Henry Gray.

Anatomy of the human body online

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

MEDICAL CENTER LIBRARY

SAN FRANCISCO




GIFT OF
LESTER J. SAWYER, M.D.



ANATOMY



OF



THE HUMAN BODY



BY

HENRY/OKAY, F.RS.

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SUHGEONS ; LECTURER ON ANATOMY AT ST. GEORGE'S
HOSPITAL MEDICAL SCHOOL, LONDON



TWENTIETH EDITION

THOROUGHLY REVISED AND RE-EDITED



BY

WARREN H. LEWIS, B.S., M.D.

PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGICAL ANATOMY, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, BALTIMORE, MD.



Illustrated wttb 1247 Engravings




LEA & FEBIGER
PHILADELPHIA AND NEW YORK



COPYRIGHT
LEA & FEBIGER

1918



PRINTED IN U. S. A.



<)l



THE FIRST EDITION OF THIS WORK
WAS DEDICATED TO

SIR BENJAMIN COLLINS BRODIE, BART., F.R.S., D.C.L.

IN ADMIRATION OF

HIS GREAT TALENTS

AND IN REMEMBRANCE OF

MANY ACTS OF KINDNESS SHOWN TO THE ORIGINAL
AUTHOR OF THE BOOK

FROM AN
EARLY PERIOD OF HIS PROFESSIONAL CAREER



PEEFACE TO THE TWENTIETH EDITION.



SINCE the publication of the first English edition of this \vork in 1858 and the
first American edition in 1859 great advances in the subject of Anatomy have been
made, especially in microscopic anatomy and the anatomy of the embryo. This
knowledge was embodied from time to time in the successive editions until finally
considerable portions of the text, sometimes sections, were devoted to these sub-
jects. However, the main text has always remained primarily a descriptive
anatomy of the human body.

In the present edition the special sections on embryology and histology have
been distributed among the subjects under which they naturally belong. New
matter on physiological anatomy, laws of bone architecture, the mechanics and
variations of muscles have been added, occupying much of the space formerly
devoted to the sections on applied anatomy.

The sections on the ductless glands and the nervous system have been largely
rewritten. In the latter a more rational presentation of the sympathetic nervous
system has been achieved through the use of diagrams and descriptions based on
physiological and pharmacological work. The central connections of 'the spinal
and cranial nerves are also emphasized.

Illustrations have been added wherever important points could be made more
clear, and throughout the work colored pictures have been even more extensively
used than heretofore. In this respect special mention might be made of the central
nervous system and the section on the muscles. In the section on Syndesmology
six illustrations are used from Quain's Anatomy through the courtesy of the
publishers, Messrs. Longmans, Green & Company, of London.

The use of the B. N. A. nomenclature in English has been retained practically
unchanged in this edition and important references to the literature have been
added at the end of each section.

As a practical work on the subject for the student, Gray's Anatomy has always
been recognized and appreciated. The plan originally formulated, which has
proved so successful, has been adhered to as much as possible. It is interesting to
note that although Henry Gray saw only the first edition, much of the original
text persists and many of his illustrations are still in use. Bearing this in mind it
has been the endeavor of the Editor to supply only such changes as advances in
the science made necessary in order that this work may reflect the latest accessions
to anatomical knowledge.

W. H. L.

BALTIMORE, 1918.



CONTENTS.



EMBRYOLOGY.



The Animal Cell.



Cytoplasm

Nucleus

Reproduction of Cells 06

Prophase

Metaphase ... ..... 36

Anaphase .

Telophase .

The Ovum.



Yolk 39

Germinal Vesicle 40

Coverings of the Ovum 40

Maturation of the Ovum 40



The Spermatozoon .
Fertilization of the Ovum
Segmentation of the Fertilized Ovum.

The Primitive Streak; Formation of the

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

Entoderm



Mesoderm 49

The Neural Groove and Tube . . 50
The Notochord . . . 52



The Primitive Segments . . 52

Separation of the Embryo . . 53

The Yolk-sac . 54



Development of the Fetal Membranes and Placenta.

