Henry John Stephen.

Mr. Serjeant Stephen's New commentaries on the laws of England : (Partly founded on Blackstone) (Volume 1) online

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MR. SERJEANT STEPHEN'S

£it\3) Commcntitrics

ON THE

LAWS OF ENGLAND

(partly founded on blackstone).

BY

HIS HONOUR JUDGE STEPHEN.

"■For hoping well to deliver myself from inistalcing, by the order and perspicuous
" expressing of that I do propound, I am otherwise zealous and affectionate to recede as
'^ little from antiquity, either in terms or opinions, as may stand with truth, and thi:
'^ proficience of knowledge." — Lord Bac. Adv. of Learning'.

i!hc ©hirtMiith (iditioii



AECHIBALD BEOWN,

Of the Middle Temple, Esq.; Darrister-at-Law.



THOROUGHLY REVISED AND MODERNISED,

AND

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME.



IJV FOUR VOLUMES.
Vol. I.



LONDON :

BUTTERWORTH & CO., 7, FLEET STREET, E.C
Xaw publisbere.

DUBLIN : HODGES, FIGGIS & CO., GRAFTON STREET.

CALCUTTA: THACKER, SPINK & CO. MELBOURNE: G. PARTRIDGE & CO

MANCHESTER : MEREDITH, RAY & LITTLER.

EDINBURGH: T. & T. CLARK; BELL & BRADPUTE.

1899.



H






LONDON :
PRINTED BY SirAW AND SONS, FETTKR LANE AND CRANE COURT, E.C.



PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION

(Ahridgecr).



Of the plan and principle of this work on the
Laws of England, it may be right here to
give some explanation. Though the celebrated
Treatise of Blackstone still remains without a
rival, the positions which it contains have been
so trenched upon by modern alterations in the
law, that if the student were to rely upon it, as
containing an accurate account of our present
system of jurisprudence, he would be sadly led
■astray. . . . But still the unimpaired portions
of that Treatise comprise many passages, which
(free in other respects from objection) are dis-
tinguished by all that grace of diction, justness
of thought, and affluence of learning, to which
the original author owed his fame ; and any new
Commentator on the Laws cannot hope to rival
these excellences; and to displace or sacrifice
them for original matter of his own, would be to
do a serious injury to the public, and even to tlie
law itself.

All passages, then, which appeared to me to
fall under the above description I have retained ;
my deviations, nevertheless, have been frequent



ifi8%



IV PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

and extensive ; and it is seldom that I have been
able to pursue the original text for several pages
in succession, without the introduction of new
matter from my own pen.

With respect to the general arrangement of the
work, it is to be remarked that the order adoj^ted
by Blackstone is, in all its principal lineaments,
derived from the Analysis of Hale ; but though
rendered venerable by the combined authority of
names like these, I have not felt myself able
to accede to it without one important alteration.
The main division, indeed, by which the body of
municipal law is severed into Rights and WrongSy
1 have deemed it expedient to retain : for that
division is founded on a natural and just distinc-
tion, and is interwoven in the whole fabric of our
law ; and the division also of "Wrongs into those
of a civil and those of a criminal nature, I have,
for similar reasons, thought it incumbent on me
to preserve. But as to the division of Rights^ the
distribution of these by Blackstone into Bights
of Persons and Rights of Things ^ is an arrangement
which is contrary to both grammatical and logical
propriety. For the rights of things can only be
understood as signifying the rights relating to
things — a sense not correctly conveyed by the
form of expression ; and are placed, besides, in
false antithesis to the rights of persons, — by
which is evidently intended the rights belonging
to persons. The arrangement in question is open,



PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION. V

moreover, to otlier objections of a weightier
description. For it determines that the law
relating to persons shall be fully discussed before
that relating to 'property has been examined, — and
yet the subject of property ought, in reason, to
take the precedence of at least that part of the
law of persons which treats of relative rights {a).
And another grave objection to the arrangement
in question is, that it fails to embrace (or to duly
embrace) the whole compass of rights ; and it
leaves, in fact, out of consideration, or gives but
an awkward and incongruous place for the con-
sideration of, a great and increasingly important
branch of the law — that, namely, which concerns
the social, as distinguished from the political,
institutions of the country : e.g., the laws relating
to the poor and to highways are treated by
Blackstone, under the pressure of this faulty
arrangement, as mere incidents respectively to the
offices of parish overseer and of parish surveyor.



(a) This did not escape the discernment of Hale: "Having done
' ' with the rights of persons, I now come to the rights of things. And
" though, according to the usual method of civilians and our antient
■" common law tractates, this comes in the second place, after the jura
*' per.'iovarion, and therefore I have herein pursued the same course,
" yet that must not be the method of a young student of the common
" law, but he must begin his study here, at the jura rerum ; for the
" former part contains matter pi'oper for the study of one that is
" well acquainted with those jura rerum." Hale's Anal. sect. 23.
This passage had not attracted my attention until my principle of
division had been fixed upon ; and its subsequent discovery was
of course calciilated to give me increased confidence in the propriety
-of my choice.

a 3



VI PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION.

