several of them suffering from fever, while one of them had gone out d
his mmd, but in short time recovered.
He had thus an opportunity of watching the workings of slavery.
The moment their master was ill, the slaves ate up everything on which
they ':culd lay their hands, till the doctor himself could scarcely obtair
SINGULAR MODE OF DRESSING THE HAIR.
T30 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
even brcaa and butter. Here Sekeletu's horse was seized with inflamma-
tion, and the poor animal afterwards died on its journey. On the 28th
of February they reached the banks of the Quango, where they were
again received by Cypriano.
The colored population of Angola are sunk in the grossest superstition.
They fancy themselves completely in the power of spirits, and are con-
stantly deprecating their wrath. A chief, named Gando, had lately been
accused of witchcraft, and, being killed by the ordeal, his body wa^
thrown into the river. r
Heavy payment was demanded by the ferrymen for crossing in their
wretched canoes; but the cattle and donkeys had to swim across.
Avoiding their friend with the comical head-dress, they made their
way to the camp of some Ambakistas, or half-caste Portuguese, who
had gone across to trade in wax. They are famed for their love of
learning, and arc keen traders, and, writing a peculiarly fine hand,
are generally employed as clerks, sometimes being called the Jews of
The travellers were now in the country of the Bishinji, possessing the
lowest negro physiognomy. At a village where they halted, they were
attacked by the head man, who had been struck by one of the Makololo
on their previous visit, although atonement had been made. A large body
of the natives now rushed upon them as they were passing through a
forest, and began firing, the bullets passing amid the trees. Dr. Living-
stone fortunately encountered the chief, and, presenting a six-barrelled
revolver, produced an instant revolution in his martial feelings. The
doctor then, ordering him and his people to sit down, rode off. They
were now accompanied by their Portuguese friends, the Londa people,
who inhabit the banks of theLoajima.
They elaborately dress their hair in a number of ways. It naturally
hangs down on their shoulders in large masses, which, with their general
features, gives them a strong resemblance to the ancient Egyptians.
Some of them adorn their heads with ornaments of woven hair and hidcj
to which they occasionally suspend the tails of buffaloes. Another fash«
?on is to weave the hair on pieces of hide in the form of buffalo horns,
projecting on either side of the he^d. The young men twine their hair
ir ihe form of horns projecting in different directions. They frequently
tattoo their bodies, producing figures in the form of stars. Although
their heads are thus elaborately adorned,, th^ir bodies are almost destitute
STRANGE PLACES AND PEOPLES.
Reaching Calongo, Livingstone directed his course towards the terri-
tory of his old friend, ICitema. They were generally well received at the
BEAUTIFUL ZEBRAS OF AFRICA.
tillages. On the 2nd of June they reached that of Kanawa. This chief.
W'Dose village consisted of forty or fifty huts, at first treated them ver)-
132 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
politely, but he took it into his head to demand an ox as tribute. On their
refusing it, Kanawa ordered his people to arm. On this, Livingstone
directed his Makololo to commence the march. Some did so with
alacrity, but one of them refused, and was preparing to fire at Kanawa,
when the doctor, giving him a blow with his pistol, made him go too,
They had already reached the banks of the river when they found tha*
Kanawa had sent on ahead to carry off all the canoes. The ferrymen
supposing that the travellers were unable to navigate the canoes, left them,
unprotected, on the bank. As soon as it was dark, therefore, the Mako-
jolo quickly obtained one ©f them, and the whole party crossed, greatly
to the disgust of Kanawa when he discovered in the morning what had
They now took their way across the level plain, which had been flooded
on their former iourncy. Numberless vultures were flying in the air,
showing the quantity of carrion which had been left by the waters. They
passed Lake Dilolo, a sheet of water six or eight miles long and two
broad. The sight of the blue waters had a soothing effect on the doctor,
who was suffering from fever, after his journey through the gloomy forest
and across the wide flat. Pitsane and Mohorisi, Livingstone's chief men,
had proposed establishing a Makololo village on the banks of the Leeba,
near its confluence with the Leeambye, that it might become a market
to communicate westward with Loanda, and eastward with the regions
along the banks of the Zambesi.
Exploits with the Gun.
