" kanwana," signifies to make peace, " kurwana " signifies war. We were
therefore in doubt, or rather we hoped we had heard wrongly. We sent
an interpreter a little nearer to ask if it was kanwana or kurwana.
wana, they responded, and to emphasize the term two arrows were shot
it him, which dissipated all doubt.
Sharp-shooters Drive the Natives.
Our hill stood between a lofty range of hills and a lower range. On
one side of us was a narrow valley two hundred and fifty yards wide ;
on the other side the valley was three miles wide. East and west of us
the valley broadened into an extensive plain. The higher range of hills
was lined with hundreds preparing to descend ; the broader valley was
already mustering its hundreds. There was no time to lose. A body of
forty men were sent, under Lieutenant Stairs, to attack the broader val-
ley. Mr. Jephson was sent with thirty men east ; a choice body of sharp-
shooters was sent to test the courage of those descending the slope of
the highest range. Stairs pressed on, crossed a deep and narrow river in
the face of hundreds of natives, and assaulted the first village and took
it. The sharp-shooters did their work effectively, and drove the descend-
ing natives rapidly up the slope until it became a general flight. Mean-
time Mr, Jephson was not idle. He marched straight up the valley east,
driving the people back, and taking their villages as he went. By 3 P. m.
there was not a native visible anywhere, except on one small hill about
a mile and a half west of us.
On the morning of the 12th we continued our march ; during the day
we had four little fights, Oa the 13th marched straight east ; attacked
by new forces every hour until noon, when we halted for refreshments.
These we successfully overcame.
At I p. M. we resumed our march. Fifteen minutes later I cried out,
" Prepare yourself for a sight of the Nyanza." The men murmured and
doubted, and said, ** Why does the master continually talk to us in this
way? Nyanza, indeed! Is not this a plain, and can we not see moun-
tains at least four days' march ahead of us," At 1.30 p. m. the Alber^
Nyanza was below them. Now it was my turn to jeer and scoff at the
doubters, but as I was about to ask them what they saw, so many came
to kiss my hands and beg my pardon, that I could not say a word.
This was my reward. The mountains, they said, were the mountains of
Unyoro, or rather its lofty plateau wall. Kavali, the objective point of
the expedition, was six miles from us as the crow flies.
STANLEY'S THRILLING NARRATIVE OF HIS JOURNEY. T.'39
We were at an altitude of five thousand two hundred feet above the
sea. The Albert Nyanza was over two thousand nine hundred below
us. We stood in i° 20' N. lat; the south end of the Nyanza lay lar^^cly
mapped about six miles south of this position. Right across to the
eastern shore every dent in its low, flat shore was visible, and traced Uke
a silver snake on a dark ground was the tributary Laniliki, flowing into
the Albert from the southwest.
After a short halt to enjoy the prospect, we commenced the rugged
740 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
and stony descent. Before the rear-guard had descended one hundred
feet, the natives of the plateau we had just left poured after them. Had
they shown as much courage and perseverance on the plain as they now
exhibited, we might have been seriously delayed. The rear-guard was
kept very busy until within a few hundred feet of the Nyanza plain. We
camped at the foot of the plateau wall, the aneroids readings two thou
sand five hundred feet above sea-level. A night attack was made on Ui
but our sentries sufficed to drive these natives away. '
At 9 A. M. of the 14th we approached the village of Kakongo, situate
at the southwest corner of the Albert Lake. Three hours were spent by
us attempting to make friends. We signally failed. They would not
allow us to go to the lake, because we might frighten their cattle. They
would not exchange blood-brotherhood with us, because they never
heard of any good people coming from the west side of the lake. They
would not accept any present from us, because they did not know who
we were. They would give us water to drink, and they would show us
our road up to Nyam Sassic. But from these singular people we learned
that they had heard there was a white man at Unyoro, but they had
never heard of any white men being on the west side, nor had they seen
any steamers on the lake. There were no canoes to be had, except such
as would hold the men, etc.
Building^ a Fort.
There was no excuse for quarrelling; the people were civil enough,
but they did not want us near them. We therefore were shown the path
and followed it a few miles, when we camped about half a mile from the
lake. We began to consider our position, with the light thrown
upon it by the conversation with the Kakongo natives. My couriers
from Zanzibar had evidently not arrived, or, I presume, Emin Pasha with
his two steamers would* have paid the southwest side of the lake a visit
to prepare the natives for our coming. My boat was at Kilonga-Longa's,
one hundred and ninety miles distant.