The Allantois

The Amnion

The Umbilical Cord and Body-stalk .



54
56
57

r _ 58

The Decidua 59



Implantation or Imbedding of the Ovum



The Chorion

The Placenta . . . . .

Fetal Portion ....

Maternal Portion .

Separation of the Placenta



60
62
62
63
64



The Branchial Region.

The Branchial or Visceral Arches and Pharyn-

geal Pouches 65

The Nose and Face 67

The Limbs 71

Development of the Body Cavities . . 72

The Form of the Embryo at Different Stages

of its Growth . ... 74



OSTEOLOGY.



Long Bones .
Short Bones .
Flat Bones .
Irregular Bones .
Surfaces of Bones



DEVELOPMENT OF THE SKELETON.



The Skeleton . . . .
The Vertebral Column
The Ribs . . . .
The Sternum
The Skull



BONE.

Structure and Physical Properties

Periosteum

Marrow

Vessels and Nerves of Bone ....

Minute Anatomy

Chemical Composition

Ossification

Intramembranous Ossification
Intercartilaginous Ossification

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN.

General Characteristics of a Vertebra.

The Cervical Vertebrae

The First Cervical Vertebra .
The Second Cervical Vertebra .
The Seventh Cervical Vertebra .



79
79
79
80
80



97

99

100

101



The Thoracic Vertebra

The First Thoracic Vertebra
The Ninth Thoracic Vertebra
The Tenth Thoracic Vertebra .
The Eleventh Thoracic Vertebra
The Twelfth Thoracic Vertebra . .

The Lumbar Vertebrae

The Fifth Lumbar Vertebra . . .

The Sacral and Coccygeal Vertebra? .

The Sacrum

The Coccyx

Ossification of the Vertebral Column

The Vertebral Column as a Whole.



Curves
Surfaces .
Vertebral Canal



THE THORAX.



Boundaries

The Sternum

Manubrium

Body

Xiphoid Process

The Ribs . .

Common Characteristics of the Ribs

Peculiar Ribs

First Rib

Second Rib

Tenth Rib

Eleventh and Twelfth Ribs

The Costal Cartilages

(9)



102
104
104
104
104
104
104
106
106
106
111
111



114
114
116



117
119
120
120
121
123
123
125
125
125
126
126
127






CONTENTS



THE SKULL.
The Cranial Bones.

The Occipital Bone ....

The Squama

Lateral Parts

Basilar Parts

Angles

The Parietal Bone

The Frontal Bone

Squama

Orbital or Horizontal Part
The Temporal Bone ....

The Squama

Mastoid Portion ....

Petrous Portion ....

Tympanic Part ....

Styloid Process ....
The Sphenoid Bone ....

Body

The Great Wings ....

The Small Wings ....

Pterygoid Processes .

The Sphenoidal Conchse .
Ethmoid bone

Cribriform plate ....

Perpendicular Plate

Labyrinth or Lateral Mass .
Sutural or Wormian Bones



The Facial Bones.

The Nasal Bones

The Maxillae (Upper Jaw)

The Maxillary Sinus or Antrum of High-
more

The Zygomatic Process

The Frontal Process

The Alveolar Process

The Palatine Process

Changes Produced in the Maxilla by Age

The Lacrimal Bone

The Zygomatic Bone

The Palatine Bone

The Horizontal Part

The Vertical Part

The Pyramidal Process or Tuberosity .

The Orbital Process

The Sphenoidal Process

The Inferior Nasal Concha

The Vomer

The Mandible (Lower Jaw) . . . .

Changes Produced in the Mandible by

Age

The Hyoid Bone



The Exterior of the Skull.



Norma Verticalis ....

Norma Basalis

Norma Lateralis ....

The Temporal Fossa .