Old Shinti, whose capital they now reached, received them as before in
a friendly way, and supplied them abundantly with provisions. The doc-
tor left with him a number of plants, among which were orange, cashew,
custard, apple, and fig-trees, with coffee, acacias, and papaws, which he
had brought from Loanda. They were planted out in the enclosure of
one of his principal men, with a promise that Shinti should have a share
of them when grown.
They now again embarked in six small canoes on the waters of the
Leeba. Paddling down it, they next entered the Leeambye. Here they
found a party of hunters, who had been engaged in stalking buffaloes,
hippopotami, and other animals. They use for this purpose the skin of a
deer, with the horns attached, or else the head and upper part of the body
of a crane, with which they creep through the gras^till they can get near
enough to shoot their prey.
The doctor, wishing to obtain some meat for his men, took a smaK
canoe and paddled up a creek towards a herd of zebras seen on the shore.
134 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
Firing he broke the hind leg of one of them. His men pursued it, and,
as he walked slowly after them, he observed a solitary buffalo, which had
been disturbed by others of his party, galloping towards him. The only
tree was a hundred yards off The doctor cocked his rifle in the hope of
striking the brute on the forehead. The thought occurred to him, but
what should his gun miss fire? The animal came on at a tremendous
speed, but a small bush a short distance off made it swerve and expose its
shoulder. The doctor fired, and as he heard the ball crack, he fell flat on
his face. The buffalo bounded past him towards the water, near which it
was found dead. His Makololo blamed themselves for not having been
by his side, while he returned thanks to God for his preservation.
A Joyous Keceptiou.
On reaching the town of Lebouta, they were welcomed with the warm-
est demonstrations of joy, the women coming out, dancing and singing.
Thence they were conducted to the kotlar, or house of assembly, where
Pitsand delivered a long speech, describing the journey and the kind way
in which they had been received at Loanda, especially by the English
Next day Livingstone held a service, when his Makololo braves, ar-
rayed in their red caps and white suits of European clothing, attended,
sitting with their guns over their shoulders. As they proceeded down
Barotse Valley, they were leceived in the same cordial manner.
The doctor was astonished at the prodigious quantities of wild animals
of all descriptions which he saw on this journey, and also when traversing
the country further to the east — elephants, buffaloes, giraffes, zebras, an-
telopes, and pigs. Frequently the beautiful springbok appeared, covering
the plain, sometimes in sprinklings and at other times in dense crowds, as
far as the eye could reach.
The troops of elephants also far exceeded in numbers anything which
he had ever before heard of or conceived. He and his men had often to
shout to them to get out of their way, and on more than one occasion a
herd rushed in upon the travellers, who not without difficulty made their
escape. A number of young elephants were shot for food, their flesh
being highly esteemed. To the natives the huge beasts are a great
plague, as they break into their gardens and eat up their pumpkins and
other p.oduce; when disturbed they are apt to charge those interrupting
their feast, and, following them, to demolish the huts in which they may
have taken refuge, not unfrequently killing them in their rage.
Resting at Sesheke, they proceeded to Linyanti, where the wagon and
everything that had been left in it in November, 1853, was perfectly safe,
ELEPHANT PROTECTING HER YOUNG FROM HUNTERS' SPEARS.
136 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
A grand meeting was called, when the doctor made a report of his jouf-
ney and distributed the articles which had been sent by the governor and
^lerchants of Loanda. Pitsane and others then gave an account of what
they had seen, and, as may be supposed, nothing was lost in the descrip-
tion. The presents afforded immense satisfaction, and on Sunday Seke*
letu made his appearance iu church dressed in the uniform which had
been brought down for him, and which attracted every man's attention.
' The Arab, Ben Habed, and Sekeletu arranged with him to conduct
another party with a load of ivoiy down to Loanda ; they also consulted
him as to the proper presents to send to the governor and merchants.
The Makololo generally expressed great satisfaction at the route which
had been opened up, and proposed moving to the Barotse Valley,
that they might be nearer the great market. The unhealthiness of the
climate, however, was justly considered a great drawback to the scheme
The doctor afterwards heard that the trading party which &etout reached
Loanda in safety, and it must have been a great satisfa.<:t:i'^ii to him to feel
that he had thus opened out a way to the enterprise of these industrious
and intelligent people.