There was no canoe obtainable, and to seize a canoe without the
excuse of a quarrel my conscience would not permit. There was no tree
anywhere of a size to make canoes. Wadelai was a terrible distance off
for an expedition so reduced as ours. We had used five cases of car-
tridges in five days of fighting on the plain. A month of such fighting
must exhaust our stock. There was no plan suggested which seemed
feasible to me, except that of retreating to Ibwiri, build a fort, send a
party back to Kilonga-Longa's for our boat, store up every load in the
fort not conveyable, leave a garrison in the fort to hold it, and raise corn
STANLEY'S THRILLING NARRATIVE OF HIS JOURNEY. 741
for us ; march back again to the Albert Lake, and send the boat to
search for Emin Pasha. This was the plan which, after lengthy discus-
sions with my officers, I resolved upon.
On the 15th we marched to the site of Kavali, on the west side of th^:
lake. Kavali had years ago been destroyed. At 4 p. m. the Kakongo
natives had followed us and shot several arj-ows into our bivouac, and
j lisappeared as quickly as they came. At 6 p. m. we began a night march,
and by 10 A. m. of the i6th we had gained the crest of the plateau once
more, Kakongo natives having persisted in following us up the slope of
the plateau. We had one man killed and one wounded.
Illness of Stanley.
By January 7th we were in Ibwiri once again, and after a few days'
rest Lieutenant Stairs, with a hundred men, sent to Kilonga-Longa's to
bring the boat and goods up, also Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson.
Out of the thirty-eight sick in charge of the officers, only eleven men
were brought to the fort, the rest had died or deserted. On the return
of Stairs with the boat and goods he was sent to Ugarrowwa's to bring
up the convalescents there. I granted him thirty-nine days' grace. Soon
after his departure I was attacked with gastritis and an abscess on the
arm, but after a month's careful nursing by Dr. Parke I recovered, and
forty-seven days having expired, I set out again for the Albert Nyanza,
April 2d, accompanied by Messrs. Jephson and Parke. Captain Nelson,
now recovered, was appointed commandant of Fort Bodo in our absence,
with a garrison of forty-three men and boys.
On April 26th we arrived in Mozamboni's country once again, but
this time, after solicitation, Mozamboni decided to make blood-brother-
hood with me. Though I had fifty rifles less with me on this second
visit, the example of Mozamboni was followed by all the other chiefs
as far as Nyanza, and every difficulty seemed removed. Food was sup-
plied gratis ; cattle, goats, sheep, and fowls were also given in such
abundance that our people lived royally. One day's march from the
> Nyanza the natives came from Kavali, and said that a white man named
" Maleja" had given their chief a black packet to give to me, his son
Would I follow them ? " Yes, to-morrow," I answered, " and if you!
words are true I will make you rich."
STANLEY FINDS EMIN PASHA.
■ij^onderful Tales by Natives — " Ships as Large as Islands, Filled with Men"- Nolc
from Emin Pasha — Strip of American Oil-cloth — Boat Dispatched to Nyanza-^'
Hospitable Reception by the Egyptian Garrison — Joyful Meeting — Emin and
Stanley Together — Only Sixteen Men Left Out of Fifty-six — Favorable Accounts
of the Fort — Getting Rid of Encumbrances—Moving Foward — Securing Am
pie Supplies — Immense Flotilla of Canoes — Hair-breadth Escapes and Tragi<^
Scenes — Reorganizing the Expedition — Stanley Reported Dead — Immense Loss
of Men — Good Accounts of the Survivors — Vast Forests — Sublime Scenery— '
High Table-lands— Lake Nyanza— Conversation with Emin Pasha — What Shall
be Done? — Planning to Remove — Disposing of Women and Children — Last
Words— Stanley Sends a Message to the Troops — Emin Pasha to Visit the Fort-
Stanley Makes a Short Cut — Success Thus Far of the Expedition.
'HE natives were with us that night, telling Wonderful stories about
*' big ships as large as islands filled with men," which left no doubt
in our mind that this white man was Emin Pasha. The next day's
march brought us to the chief Kavali, and after a while he handed
me a note from Emin Pasha, covered with a strip of black American oil-
cloth. The note was to the effect " that as there had been a native rumor to
the effect that a white man had been seen at the south end of the lake, he
had gone in his steamer to make inquiries, but had been unable to obtain
reliable information, as the natives were terribly afraid of Kabba-Rega,
King of Unyoro, and connected every stranger with him. However, the
wife of the Nyamsassie chief had told a native ally of his named Mogo
that she had seen us in Mrusuma (Mozamboni's country). He therefore
begged me to remain where I was until he could communicate with me."
