of the deep grooves cut in that side of the Citadel of
Eaglan Castle, on which the Marquis of Worcester s
Water-works were situated. The grooves would admit
the insertion of pipes of about one foot external diameter,
either round, or square, and they would carry water
nearly twenty-five feet high. In the early use of his
engine, he may have forced the water direct from the
boiler, or by the using of an independent boiler, as em
ployed by Porta, in 1606; but either way, the arrange
ment of his Eaglan works would seem to have been that
of employing a main vertical pipe for each boiler or
receiver, instead of each receiver being connected with
a four-way cock with one vertical pipe, or u aquaduct."
With these observations we close our comments on
the various articles of the " Century, 7 after having sup
plied a mass of most important references to contempo
rary and earlier scientific authors; as well as offered
several entirely new solutions ; and reduced the proble
matical character of this singularly interesting work to
one only, being No. 56, which alone remains open to
the charge of being a paradox.
the upper bend of each, it would be sufficient for a single pipe to dip into the water
to be raised.
On the steam pipe B B is
b, a four-way steam cock, operated by
b , its lever handle ; and on the horizontal portion of the water pipe F F , is
c, a four-way water cock, operated by
c , its lever handle.
%*The four-way cock is figured and described as early as 1618, by Robert Fludd*
in "Historia Macrosmi," folio, page 467.
No. 5. Cipher waiting. At page 398, reference is made
to a Cipher letter, engraved in u The Life," at page 180.
It was written by the Marquis, as now appears, at Dub
lin, the 29th of September, 1645. The author having
made out the character, is able to supply the following
key, or alphabet.
abcdefg h iklmno p rstuwxy*
Curiously enough it is the document given at page
139, so that Carte must have obtained a deciphered copy
as well. But the words, u the King of the assent," should
be " the King of his assent." The words, " towards your
Excellency" (in the 10th line) are not in the original.
Also the words, u And my intention was ever to acquaint
your Honour herewith," should be " and mine intent was
ever to acquaint you herewith." There is no signature
to the original, but the written direction shows it was
from the Earl of Glamorgan.
We have now authentic proof of the construction and
character of at least one Cipher method of writing
adopted by the Marquis, eighteen years prior to the pub
lication of the " Century."
No. 53. An hollowing of a water-screw. A slight
addition to the comment on this article will be easily un
derstood by reference to the adjoining three figures, and
* No letter q or z.
probably throw some light on what the Marquis may have
actually intended. Being desirous to construct a model
screw, some years ago, the author designed the following
method of making one of tin or zinc, which may be
easily shown by cutting out the same in thin paste
board. Form a number of discs of thin metal like
No. 1, say three inches diameter, with a hole in the
centre one inch diameter, and the metalcut through at
A. Eivet, solder, or otherwise fasten them together,
commencing by placing No. 2 on No. 1 ; now secure the
cut edge of A, to the similar edge of 6, and so on in
succession, until a sufficient pile is obtained. They may
now be extended to form a screw, as in No. 3, of any
desired pitch. The minuter details of construction will
be obvious to any clever artizan.
[The following is from Birch s MSS. in the British Museum, No.
4459 ; and portions have been quoted in the Commentary, under
each article of invention named herein.]
INVENTIONS OF T E E AELE OF WOECEST?
The Qvint E ssence of Motion, or a Collection of all kinds of
Movements, to wit, C ircular, to & fro ; Perpendicular, upwards &
downewards ; side motions, to y e right & left ; straight Motions, fore-
wards & backwards with a Circular Vehiculum, to wch any of
these, may bee applicable or moveable to all y e points of y e C om-
passe : At each of wch, it will bee as powerfull as if it were fixt to
one place or C enter.
All & every of these, by hight of Art, Industry, & Experim*
working y e same Individuall & Intrinsecall effect, without disturb
ance one to y e other : & yet by these absolutely contrary Motions
soe perform d, most strange & incredible E ffects may bee brought
to passe, to y e Admiration even of y e greatest Mathematicians.
The knowledge of these things, rendring all things as feacible to
him, y* is Master of this Art, as it is to make a C ircle with a paire
of C ompasses, or a straight line, w th a sqvare or Euler. They
beeing a direct abstract of Arithmetic!?, contrived by mee. And by
y power of those, I have perfected these following Conclusions, w th
some hundreds besides all experimented by mee.