The donkeys which had been brought excited much admiration, and,
as they were not affected by the bite of the ts?t:.e, it was hoped that they
might prove of great use. Their music, however, startled the inhabitants
more than the roar of lions.
It is not difficult to believe this statement. It is in the nature of the
donkey to be heard even farther than he can be seen, and when he takes in
a full breath and opens his mouth, it is not strange that those who listen
to his bray are frightened. This animal, however, is not to be judged
either by his looks or his voice. He is exceedingly useful, and can be
trained to difficult service and, although he has an extraordinary temper
and an extraordinary pair of ears, still the world is better off for the donkey.
He should be looked at as a part of the Divine creation, and the humbler
animals are certainly deserving of consideration for the good that they
Tender to the human race. |i
I It is not customary in our country to make any great use of the don-
key. In England, however, and on the Continent of Europe, as well as
in other eastern countries, the peasants who are too poor to invest in
horses can yet provide themselves with a beast of burden. All honor,
then to the plain, ill-tempered, serviceable, long-eared, old-fashioned don-
key. He should never be despised after such spl'='ndid services as he has
rendered onr Tropical heroes.
ADVENTUROUS JOURNEY TO THE EAST COAST.
tavingstone's Resolve to Reach the East Coast— A Fine Race of Negroes- One h'.MS
dred and fourteen Trustworthy Men— The Brave Leaders of the Company— i\
Terrible Storm— Sailing Down the River— Far-famed Victoria Falls—Scene <4
Extreme Beauty— Ascending Clouds of Spray— Immense Baobab Tree- Stranga
Mode of Salutation— Traffic in Ivory— Buffalo Brought Down with the Rifle—
Presents from a Peace-loving Chief— Vast Numbers of Wild Animals—Huge
Hippopotami and their Young— How the Natives Capture Elephants— Strange
Appearance of the Natives— Mouths like those of Ducks— Hostilities by a Village
Chief— Remains of an Old Portuguese Settlement— The Doctor's Ox Gallops off-
Strange Cries and Waving Fire-brands— Visit from two Old Men— American Cal-
ico in a Far Land— Surprising Instinct of the Elephant— The Enormous Beast
Taught to Work for his Master— A New Way of Laying Timbers— Remarkable
Story by an English Officer— Extraordinary Sagacity of the Elephant— Dangers
in the Path of the Expedition— Great Risk from Being Attacked by Lions— Dread-
ful Encounter with a King of the Forest— A " Civilized Breakfast "—Kind Recep-
tion by an English Major— Natives who Plant Gold for Seed— Tree Supposed to
Have Remarkable Medical Virtues— Four Years away from Cape Town— Ravages
of Famine— A Chief who Wishes to Visit England— Seized with Insanity andJ^ost
Overboard— Livingstone arrives in England.
®R. LIVINGSTONE now began to make arrangements for perforn.
ing another hazardous journey to the East Coast. In the mean
time he was fully occupied in attending to the sick, and his other
missionary duties. He was advised to wait till the rains had fallen and
cooled the ground ; and as it was near the end of September, and clouds
were collecting, it was expected that they would soon commence. Th&
heat was very great : the thermometer, even in the shade of his wagon,
was at ioo°, and, if unprotected, rose to i io° ; during the night it sank
, Among other routes which were proposed, he selected that by the north
bank of the Zambesi. He would, however, thus have to pass through
territories in the possession of the Matabele, who, under their powerful
chief, had driven away the Makololo, its original possessors. Notwith-
standing this he had no fears for himself, as that chief looked upon Mr.
Mofifatt, his father-in-law, as his especial friend. A considerable district^
also, of the country was still inhabited by the Makololo, and by them he
was sure to be kindly treated. The Makololo, it must be understood, are
a mixed race, composed of tribes of Bechuanas who formerly inhabited
158 WONDERS OF THE TROHCS.
the country bordering the Kalahara Desert. Their language, the Bechu-
ana, is spoken by the upper classes of the Makololo, and into this tongue,
by the persevering labors of Mr. Moffatt, nearly the whole of the Scrip-
tures have been translated. The bulk of the people are negroes, and are
an especially fine, athletic, and skilful race.
As soon as Livingstone announced his intention of proceeding to the
east, numerous volunteers came forward to accompany him. From
among them he selected a hundred and fourteen trustworthy men, and
Sekeletu appointed two, Sekwebu and Kanyata, as leaders of the company.