The note was signed " (Dr.) Emin," and dated March 26th.
The nex day, April 23d, Mr. Jephson was dispatched with a strong force,
af men to take the boat to the Nyanza. On the 26th the boat's crew
sighted Mswa station, the southernmost belonging to Emin Pasha, and
Mr. Jephson was there hospitably received by the Egyptian garrisoa
The boat's crew say that they were embraced one by one, and that they
never had such attention shown to them as by these men, who hailed
them as brothers.
On the 29th of April we once again reached the bivouac ground occih
pied by us on the i6th of December, and at 5 p. M. of that day I saw tht
STANLEY FINDS EMIN PASHA. 743
Khedive steamer about seven miles away steaming up toward us. Soon
after 7 p. m. Emin Pasha and Signer Cassati and Mr. Jephson arrived at
our camp, where they were heartily welcomed by all of us.
The next day We moved to a better camping-place, about three miles
above Nyamsassie, and at this spot Emin Pasha also made his camp ; wc
were together until the 25th of May. On that day I left him, leaving
Mr. Jephson, three Soudanese, and two Zanzibaris in his care, and iis
return he caused to accompany me three of his irregulars and one hun
dred and two Mahdi natives as porters.
"Only Sixteen Men Out of Fifty-six."
Fourteen days later I was at Fort Bodo. At the fort were Captain
Nelson and Lieutenant Stairs. The latter had returned from Ugarrowwa's
twenty-two days after I had set out for the lake, April 2d, bringing with
him, alas ! only sixteen men out of fifty-six. All the rest were dead.
My twenty couriers whom I had sent with letters to Major Barttelot had
safely left Ugarrowwa's for Yambuya on March i6th.
Fort Bodo was in a flourishing state. Nearly ten acres were under
cultivation. One crop of Indian corn had been harvested, and was in
the granaries; they had just commenced planting again.
On the i6th of June I left Fort Bodo with a hundred and eleven Zan-
zibaris and a hundred and one of Emin Pasha's people. Lieutenant
Stairs had been appointed commandant of the fort. Nelson second in
command, and Surgeon Parke medical officer. The garrison consisted
of fifty-nine rifles. I had thus deprived myself of ail my officers in order
that I should not be encumbered with baggage and provisions and medi-
cines, which would have to be taken if accompanied by Europeans, and
every carrier was necessary for the vast stores left with Major Barttelot.
On the 24th of June we reached Kilonga-Longa's, and July 19th Ugar-
rowwa's. The latter station was deserted. Ugarrowwa, having gathered
as much ivory as he could obtain from that district, had proceeded down
river about three months before. On leaving Fort Bodo I had loaded
every carrier with about sixty pounds of corn, so that we had been able
to pass through the wilderness unscathed.
Passing on down the river as fast as we could go, daily expecting tc
meet the couriers who had been stimulated to exert themselves for i
jsward of ten p©unds per head, or the Major himself leading an army oi
carriers, we indulged ourselves in these pleasing anticipations as we
neared the goal.
On the loth of August we overtook Ugarrowwa with an immense flo-
tilla of fifty-seven canoes, and to our wonder our couriers now reduced
744 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
to seventeen They related an awful story of hair-breadth escapes and
tragic scenes. Three of their number had been slain, two were sHlI
feeble from their wounds, all except five bore on their bodies the sc«rs
.^f arrow wounds.
A week later, on August 17th, we met the rear column of the exjjedi*
■ion a\ a place called Bunalya, or, as the Arabs have corrupted it
ijnarya. There was a white man at the gate of the stockade whom I at
first though was Mr. Jamieson, but a nearer view revealed the features
of Mr. Bonny, who left the medical service of the army to acc-ornpany
" Well, my dear Bonny, where is the Major ?"
" He is dead, sir ; shot by the Manyuema about a month ago.*
** Good God ! And Mr. Jamieson ?"
" He has gone to Stanley Falls to try and get some more m«rfi from
" And Mr. Troup."
" Mr. Troup has gone home, sir, invalided.*'
** Hem ! well, where is Ward ?"
" Mr. Ward is at Bangala, sir."
" Heavens alive ! then you are the only one here ?"
" Yes, sir."