The Infratemporal Fossa

The Pterygopalatine Fossa
Norma Occipitalis ....
Norma Frontalis ....

The Orbitg



The Interior of the Skull.

Inner Surface of the Skull-cap

Under Surface of the Base of the Skull

The Anterior Fossa ....

The Middle Fossa ....

The Posterior Fossa ....
The Nasal Cavity

Anterior Nasal Aperture .
Differences in the Skull Due to Age .
Sexual Differences in the Skull
Craniology





THE EXTREMITIES.
The Bones of the Upper Extremity.










1 9Q


The Clavicle


200


&40V

129


Lateral Third


200


131


Medial Two-thirds


201


132


The Sternal Extremity


202


132


The Acromial Extremity


202


1QO




202


1OO

1 Q^


The Spine ....


203


loO

135


The Acromion


203


137


The Coracoid Process


207


138


The Humerus


209


139


Upper Extremity


209


141


The Head


209


142


The Anatomical Neck ....


209


145


The Greater Tubercle ....


209


145


The Lesser Tubercle ....


209


147


The Body or Shaft


209


j.^ i
147


The Lower Extremity


212


149


The Ulna


214


151


The Upper Extremity


214


151


The Olecranon


214


152


The Coronoid Process ....


214


153


The Semilunar Notch ....


215


153


The Radial Notch


215


154


The Body or Shaft


215


154


The Lower Extremity


218


156


The Radius


219




The Upper Extremity


219




The Body or Shaft


219




The Lower Extremity


220


156


The Hand.




157


The Carpus


221




Common Characteristics of the Carpal




160


Bones


221


161


Bones of the Proximal Row ....


221


161


The Navicular Bone ....


221


161


The Lunate Bone


224


162


The Triangular Bone ....


224


163


The Pisiform Bone


225


163


Bones of the Distal Row ....


225


164


The Greater Multangular Bone


225


166


The Lesser Multangular Bone .


225


167


The Capitate Bone


226


167


The Hamate Bone


227


168


The Metacarpus


227


168


Common Characteristics of the Meta-




169


carpal Bones


227


169


Characteristics of the Individual Meta-




170


carpal Bones


228


172


The First Metacarpal Bone


228




The Second Metacarpal Bone .


228


175


The Third Metacarpal Bone


228


177


The Fourth Metacarpal Bone .


228




The Fifth Metacarpal Bone


228




The Phalanges of the Hand


230




Ossification of the Bones of the Hand


230



178
179
182
183
184
185
185
185
188



189
190
190
190

194
196
196
197
197



The Bones of the Lower Extremity.

The Hip Bone . 231

The Ilium 231

The Body 231

The Ala 232

The Ischium 234

The Body 234

The Superior Ramus .... 235

The Inferior Ramus 235

The Pubis 236

The Body 236

The Superior Ramus .... 236

The Inferior Ramus 237

The Acetabulum 237

The Obturator Foramen . . . 237

The Pelvis 238

The Greater or False Pelvis .... 238

The Lesser or True Pelvis .... 239

Axes ... 240

Position of the Pelvis 241

Differences between Male and Female

Pelves 241

Abnormalities . 242



CONTENTS



The Femur

The Upper Extremity

The Head ....

The Neck

The Trochanters . . .
The Body or Shaft, . . .
The Lower Extremity
The Architecture of the Femur

The Patella

The Tibia

The Upper Extremity

The Body or Shaft . . .

The Lower Extremity

The Fibula

The Upper Extremity or Head
The Body or Shaft . . .
The Lower Extremity or
Malleolus



Lateral



The Foot.



The Tarsus .

