, and of a seemly
carriage. We questioned him of many things;
he was the first savage we could meet withal.
He said he was not of these parts, but of Morat-
tiggon, and one of the sagamores or lords there-

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