I found the rear column a terrible wreck. Out of two hundred and
fifty-seven men there were only seventy-one remaining. Out of seventy-
one only fifty-two on mustering them, seemed fit for service, and these
mostly were scarecrows. The advance had performed the march from
Vambuya to Bunalya in sixteen days, despite native opposition. The
rear column performed the same distance in forty-three days. Accord-
ing to Mr. Bonny, during the thirteen months and twenty days that had
elapsed since I had left Yambuya, the record is only one of disaster,
desertion, and death. I have not the heart to go into the details, many
of which are incredible, and, indeed, I have not the time, for, excepting
' Ir. Bonny, I have no one to assist me in re-organizing the expedition.
Stanley Keported Dead.
There are still far more loads than I can carry, at the same time articles
needful are missing. For instance, I left Yambuya with only a short
campaigning kit, leaving my reserve of clothing and personal effects in
charge of the officers. In December some deserters from the advance
column reached Yambuya to spread the report that I was dead. They
had no papers with them, but the officers seemed to accept the report of
these deserters as a fact, and in January Mr. Ward, at an officers' mess
T46 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
meeting, proposed that my instructions should be canceled. The only
one who appears to have dissented was Mr. Bonny. Accordingly, my
personal kit, medicines, soap, candles, and provisions were sent down the
Congo as " superfluities !" Thus, after making this immense personal
sacrifice to relieve them and cheer them up, I find myself naked and
deprived of even the necessaries of life in Africa. But, strange to say,
they have kept two hats' and four pairs of boots, a flannel jacket, and J
propose to go back to Emin Pasha and across Africa with this truly
African kit. Livingstone, poor fellow, was all in patches when I met
pim, but it will be the reliever himself who will be in patches this time.
'Fortunately, not one of my officers will envy me, for their kits are in-
tact — it was only myself that was dead.
I pray you to say that we were only eighty-two days from the Albert
Lake to Banalya, and sixty-one from Fort Bodo. The distance is not
very great — it is the people who fail one. Going to Nyanza we felt as
though we had the tedious task of dragging them ; on returning each
man knew the road, and did not need any stimulus. Between the Nyanza
and here we only lost three men — one of wTiich was by desertion, I
brought a hundred and thirty-one Zanzibaris here, and left fifty-nine at
Fort Bodo, total one hundred and ninety men out of three hundred and
eighty-nine ; loss, fifty per cent.
Immense lioss of Men.
At Yambuya I left two hundred and fifty-seven men, there are only
seventy-one left, ten of whom will never leave this camp — loss over two
hundred and seventy per cent. This proves that, though the sufferings
of the advance were unprecedented, the mortality was not so great as in
camp at Yambuya. The survivors of the march are all robust, while the
survivors of the rear column are thin and most unhealthy-looking.
I have thus rapidly sketched out our movements since June 28th, 1887.
I wish I had the leisure to furnish more details, but I cannot find the time.
I write this amid the hurry and bustle of departure, and amid constant
interruptions. You will, however, have gathered from this letter an idea
,of the nature of the country traversed by us. We were a hundred and
sixty days in the forest — one continuous, unbroken, compact forest.
The grass-land was traversed by us in eight days. The limits of the
forest along the edge of the grass-land are well marked. We saw it
extending northeasterly, with its curves and bays and capes just like a
sea-shore. Southwesterly it preserved the same character. North and
south the forest area extends from Nyangwe to the southern borders of
the Monbuttu ; east and west it embraces all from the Congo, at th«
STANLEY FINDS EM IN PASHA.
mouth of the Aruwimi, to about east longitude 29°-40°. How far west
beyond the Congo the forest reaches I do not know. The superficial
extent of the tract thus described — totally covered by forest — is two
hundred and forty-six thousand square miles. North of the Congo,
between Upoto and the Aruwimi, the forest embraces another twenty
thousand square miles.
Between Yambuya and the Nyanza we came across five distinct lan-
guages. The last is that which is spoken by the Wanyoro, Wan-
SKIRMISH DRILL OF KAFFIR WARRIORS.
yankori, Wanya, Ruanda, Wahha, and people of Karangwe and Ukerewe.