The Calcaneus



242
243
243
243
244
246
247
248
255
256
256
257
259
260
260
260

262



263
263



The Tarsus

The Talus 266

The Cuboid Bone 269

The Navicular Bone 270

The First Cuneiform Bone .... 270
The Second Cuneiform Bone . . .271
The Third Cuneiform Bone . . . .271

The Metatarsus 272

Common Characteristics of the Meta-

tarsal Bones 272

Characteristics of the Individual Meta-

tarsal Bones 272

The First Metatarsal Bone . . . 272

The Second Metatarsal Bone . . 273

The Third Metatarsal Bone . . 274

The Fourth Metatarsal Bone . . 274

The Fifth Metatarsal Bone . . 274

The Phalanges of the Foot 275

Ossification of the Bones of the Foot . . 275
Comparison of the Bones of the Hand and

Foot 276

The Sesamoid Bones 277



SYNDESMOLOGY.




Bone 279

Hyaline Cartilage 279

Articular Cartilage 280

Costal Cartilage . 281

White Fibrocartilage 281

Ihterarticular Fibrocartilages . . . 281

Connecting Fibrocartilages .... 282

Circumferential Fibrocartilages . . . 282

Stratiform Fibrocartilages .... 282

Ligaments 282

The Articular Capsules 282

Mucous Sheaths 283

Bursse Mucosse 283



DEVELOPMENT OF THE JOINTS . . 283



CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS



Synarthrosis 284

Sutura 284

Schindylesis 284

Gomphosis 284

Synchondrosis 284

Amphiarthrosis 285

Diathrosis 285

Ginglimus 285

Trochoid 285

Condyloid 286

Articulation by Reciprocal Reception 286

Enarthrosis 286

Arthrodia . 286



THE KIND OF MOVEMENT ADMITTED IN JOINTS.

Gliding Movement .... . . 286

Angular Movement ... . . 286

Circumduction . . 286

Rotation . . 287

Ligamentous Action of Muscles . . 287



ARTICULATIONS OF THE TRUNK.

Articulations of the Vertebral Column . . 287
Articulations of Vertebral Bodies . . 287
The Anterior Longitudinal Liga-
ment . . . . ._ . . . 287
The Posterior Longitudinal Liga-
ment 288

The Intervertebral Fibrocartilages 289

Structure 289

Articulations of Vertebral Arches . . 289

The Articular Capsules .... 290

The Ligamenta Flava .... 290

The Supraspinal Ligament . . . 290



Articulations of the Vertebral Column
Articulations of Vertebral Arches

The Ligamentum Nuchae . . . 290

The Interspinal Ligaments . . . 291

The Intertransverse Ligaments . 291
Articulation of the Atlas with the Epistro-

pheus or Axis 292

The Articular Capsules 292

The Anterior Atlantoaxial Ligament . 293

The Posterior Atlantoaxial Ligament . 293

The Transverse Ligament of the Atlas . 293
Articulations of the Vertebral Column with

the Cranium 295

Articulation of the Atlas with the

Occipital Bone 295

The Articular Capsules .... 295
The Anterior Atlantooccipital Mem-
brane 295

The Posterior Atlantooccipital Mem-
brane 296

The Lateral Ligaments .... 296
Ligaments Connecting the Axis with the

Occipital Bone 296

The Membrana Tectoria . . .296

The Alar Ligaments 296

Articulation of the Mandible 297

The Articular Capsule 297

The Temporomandibular Ligament . 297

The Sphenomandibular Ligament . . 297

The Articular Disk 298

The Stylomandibular Ligament . . . 298

Costovertebral Articulations 299

Articulations of the Heads of the Ribs . 299
The Articular Capsule .... 299
The Radiate Ligament .... 299
The Interarticular Ligament . . 300
Costotransverse Articulations . . . 300
The Articular Capsule . . . .301
The Anterior Costotransverse Liga-
ment 301

The Posterior Costotransverse Liga-
ment 301

The Ligament of the Neck of the

Rib 302

The Ligament of the Tubercle of

the Rib 302

Sternocostal Articulations 302

The Articular Capsules 302

The Radiate Sternocostal Ligaments . 302
The Interarticular Sternocostal Liga-
ment 303

The Costoxiphoid Ligaments . . . 304'