(1) I can render an ordinary Watch, wch beeing once wound
up, will goe constantly, during a Mans life, beeing vsed but once in
24. houres, & (though oftner look t on :) it is still y e same, & though
not look t on for a weeke, still y e same, if not bruised,
(2) By this I can make a Vessel of as great burthen, as y e
Eiver can beare, to goe ag* y e streame, wch y e more rapid it is,
y e faster it shall advance, & y e moveable part y* workes it, may bee
by one man still guided, to take y e best advantage of y e streame, &
yet to steer the boat to any point. And this E ngine is applicable
to any Vessell or Boate, whatsoever ; without being therefore made
on purpose ; And worketh these effects. It roweth, it draweth, it
driveth (: if need bee :) to passe London bridge ag* y e streame at low
water : And a boate lying at Anchor, the E ngine may be used for
loading or viiloading.
(3) By tliis I can make an Artificiall Bird to fly wch way & as
long as I please.
(4) By these I can make a ball of S ilver or Gr old wch throwne
into a pale or poole of Water, shall rise againe to y e perfect houre of
any day or night : The superficies of y e Water shall still show the
houre distinctly, even y e minutes, if I please.
(5) By this I can make a C hilde in a C oach, to stop y e horses
(runing away) & shall be able to secure hims. & those y* bee in
y e C oach, having a little E ngine placed therein, wch shall not bee
perceived in what posture soever y e horses draw : a C hildes force
shall bee able, to disengage them, from overturning y e C oach or
prejudicing any body in it.
(6) By these I can make one pound raise an hundred, as high
as y e one pound falls, & y e one pound taken off y e 112 lb shall againe
descend, performing y e entire effect of an hundred waight (i.e.) have
y* force wch nothing lesse, then 112 lb can have any other way. An
incredible effect till seene, but true as strange.
(7) By these a C hilde shall raise as much water 100 foot
high (speaking within C ompasse) as 6. horses can force vp any
(8) By these I can stop any other Mans Motion, & render it
Null, since from any point of y e C ompasse, I can forceably &
effectually cause a counterbuffe or absolute obstruction of such
Motion, wch way I please all wayes, beeing indifferent to mee to
worke a perfect resistance, & to countermine their Intentions, or to
force their Motions a cleane contrary way.
The 9 was left out in y e Original C opy. (9)
S oe here y u have 9 figures represented, wch in Arithmetick,
make all numbers imaginable, soe by y e helpe of these Motions, noe
Manufacture, but may be demonstrated exqvisitely & demonstrably
& with great ease and facility. And noe Conclusion in y e Mathe-
maticks or Mechanicks, but may by these bee brought to passe in
great perfection & to admiration. Yet as y e most excellent tooles
cannot worke alone ; nor any C ymeter is soe sharp to cut w th out an
arme to guide it. S oe without Knowledge, Art, & Ingenuitie,
these are fruitlesse. But being set to worke by one of noe more
Knowledge then myselfe, am capable off, they will performe w 1 is here
asserted & more then I could write, from one end off y e yeare to
y e other.
(Note. No. 9 is here stated to be left out, but may not the first named, or " Quint
essence of Motion," be No. 1, so making up Nine in all ? [See pp. 530, 531.]
In the next line the copyist has first written 8 and then altered it to 9, to
accord with the sense of the passage.)
[ABRIDGED FROM THE FEINTED SPECIFICATIONS 6F THE PATENT
MAEQUIS OF WOECESTEE S PATENT. SIGNET BILL.
A.D. 1661. ... NO. 131.
Clocks, Guns, Carriages, Boats, &c.
CHARLES THE SECOND, by the grace of God, &c., to all to whom
these pnt shall come greeting.
WHEREAS our right trusty and entirely beloved couzin EDWARD,
Marquesse of WORCESTER hath for many yeares applied his thought^
and studies, and hath beene at very great charges, to contrive and
perfect divers rare and new Invencons, contenting himselfe with the
good and advantage which will redound to the publique and to every
particuler industrious workman or curious persons who shall make
vse of the said Invencons, the product f of his extraordinary expences
and ingenuity : And whereas, amongst other vsefull and new Inven
cons of farr greater consequence, the said Marquesse hath found out
and experimented these severall new Invencons herein-after per-
ticularly menconed (that is to say)
" 1. To make a watch or clock without string or chaine, or any
other kind of winding up but what of necessity must follow if the
owner or keeper of the said watch or clock will know the hour of
day or night ; and yet if he lay it aside several days and weeks
without looking or meddling with it, it shall go very well, and as
justly as most watches that ever were made.