The land slopes gently from the crest of the plateau above the Nyanza
down to the Congo River from an altitude of five thousand five hundred
feet to one thousand four hundred feet above the sea. North and south
'of our track through the grass-land the face of the land was much broken
By groups of cones or isolated mounts or ridges. North we saw no land
higher than about six thousand feet above the sea, but bearing two hun-
dred and fifteen degrees magnetic, at the distance of about fifty miles
from our camp on the Nyanza, we saw a towering mountain, its summit
748 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
covered with snow, and probably seventeen or eighteen thousand feet
above the sea. It is called Ruevenzori, and will probably prove a rival
to Kilimanjaro. I am not sure that it may not prove to be the Gordon
Bennett Mountain in Gambaragara, but there are two reasons for doubt-
ing it to be the same — first, it is a little too far west for the position of
the latter as given by me in 1876; and, secondly, we saw no snow on
the Gordon Bennett. I might mention a third, which is that the latter is
a perfect cone apparently, while the Ruevenzori is an cblong' mount,
nearly level on the summit, with two ridges extending northeast and
I have met only three natives who have seen the lake toward the
south. They agree that it is large, but not so large as the Albert
The Aruwimi becomes known as the Suhali about one hundred miles
above Yambuya; as it nears the Nepoko it is called the Nevoa; beyond
its confluence with the Nepoko it is known as the No-Welle; three
hundred miles from the Congo it is called the Itiri, which is soon
changed into the Ituri, which name it retains to its source. Ten
minutes' march from the Ituri waters we saw the Nyanza, like a mirror
in its immense gulf.
What Shall be Done?
Before closing my letter let rue touch more at large on the subject
which brought me to this land — viz., Emin Pasha,
The Pasha has two battalions of regulars under him — the first, con-
sisting of about seven hundred and fifty rifles, occupies Duffle, Honyu,
Lahore, Muggi, Kirri, Bedden, Rejaf ; the second battalion, consisting
of six hundred and forty men, guard the stations of Wadelai, Fatiko,
Mahagi, and Mswa, a line of communication along the Nyanza and Nile
about one hundred and eighty miles in length. In the interior west 0/
the Nile he retains three or four small stations — fourteen in all. Besides
these two battallions he has quite a respectable force of irregulars, sailors,
artisans, clerks, servants. "Altogether," he said, "if I consent to go
H'.vay from here we shall have about eight thousand people with us."
" Were I in your place I would not hesitate one moment or be a
'second in doubt what to do."
* What you say is quite true, but we have such a large number of
women and children, probably ten thousand people altogether. How
can they all be brought out of here ? We shall want a great number of
" Carriers ! carriers for what," I asked.
STANLEY FINDS EMIN PASHA. 74'J
" For the women and children. You surely would not leave them,
and they cannot travel ? "
"The women must walk. It will do them more good than harm.
As for the little children, load them on the donkeys. I hear you have
EXTRAORDINARY FOREST GROWTHS IN AFRICA.
about two hundred of them. Your people will not travel very far th.c
first month, but litttle by little they will get accustomed to it. Our Zan-
zibar women crossed Africa on my second expedition. Why cannot
your black women do the same ? Have no fear of them ; they will do
better than the men."
750 WONDERS OF THE TROPICS.
" They would require a vast amount of provision for the road."
" True, but you have some thousands of cattle, I believe. Those will
furnish beef The country through which we pass must furnish grain
and vegetable food."
" Well, well, we will defer further talk till to-morrow."
Planning- to Remove.
May 1st, 1888. — Halt in camp at Nsabe. The Pasha came ashore
from the steamer " Khedive " obout i p. m., and in a short time we com-
menced our conversation again. Many of the arguments used above
were repeated, and he said : '•■
" What you told me yesterday has led me to think it is best we should'
retire from here. The Egyptians are very willing to leave. There are of
these about one hundred men, besides their women and children. Of these
there is no doubt, and even if I stayed here I should be glad to be rid of
them, because they undermine my authority and nullify all my endeavors
for retreat. When I informed them that Khartoum had fallen and Gor-
don Pasha was slain, they always told the Nubians that it was a concoc-
ted story, that some day we should see the steamers ascend the river for
their relief. But of the regulars who compose the first and second bat-
talions I am extremely doubtful ; they have led such a free and happy
life here that they would demur at leaving a country where they have
enjoyed luxuries they cannot command in Egypt.
" The soldiers are married, and several of them have harems. Many of
the irregulars would also retire and follow me. Now, supposing the reg-
ulars refuse to leave, you can imagine that my position would be a diffi-
cult one. Would I be right in leaving them to their fate ? Would it not
be consigning them all to ruin ? I should have to leave them their arms
and ammunition, and on returning all discipline would be at an end.
Disputes would arise, and factions would be formed. The more ambi-
tious would aspire to be chiefs by force, and from these rivalries would