Dissatisfied for tliese reasons with Blackstone's
arrangement of rights, and conceiving that it had
not become so inveterate among us as to render
its retention unavoidable, I have ventured to lay
it aside, and to adopt a different plan of dis-
tribution ; which plan will be found stated at the
commencement of Book I. of these Commentaries,
its leading principle being to make the distinction
between Persons and Things the foundation not
of a primary, but of a subordinate arrangement,
and to consider Persons as constituting the only
primary objects of the law's regard.

But the persons, whom the law is supposed
thus uniformly to contemplate, are presented,
first, in the light of insulated individuals, — and
in that capacity their personal (in other words
their bodily) rights are examined ; next, in their
connection with the things around them, — which
introduces the consideration of their rights of
property ; next, as members of families, — which
involves their rights in private relations ; and lastly,
as members of the community, — which leads to
the discussion of their rights in public relations,
or (as they may be termed more compendiously)
public rights. And, according to this order, the
absolute right uniformly takes the precedence
of the relative ; the law of property in general is
investigated before the relations of men, in regard
to property, arise for consideration ; and the
consideration of Public Bights is conveniently



PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION. Vll

sub-divided into those, on the one hand, which
concern a man in his relations to persons in
authority, — whether civil or ecclesiastical ; and
into those, on the other hand, which concern him
in his relations to his fellow citizens ; and the
entire plan of the Treatise may accordingly be
synoptically exhibited as follows : —

I. Op Personal Eights.

II. Of Eights of Property,

1. As to things real.

2. As to things personal.

III. Of Eights in Private Eelations.

1. Between master and servant.

2. Between husband and wife.

3. Between parent and child.

4. Between guardian and ward.

IV. Op Public Eights.

1. As to the civil government.

2. As to the church.

3. As to the social economy of the realm.

V. Of Civil Injuries.

Including the modes of redress.

VI. Of Crimes.

Including the modes of prosecution.



PREFACE

TO THE

THIRTEENTH EDITION.



In editing this Thirteenth Edition of "Stephen's
Blackstone," I have endeavoured to reconcile the
requirements of law students with the main-
tenance of the Treatise as a work of literary
excellence. The characteristics of the present
age are, however, very different from those
of the Blackstone period; and neither the
methods of that learned author and judge nor his
elegancies of expression are sufficiently direct
and severe (or concise) to satisfy either the wants
or the tastes of these modern times. Conse-
quently, much condensation in parts, and many
ether alterations both of language and of treat-
ment, have been necessary.

In Vol. I., besides incorporating other amend-
ments (and changes) in the law of Real Property
and of Conveyancing, I have incorporated the
provisions of the Land Transfer Act, 1897 ; and
have, in fact, attempted a detailed exposition of
these provisions, which (the measure being
already in part compulsory) are likely now to be



X PREFACE TO THE THIRTEENTH EDITION.

more widely in use than the like provisions of the
Land Transfer Act, 1875, ever were.

In Vol. II., I have more fully treated of the
essentials of a contract, and have endeavoured
also a plain exposition of the provisions of the
Workmen's Compensation Act, 1897 ; and (in
treating of the law relating to the Church) I
have not overlooked the Benefices Act, 1898 ;
and I have made numerous other minor altera-
tions and amendments in that volume.

In Vol. III., I have almost entirely re-written
the chapters relating to Civil Injuries and to the
Eemedies therefor by action, including (in par-
ticular) the " Proceedings in an Action " in the
Queen's Bench Division ; and I believe that the
imperfections which in former editions affected
this part of Stephen's have now been remedied;
and I have also added a full explanation of the
procedure on " Originating Summons " in the
Chancery Division.

If it should still be objected to this part of
Stephen's, that the retention in it of the old
distinctions among legal actions is an archaism,
I can only urge (in my justification) that the
distinctions themselves are so very serviceable
in actual business, — as the judgments of the
Common Law Judges still occasionally show, —
that I felt it would be a pitiful mistake to leave
them out; and we may, in fact, yearly anticipate
their modified revival.



PREFACE TO THE THIKTEEXTH EDITION. XI

In Vol. IV., there has been, comparatively
speaking, little to modify or alter, save so far as
the Criminal Evidence Act, 1898, has necessitated
modifications and alterations, and I have given a
very simple (but, I hope, a sufficiently full and
complete) exposition of the provisions of that
Act, and of its interpretation by the Courts up to
the date of publication.

And I may say, generally, that as regards cer-
tain specific matters, such as the Poor Laws and
Highways, Libel and Slander, the Admiralty
Jurisdiction of the County Courts, and the
Practice and Procedure in a Probate Action
and on a Divorce Petition, I am indebted for
assistance to certain gentlemen of the Bar
peculiarly versed in and acquainted with these
matters, so that these specific subjects have
additional authoritv in their treatment. And I
may add, in conclusion, that the criticisms which
the Twelfth Edition (also edited by me) has
received from various gentlemen and bodies
(occupied with, or more or less interested in,
legal education) have all been duly weighed, and
their suggestions have been carried out.

A. BROWN.

8, New Squabe,

Lincoln's Inn, W.C.
June, 1899.



CONTENTS OF THE WORK.