Interchondral Articulations .... 304

Costpchondral Articulations .... 304
Articulation of the Manubrium and Body of

the Sternum 304

Mechanism of the Thorax .... 304



12



CONTENTS



Articulation of the Vertebral Column with

the Pelvis 306

The Iliolumbar Ligament .... 306

Articulations of the Pelvis 306

Sacroiliac Articulation 306

The Anterior Sacroiliac Ligament . 307
The Posterior Sacroiliac Ligament. 307
The Interosseous Sacroiliac Liga-
ment . 308

Ligaments Connecting the Sacrum and

Ischium 309

The Sacrotuberous Ligament . 309
The Sacrospinous Ligament . . 309
Sacrococcygeal Symphysis .... 309
The Anterior Sacrococcygeal Liga-
ment . . 309

The Posterior Sacrococcygeal Liga-
ment 309

The Lateral Sacrococcygeal Liga-
ment 310

The Interarticular Ligaments . . 310

The Pubic Symphysis 310

The Anterior Pubic Ligament . . 310

The Posterior Pubic Ligament . . 310

The Superior Pubic Ligament . . 310

The Arcuate Pubic Ligament . . 310
The Interpubic Fribrocartilaginous

Lamina 311

Mechanism of the Pelvis . 311



ARTICULATIONS OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY.

Sternoclavicular Articulation 313

The Articular Capsule 313

The Anterior Sternoclavicular Ligament 313
The Posterior Sternoclavicular Liga-
ment 313

The Interclavicular Ligament . . . 314

The Costoclavicular Ligament . . . 314

The Articular Disk 314

Acromioclavicular Articulation . . . . 315

The Articular Capsule 315

The Superior Acromioclavicular Liga-
ment 315

The Inferior Acromioclavicular Liga-
ment 315

The Articular Disk 315

The Coracoclavicular Ligament . . . 315
The Trapezoid Ligament . . . .315

The Conoid Ligament 315

The Ligaments of the Scapula . . . .316

The Coracpacromial Ligament . . . 316

The Superior Transverse Ligament . . 317

The Inferior Transverse Ligament . . 317

Humeral Articulation or Shoulder-joint . . 317

The Articular Capsule 317

The Coracohumeral Ligament . . . 318

Glenohumeral Ligaments . . . . 318

The Transverse Humeral Ligament . 319

The Glenoidal Labrum 319

Bursae 319

Elbow-joint 321

The Anterior Ligament 321

The Posterior Ligament 322

The Ulnar Collateral Ligament . . . 322

The Radial Collateral Ligament . . 322

Radioulnar Articulation 324

Proximal Radioulnar Articulation . . 324

The Annular Ligament .... 324

Middle Radioulnar Union .... 325

The Oblique Cord 325

The Interosseous Membrane . . 325

Distal Radioulnar Articulation . . . 325

The Volar Radioulnar Ligament . 325

The Dorsal Radioulnar Ligament . 325

The Articular Disk 325

Radiocarpal Articulation or Wrist-joint . . 327

The Volar Radiocarpal Ligament . . 327

The Dorsal Radiocarpal Ligament . . 328

The Ulnar Collateral Ligament . . . 328

The Radial Collateral Ligament . . 328

Intercarpal Articulations 328

Articulations of the Proximal Row of

Carpal Bones 328



Intercarpal Articulations

Articulations of the Proximal Row of

Carpa Bones

The Dorsal Ligaments .... 328

The Volar Ligaments .... 328

The Interosseous Ligaments . . 328
Articulations of the Distal Row of

Carpal Bones 329

The Dorsal Ligaments .... 329

The Volar Ligaments .... 329

The Interosseous Ligaments . . 329
Articulations of the Two Rows of

Carpal Bones with Each Other . 329

The Volar Ligaments .... 329

The Dorsal Ligaments .... 329

The Collateral Ligaments . . . 329

Carpometacarpal Articulations .... 330

Carpometacarpal Articulation of the

Thumb 330

Articulations of the Other Four Meta-

carpal Bones with the Carpus . 331

The Dorsal Ligaments . . . .331

The Volar Ligaments . . . .331

The Interosseous Ligaments . . 331

Intermetacarpal Articulations .... 331

The Transverse Metacarpal Ligament . 331

Metacarpophalangeal Articulations . . . 332

The Volar Ligaments 332

The Collateral Ligaments .... 332

Articulations of the Digits 333



ARTICULATIONS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY.