2. And also an Invention to make certain guns or pistols, which
in the tenth part of one minute of an hour may, with a flaske con
trived to that purpose, be recharged, the fourth part of one turne of
the barrel, which remains still fixt, fastening it as forceably and
effectually as a dozen threads of any screw, which in the ordinary
and usual way require as many turns.
3. Also an Invention to make an engine applicable to any coach,
by which a child of six years old may secure from danger all in the
coach, and even the coachman himself, though the horses become
never so unruly, the child being able in the twinckleing of an eye to
loosen them from the coach, in what posture soever they draw or
turne, be it ever so short, or to either hand.
4. Lastly, an Invention to make a boat that roweth, draweth, or
setteth even against wind or stream, yea, both, and to any part of
the compass which way soever the streame runs or wind blows, and
yet the force of the wind or streame causeth its motion, nothing
being required but a steersman, and whilst the boat stayeth to be
loaded or unloaded, the streame or w r ind shall perform such work as
any water mill or wind mill is capable of."
All which new Invencons being of publique vse and benefitt if the
same were put in practice, and the lawes of England haveing espe
cially provided for the incouragemenfc of such as are the first authors
and invento rs of profittable and ingenious Invencons.
KNOW YEE, that wee, of our especiall grace, certaine knowledge,
and meere mocon doe for vs, our heires and successo 1 8 , give and grant
vnto the said Edward, Marquesse of Worcester, his executo ra , admi-
nistrato rs , assignee, and assignes, full power, licence, liberty, privi-
ledge, and authoritye, that hee, they, and every of them, by them
selves or his or their deputy and deputies, servant^, agentf , and
workmen, or any of them, from tyme to tyme, and at all tymes
hereafter dureing the terme of yeares hereafter in these pntf ex
pressed, shall and may vse, exercise, and imploy all and every or any
of the aforesaid Invencons, before in and by there j?nt perticulerly
described, in such manner as to him, them, or any of them, in his and
their best judgment f and discreccons, shall seeme meete, &c., &c.
May it please yo r most excellent Majestie.
To r Maj tie is hereby graciously pleased to grant vnto Edward,
Marquesse of Worcester the sole vse and exercise of his severall new
Invencons concerning watches or clockf, guns or pistolls, coaches,
and boates, for fourteene yeares according to the forme of the Statute
in that behalfe made and provided, and with such other clauses as
are vsuall in grantf of like nature.
Signified to be yo r Majesties pleasure vnder yo r royall signe
15 Nov. 1661.
WATER-COMMANDING ENGINE, ACT, ETC.
[From page 559 to 567, is the reprint of a rare quarto tract of
22 pages, of which there is a copy in the library of his Grace
the Duke of Beaufort ; and another in the British Museum,
C. 31. d. 1.]
AN exact and true Definition of the most Stupendious "Water-
commanding Engine, invented by the Eight Honourable (and
deservedly to be praised and admired) Edward Somerset, Lord
Marquess of Worcester, and by his Lordship himself presented
to his most Excellent Majesty Charles the Second, our most
AN Act of Parliament thereupon granted, with great applause of
both Houses, being through his Majesties particular favour passed,
by special Commission to the Eight Honourable the Earl of Clarendon,
Lord High Chancellour of England; the Earl of Southampton, Lord
High Treasurer ; the Lord Roberts, Lord Privy Seal, third Officer of
the Crown, preceding all Dukes, not of the Blood Eoyal; the Duke
of Albemarle his Grace, most deservedly by his transcendent merits
never to be forgotten, Lord General of his Majesties Land-forces ;
the Lord Marquess of Dorchester, and the Earl Lynsey, Lord High
Chamberlain, by his place preceding all Earls, both likewise of the
Privy Council : They passed the said Act upon the third of June,
1663. For the more expedition, and in Testimony of the great con
sequence thereof to the King and Kingdom.
His most Excellent Majesty having the tenth part, without
deducting of Charges, freely given him by the said Lord Marquess,
and there evidently accruing a considerable Profit and Benefit to
every individual Subject of the whole Nation, if he either have
surrounded Marish-ground to drein, or dry Land to improve ; Com
modities to sell portable from Town to Town, and through the
Countrys to the Towns by Cuts thus fed by water ; or if he have (I
further say) Mines wherewith to enrich himself withall, Houses to
be served, or Gardens to be beautified by plentiful Fountains with
little charge, yet certain in ever so dry a Summer : and there being
indeed no place but either wanteth water, or is overburdened there-
with, and by this Engine either defect is remediable, that is to
say, water necessary to man-kind, furnished with the pleasantness
thereof, procured, and the water unnecessary, as easily rejected.