Sekwebu had been captured, when a child, from the Matabele, and his
tribe now inhabited the country near Tete ; he had frequently travelled
along the banks of the Zambesi, and spoke the various dialects of the
people residing on them, and was, moreover, a man of sound judgment
and prudence, and rendered great service to the expedition.
A Fearful Storm.
On the 3rd of November Livingstone, bidding farewell to his frienas at
Linyanti, set out, accompanied by Sekeletu and two hundred followers.
On reaching a patch of country infested by troublesome flies it became
necessary to travel at night. A fearful storm broke forth, sometimes
the lightning, spreading over the sky, forming eight or ten branches like
Aose of a gigantic tree. At times the light was so great that the whole
country could be distinctly seen, and in the intervals between the flashes
It was as densely dark. The horses trembled, turning round to search for
each other, while the thunder crashed with tremendous roars, louder than
is heard in other regions, the rain pelting down, making the party feel
miserably cold after the heat of the day. At length a fire, left by some
previous travellers, appeared in the distance. The doctor's baggage
having gone on before, he had to lie down on the cold ground, when
Sekeletu kindly covered him with his own blanket, remaining without
shelter himself. Before parting at Sesheke, the generous chief supplied
the doctor with twelve oxen, three accustomed to be ridden on, hoes and
beads to purchase a canoe, an abundance of fresh butter and honey; and,
Indeed, he did everything in his power to assist him in his journey.
I Bidding farewell to Sekeletu, the doctor and his attendants sailed dowr«
I'he river to its confluence with the Chobe. Having reached this spot, he
prepared to strike across the country to the north-east, in order to ;.each
the northern bank of the Zambesi. Before doing so, however, he deter-
mined to visit the Victoria Falls, of which he had often heard. The
meaning of the African name is ; " Smoke does sound there," in refer«ice
to the vapor and noise produced by the falls.
ADVENTUROUS JOURNEY TO THE EAST COAST. 139
After twenty minutes sail from Kalai they carpe in sight of five columns
GIGANTIC BAOBAB TREE AT VICTORIA FALLS.
of vapor, appropriately called " smoke," rising at a distance of five or sijt
miles off, and bending as they ascended before the wind, the tops appear-
140 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
ing to mingle with the clouds. The scene was extremely beautiful. The
banks and the islands which appeared here and there amid the stream,
were richly adorned with trees and shrubs of various colors, many being
in full blossom. High above ail rose an enormous baobab-tree surrounded
by groups of graceful palms.
As the water was now low, they proceeded in the canoe to an island in
the centre of the river, the further end of which extended to the edge of
the falls. At the spot where they landed it was impossible to discover
where the vast body of water disappeared. It seemed, suddenly to sinls
into the earth, for the opposite lip of the fissure into which it descends
was only eighty feet distant. On peering over the precipice the doctor
saw the stream, a thousand yards broad, leaping down a hundred feet and
then becoming suddenly compressed into a space of fifteen or twenty
yards, when, instead of flowing as before, it turned directly to the right
and went boiling and rushing am.id the hills.
The vapor which rushes up from this cauldron to the height of two or
three hundred feet, being condensed, changes its hue to that of dark
smoke, and then comes down in a constant shower. The chief portion
falls on the opposite side of the fissure, where grow a number of ever-
green trees, their leaves always wet. The walls of this gigantic crack are
perpendicular. Altogether, Livingstone considered these falls the most
wonderful sight he had beheld in Africa.
Returning to Kalai the doctor and his party met Sekeletu, and, bidding
him a final farewell, set off aorthw^ds to Lekone, through a beautiful
country, on the 20th of November. The further they advanced the more
the country swarmed with inhabitants, and great numbers came to see the
white man, invariably bringing presents of maize.
An African Salutation.
The natives in this region have a curious way of saluting a stranger
Instead of bowing they throw themselves on their backs on the ground;
rolling from side to side and slapping the outsides of their thighs, while
they utter the words '' Kina bomba! kina boinbaj" In vain the doctor
implored them to stop. They, imagining him pleased, only tumbled
about more fiercely and slapped their thighs with greater vehemence.