Coxal Articulation or Hip-joint .... 333

The Articular Capsule 334

The Iliofemoral Ligament .... 335

The Pubocapsular Ligament . . . 335

The Ischiocapsular Ligament . . . 335

The Ligamentum Teres Femoris . . 336

The Glenoidal Labrum 336

The Transverse Acetabular Ligament . 336

The Knee-joint 339

The Articular Capsule 340

The Ligamentum Patellae .... 340

The Oblique Popliteal Ligament . . 340

"The Tibial Collateral Ligament ... 341
The Fibular Collateral Ligament . .341

The Cruciate Ligaments 342

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament . 342

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament . 342

The Menisci 342

The Medial Meniscus .... 343

The Lateral Meniscus .... 343

The Transverse Ligament .... 343

The Coronary Ligaments .... 343

Bursae 345

Articulations between the Tibia and Fibula . 347

Tibiofibular Articulation .... 348

The Articular Capsule .... 348

The Anterior Ligament .... 348

The Posterior Ligament . . . 348

Interosseous Membrane 348

Tibiofibular Syndesmosis .... 348

The Anterior Ligament .... 348

The Posterior Ligament . . . 348

The Inferior Transverse Ligament 349

The Interosseous Ligament . . 349

Talocrural Articulation or Ankle-joint . . 349

The Articular Capsule 350

The Deltoid Ligament 350

The Anterior Talofibular Ligament . 351

The Posterior Talofibular Ligament . 351
The Calcaneofibular Ligament . . .351

Intertarsal Articulations 352

Talocalcaneal Articulation .... 352
The Articular Capsule .... 352
The Anterior Talocalcaneal Liga-
ment 352

The Posterior Talocalcaneal Liga-
ment . . 352

The Lateral Talocalcaneal Liga-
ment . . 352

The Medial Talocalcaneal Liga-
ment 353



CONTENTS



13



Intertarsal Articulations

Talocalcaneal Articulation

The Interosseous Talocalcaneal

Ligament 353

Talocalcaneonavicular Articulation . . 353
The Articular Capsule .... 354
The Dorsal Talonavicular Ligament 354
Calcaneocuboid Articulation . . . 354
The Articular Capsule .... 354
TheDorsalCalcaneocuboidLigament 354
The Bifurcated Ligament . . . 354
The Long Plantar Ligament . . 354
The Plantar Calcaneocuboid Liga-
ment 354

The Ligaments Connecting the Calca-

neus and Navicular .... 355
The Plantar Calcaneonavicular

Ligament ... . . 355

Cuneonavicular Articulation . . 356

The Dorsal Ligaments . . . 356

The Plantar Ligaments . . . 356

Cuboideonavicular Articulation . . 356

The Dorsal Ligament . . . 357



Intertarsal Articulations

Cuboideonavicular Articulation

The Plantar Ligament .... 357
The Interosseous Ligament . . 357
Intercuneiform and Cuneocuboid Articu-
lation 357

The Dorsal Ligaments .... 357

The Plantar Ligaments .... 357

The Interosseous Ligaments . . 357

Tarsometatarsal Articulations .... 358

The Dorsal Ligaments 358

The Plantar Ligaments 358

The Interosseous Ligaments .... 358

Intermetatarsal Articulations 358

The Dorsal Ligaments 358

The Plantar Ligaments 358

The Interosseous Ligaments .... 358

The Transverse Metatarsal Ligament . 359

Metatarsophalangeal Articulations . . . 359

The Plantar Ligaments 359

The Collateral Ligaments .... 359

Articulations of the Digits 359

Arches of the Foot . 360



MYOLOGY.