Thus whole Cities may be kept Clean, Delightful and "Wholesome,
needing no other Scavengery then by means thereof to void their
dirt, and avoid noisomness, the Cause of Infection, Sicknesses, and
Contagion it self, by Stenches commonly ingendring and fomenting
After the Act of Parliament, there is here set down a Latin
JElogium, & an English PanegincJc, both of them composed through
duty and gratitude by an Antient Servant of his Lordships, pre
suming to begin the way to the greatest Wits and Poets to dilate
upon so plentiful and admirable a Theam, and so deserving a person
of King and Kingdom, and of all that ever knew him.
This Antient Servant of his Lordships, hath for forty years been an
eye witness of his great ingenuity, indefatigable pains, and vaste ex-
pences in perfecting for publique service, not onely this most Stupen-
dious "Water commanding Engine, but likewise several other rare,
useful, and never formerly heard of Mathematical Conclusions, of
which he hath owned a Century, and thereunto I refer you : though
this alone were enough to eternalize his Name to all Ages and future
I think it not amiss to give further notice in his Lordships behalf,
that he intends within a moneth or two to erect an Office, and to
intrust some very responsible and honourable persons with power to
Treat and Conclude with such as desire at a reasonable rate to reap
the benefit of the same Water-commanding Engine, in any of the
aforesaid useful and beneficial operations, whereof his Majesty is to
reap the first fruit ; and then the whole Kingdom in general, before
his Lordship is re-imbursed, and his reward beginneth ; whose laud
able inventions Almighty God prosper with blessings on earth, and
reward in heaven.
MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN,
The same individual Definition of my Water-work, which
I formerly presumed to put into Your Soyal Hands, I again adven
ture to present to Your Majesty ; praying Your Belief of it, as Your
Majesty shall find it true by comparing it with the real Effect ;
which, if found punctually agreeing, Vouchsafe then not to be apt
hereafter to lend a believing Ear to such persons, as Malice causeth
to detract from, or Ignorance to slight what shall (though never so
seemingly strange) be averr d by me, who will never be convinced of
a Ealshood in "Word or Deed towards Your Sacred Majesty ; before
whom I shall ever speak as in the presence of Almighty God, whose
Vicegerent on Earth I deem You : And to Your Majesties traiis-
centdent Judgment I submit all, and will presume to subscribe
Your Sacred Majesties
Faithfully-Devoted and passionately-
Affected, Useful, if cherished,
Subject and Servant, WORCESTER.
A Stupendious or a Water-Commanding Engine, boundless for
Height, or Quantity, requiring no External, nor even Additional help t
or force to be set, or continued in motion, but what intrinsecally
is afforded from its own Operation, nor yet the twentieth part thereof:
And the Engine consisteth of the following Particulars ;
1. A perfect Counterpoize for what Quantity soever of Water.
2. A perfect Countervail for what Height soever it is to be
3. A Primum Mobile commanding both Height and Quantity
4. A Vicegerent or Countervail supplying the place, and per
forming the full force of a Man, Wind, Beast, or Mill.
5. A Helm or Stern, with Bitt and Eeins, wherewith any Child
may guide, order, and controul the whole Operation.
6. A particular Magazine for Water, according to the intended
Quantity or Height of Water.
7. An Aquaduct capable of any intended Quantity or Height of
8. A place for the Original Fountain or even River to run into,
and naturally of its own accord incorporate it self with the rising
Water, and at the very bottom of the same Aquaduct, though never
so big or high.
By Divine Providence, and Heavenly Inspiration, this is my Stupen-
dious Water-commanding Engine, boundless for Height and
"Whosoever is Master of Weight,
Is Master of Force ;
"Whosoever is Master of "Water,
Is Master of both :
And consequently, to him all Forceable Actions and Atchievments
are easie, which are in any wise beneficial to or for Mankind.
Exegi Monumentum cere perennius,
Hegalique situ Pyramidum altius;
Quod non imber edax, non Aquilo impotent,
Possit diruere, aut innumerabilis Horace.
Annorum series, fy fuga temporum :
Non omnis moriar, mult aque pars mei
dum stabit Anglia. Capitolium.