These villagers supplied the party abundantly with ground nuts, maize,
and corn. Their chief, Monze, came one Sunday morning, wrapped in a
large cloth, when, like his followers, he rolled himself about in the dust,
screaming out "Kina boinba!" He had never before seen a white man,
but had met with black native traders, who came, he said, for ivory, but
not for slaves. His wife would have been good looking, had she not
ADVENTUROUS JOURNEY TO THE EAST COAST.
followed the custom of her country by knocking out her teeth. Monze
soon made himself at home, and presented the travellers with as much
food as they required.
As they advanced, the country oecame still more beautiful, abounding
with large game. Often buffaloes were seen standing on eminences. One
day, a buffalo was found lying down, and the doctor went to secure it for
food. Though the animal received three balls they did not prove fatal,
and it turned round as if to charge. The doctor and his companions
ran for shelter to some rocks, but before they gained them, they found
that three elephants had cut off their retreat. The enormous brutes, how^-
ever, turned off, and allowed them to gain the rocks. As the buffalo was
CURIOUS MODE OF SALUTING A STRANGER.
moving rapidly away the doctor tried a long shot, and, to the satisfaction
of his followers, broke the animal's fore leg. The young men soon
brought it to a stand, and another shot in its brain settled it. They had
thus an abundance of food, which was shared by the villagers of thf
neighborhood. Soon afterwards an elephant was killed by his men.
Leaving the Elephant Valley, they reached the residence of ?. chie;'
named Semalembue, who, soon after their arrival, paid them a visit, and
presented five or six baskets of meal and maize, and one of ground nuts,
saying that he feared his guest would sleep the first night at his vil-
lage hungry. The chief professed great jcy at hearing the words of the
Gospe' of Peace, replying : " Now I shall cultivate largely, in the hope*
142 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
of eating and sleeping in quiet." It is remarkable that all to whom th«*
doctor spoke, eagerly caught up the idea of living in peace as the proba-
ble effect of the Gospel. This region Sekvvebu considered one of th«
best adapted for the residence of a large tribe. It was here that Sebit-
Uane formerly dwelt.
They now crossed the Kafue by a ford. Every available spot betweeL
the river and hills w^as under cultivation. The inhabitants selected these
positions to secure themselves and their gardens from their human enemies^
They are also obliged to make pit-holes to protect their grounds from the
hippopotami. These animals, not having been disturbed, were unusually
tame, and took no notice of the travellers. A number of young ones
were seen, not much larger than terrier dogs, sitting on the necks of their
dams, the little saucy-looking heads cocked up between the old one's
ears ; when older they sit more on the mother's back. Meat being'
required, a full-grown cow was shot, the flesh of which resembles pork.
Great Numbers of Wild Animals.
The party now directed their course to the Zambesi near its confluence
with the Kafue. They enjoyed a magnificent view from the top of the
outer range of hills. A short distance below them was the Kafue, winding
its way over a forest-clad plain, while on the other side of the Zambesi
lay a long range of dark hills. The plain below abounded in large game.
Hundreds of buffalo and zebras grazed on the open spaces, and there
stood feeding two majestic elephants, each slowly moving its proboscis.
On passing amidst them the animals show^ed their tameness by standing
beneath the trees, fanning themselves with their large ears. A number
also of red-colored pigs were seen. The people having no guns, they are
A night was spent in a huge baobab-tree, which would hold twenty
men inside. As they moved on, a herd of buffaloes came strutting up to
look at their oxen, and only by shooting one could they be made to retreat.
Shortly afterwards a female elephant, with three young ones, charged
through the centre of their extended line, when the men, throwing dowD
their burdens, retreated in a great hurry, she receiving ^ spear for hcv
They were made aware of their approach to the great river by the vast
number of waterfalls which appeared. It was found to be piuch broader
than above the falls : a person might attempt in vain to make his voice
heard across it. An immense amount of animal life was seen both around
and in it. Pursuing their down the left bank, they came opposite the
island of Menyemakaba, which is about two miles long and 9 quarto
144 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
broad. Besides its human population it supports a herd of sixty buffalo.
The comparatively small space to which the animals have confined them-
selves shows the luxuriance of the vegetation The only time that the
natives can attack them is when the river is full and part is flooded : they
then as3ail them from their canoes.
Both buffalo and elephants are numerous. To kill them the natives