MECHANICS OF MUSCLE.

The Direction of Muscle Pull
The Action of Muscle Pull on Tendon
The Strength of Muscles ....
The Work Accomplished by Muscles
The Action of Muscles on Joints



DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSCLES.

The Ventro-lateral Muscles of the Neck .
Muscles of the Shoulder Girdle and Arm

The Muscles of the Leg

The Muscles of the Head

Striped or Voluntary Muscle ....
Vessels and Nerves of Striped Muscle



TENDONS, APONEUROSES, AND FASCIA.



Tendons .

Aponeuroses

Fascia?



363
364
364
365
368



371
371
372
372
373
376



376
376
376



THE FASCIAE AND MUSCLES OF THE HEAD.
The Muscles of the Scalp.

The Skin of the Scalp 378

The Superficial Fascia 378

Epicranius 378

Occipitalis 379

Frontalis 379

Galea Aponeurotica 380

The Muscles of the Eyelid.

Orbicularis Oculi 380

Corrugator 381

The Muscles if the Nose.

Procerus ... 382

Nasalis 382

Depressor Septi 382

Dilator Naris Posterior 382

Dilator Naris Anterior 382

The Muscles of the Mouth.

Quadratus Labii Superioris 383

Caninus 383

Zygomaticus 383

Mentalis 383



Quadratus Labii Inferioris 383

Triangularis 383

Buccinator 384

Pterygomandibular Raphe .... 384

Orbicularis Oris 384

Risorius . 385



The Muscles of Mastication,



Parotideomasseteric Fascia

Masseter

Temporal Fascia

Temporalis

Pterygoideus Externus .
Pterygoideus Internus .



385
385
386
386
386
387



THE FASCIA AND MUSCLES OF THE ANTERO-
LATERAL REGION OF THE NECK.



The Superficial Cervical Muscle.



Superficial Fascia
Platysma

Variations .



The Lateral Cervical Muscles.



The Fascia Colli . .

Sternocleidomastoideus

Variations .

Triangles of the Neck



The Supra- and Infrahyoid Muscles.

Digastricus

Variations

Stylohyoideus

Variations

The Stylohyoid Ligament
Mylohyoideus

Variations

Geniohyoideus

Sternohyoideus

Variations

Sternothyreoideus

Variations

Thyreohyoideus

Omohyoideus

Variations .



The Anterior Vertebral Muscles.

Longus Colli

Longus Capitis

Rectus Capitis Anterior ....
Rectus Capitis Lateralis ....



387
388
388



388
390
390
390



391
391
392
392
392
393
393
393
393
393
393
394
394
394
394



394
395
395
395



14



CONTENTS



The Lateral Vertebral Muscles.



Scalenus Anterior
Scalenus Medius
Scalenus Posterior
Variations .



396
396
396
396



THE FASCI.E AND MUSCLES OF THE THUNK.



The Deep Muscles of the Back.



The Lumbodorsal Fascia .
Splenius Capitis
Splenius Cervicis

Variations ....
Sacrospinalis

Iliocostalis Lumborum

Iliocostalis Dorsi .

Iliocostalis Cervicis .

Longissimus Dorsi

Longissimus Cervicis .

Longissimus Capitis .

Spinalis Dorsi .

Spinalis Cervicis .

Spinalis Capitis
Semispinalis Dorsi .
Semispinalis Cervicis
Semispinalis Capitis

Multifidus

Rotatores

Interspinales . . . .

Extensor Coccygis
Intertransversarii



The Suboccipital Muscles.

RectuS Capitis Posterior Major
Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor .
Obliquus Capitis Inferior ....
Obliquus Capitis Superior ....



Online LibraryHenry GrayAnatomy of the human body → online text (page 1 of 166)