Eeader observe, This tells us how to keep
Our morning-Thoughts awake, while others sleep :
Tis Art and Nature s product, scan d by some :
Judge of it by th Effects, then give your doom.
To God alone be all Praise, Honour and Glory,
for ever and ever. Amen.
* There is in the British Museum, bound up along with other broadsides, one on
which is printed the whole of the foregoing, commencing with the letter, " Most
Gracious Sovereign," and ending at this signature. The printed matter covers
14i by 11 inches of surface, and was originally a sheet of at least 18 by 13 or 14
inches, including the margin, which has been cut off. It is catalogued under
" Somerset;" and the reference is, Brit. Mus. No. 12. E 1. 75.
AN ACT to Enable Edward Marquess of Worcester to Eeceive the
Benefit and Profit of a "Water- Commanding Engine by him
Invented ; One Tenth part whereof is appropriated for the
Benefit of the Kings Majesty, His Heirs and Successors.*
WHEREAS The Eight Honourable Edward Marquess of Worcester
hath affirmed to the Kings most Excellent Majesty, That he hath by
long and indefatigable pains and study, and with great and vast
expences, invented and found out a Secret in Nature, never hereto
fore discovered, being a "Water- Commanding Engine, of greater
force and advantage then hitherto hath been known ; and being no
Pump or Force now in use, nor working by any Suckers, Barrels, or
Bellows heretofore used for the raising and conveying of Water ;
which said Engine will yield very great benefit and advantage to the
Common- wealth, by draining of all sorts of Mines, Marish, Oazie, or
Overflown Grounds ; by furnishing of Kivers and Cutts with water
to make them Navigable and Portable from Town to Town; by
improving of Lands wanting water ; by the supplying and bringing
in of w r ater into the City of London, or into any other places : and
by divers other ways and means whereby great Encouragement will
be given to the People of this Nation to undertake to work rich
Mines, to drain, and gain in many Marish, Oazie, and surrounded
Grounds, which hitherto they have been deterred to endeavour the
improvement of, by reason of the vast sums of money which must
be necessarily expended by the draining and conveying away the
water out of the same. And whereas the said Edward Marquess of
Worcester is willing and contented to setle a tenth part of the
accruing benefit thereof upon his Majesty, His Heirs and Successors,
for the term of years after in this Act mentioned ; To the end there
fore that the said Edward Marquess of Worcester may have and
enjoy the full and particular benefit and profit of this his new
Invention, with a Prohibition to all others to make use thereof for
ninety and nine years : May it therefore please the Kings most
Excellent Majesty, That it may be enacted, And Be it Enacted by
the Kings most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Advice and
Consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and the Commons, in
this present Parliament Assembled, and by the Authority thereof,
That it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Edward Marquess
of Worcester, His Executors and Assigns, from time to time, and at
all times hereafter, during the said ninety and nine years, to have,
receive, take, and enjoy, to his and their own proper use and uses,
* 15 Car. II. cap. xii. 1663.
56 i APPENDIX.
the Profit, Benefit, and Advantage which shall any ways arise,
happen, or accrue by means or reason of the aforesaid Engine and
new Invention. And be it also Enacted by the Authority aforesaid,
That one full tenth part of the accruing Benefit thereof (without
deduction or abatement for or by reason of any Charges or Expences
whatsoever) shall be paid and answered, and accounted for by the
said Edward Marquess of Worcester, his Executors, Administrators,
and Assigns, for His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, into His
Majesties publick receipt of Exchequer yearly, and every year at the
Feasts of Saint Michael the Arch-angel and the Annunciation of the
Blessed Virgin Mary, during the said Term of Ninety nine years,
the first payment to be made at the Eeast of Saint Michael the
Arch-angel, which shall be in the year of our Lord God, One thou
sand six hundred sixty and three ; And be it further Enacted by the
Authority aforesaid, that if any Person or Persons whatsoever within
his Majesties Kingdom of England & Dominion of Wales, and Town
of Berwick upon Tweed, and the Dominions and Territories there
unto belonging, do, or shall at any time hereafter, during the said
term, Counterfeit, Imitate, put in practice, or erect the said Water-
commanding Engine (without the consent and License first had and
obtained in writing from the said Edward Marquess of Worcester,
or his Assignes) That it shall, and may be lawful to and for the said
Edward Marquess of Worcester, or his Assignes, with his, or their