VOLUME I.



Introduction.

PAGE

Sect. I. — Of the Study of the Law ... ... ... ... ... 1

II. — Of the Nature of Laws in general ... ... ... 10

IIL— Of the Laws of England 16

IV. — Of the Countries suV>ject to the Laws of England ... 50

V. — Of the Kingdom of England itself ... 79



Book I.

OF PERSONAL RIGHTS.

Of Rights and Wrongs 95

Of the Right of Personal Security ... ... ... ... 96

Of the Right of Personal LiVjerty lOO



Book II.

OF RIGHTS OF PROPERTY.

As to Property in general 105



XIV CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.



PAET I.



PAGE

OF THINGS REAL 109



CHAP. I.

Of the Divisions of Things Real.

Of Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments ... ... ... 110

Of Hereditaments, Corporeal or Incorporeal ... ... ... 112



CHAP. II.

Of Tenures.

Of the Feudal System 113

Of the Introduction of that System into England 119

Of the Nature of Tenure 121

Of the different sorts of Tenure ... ... ... ... ... 123

Of Knight's Service ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 124

Of Free Socage and its Incidents ... ... ... ... ... 133

Of Petit Serjeanty, Tenure in Burgage, and Gavelkind 137

Of Copyhold 139

Of Antient Demesne ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 146

Of Customary Freehold ... ... ... ... ... ... 148

Of Tenure in Frankalmoign ... ... ... ... ... ... 149

CHAP. III.

Of Freehold Estates of Inheritance.

Of Estate 151

Of Legal and Equitable Estate 152

Of a Fee 153

Of P^states in Fee Simple 154

Of Fee Simple Absolute, Base, and Conditional 158

Of Estates Tail 160

Oi Taltarum'.'i Case 165



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. XV

CHAP. IV.

Of Freehold Estates not of Inheritance.

PAGE

Of Estates for Life, Conventional and Legal 168

Of Estovers, Waste, and Emblements ... ... ... ... 169

Of Apportionment ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 173

Of Tenant in Tail after Possibility of Issue Extinct 174

Of Tenant by the Curtesy of P^ngland 175

Of Dower 178

Of Jointure 182

CHAP. V.

Of Estates less than Freehold.

Of the Distinction between Chattel and Freehold .. . ... ... 187

Of Estates for Years 188

Oi Intere.'yse Termini ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 193

Of Tenancies from Year to Year ... ... ... ... ... 194

Of Estates at Will 196

Of Estates at Sufiferance ... ... ... ... ... ... 198

Of Emblements 199

Of Fixtures 201

Of Tenant Right and Tenant's Compensation ... ... ... 205

Of Title Deeds 207

Of Heirlooms 208

Of Animals Fertc Nafitr(v. ... ... ... ... ... ... 209

Of Shares in Public Undertakings ... ... ... ... ... 210

CHAP. VI.

Of Estates upon Condition.

Of Estates on Condition Implied ... ... ... ... ... 211

Of Estates on Condition Express ... ... ... ... ... 212

Of Conditional Limitation ... ... ... ... ... ... 212

Of the Riglit of Eutr}' on Breach of Condition subsequent ... 214

Of Conditions Impossible, Illegal, and Repugnant ... ... ... 21.")

Of Waiver of Forfeiture ... ... ... ... ... ... 216

Of Viuuni Vadium, and of Morlnnm Va<linm ... ... ... 217

Of Mortgage ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 217

Of Estates by Statute Merchant and Statute Staple 221

Of Estate by Elegit 222

Of Devises to Executors to pay Debts 223



XVI CONTENTS OV THE FIRST VOLUME.

CHAP. VII.

Of Estates in Possession, Reversion, and Remainder.

PACK

Of an Estate in Possession ... ... ... ... ... ... 225

Of Right of Possession and Right of Entry 225

Of an Estate in Reversion 226

Of Merger 228

Of an Estate in Remainder 229

Of the Rules as to the Creation of Remainders ... ... ... 232

Of Vested and Contingent Remainders ... ... ... ... 234

Of the Rules relative to Contingent Remainders ... ... 236

Of Defeating Contingent Remainders ... ... ... ... 238

Of Tru.stees to preserve Contingent Remainders ... ... 239

Oi the Rule in Shelley's Ca.^e 240

Oi the Production oi Cestui que vie ... ... ... ... 241

Of the Sale of Reversionary Interests... ... ... ... ... 242

Of Remainders and Reversions defeated by Sale of Tenant for Life 242



CHAP. VIII.

Of Estates in Severalty, Joint Tenancy, Coparcenary,
AND Common.

Of an Estate in Severalty ... ... ... ... ... ... 243

Of an P]state in Joint Tenancy ... ... ... ... ... 243

Of an Estate in Coparcenary ... ... ... ... ... ... 250

Of Tenancy in Common ... ... ... ... ... ... 254

Of Cross Remainders ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 257



CHAP. IX.

Of Uses and Trusts.

Of the Origin of Uses and Trusts 258

Of the Doctrine of Uses prior to the Statute of Uses 260

Of the Statute of Uses 264

Of the Doctrine of Uses and Trusts since the Statute 267

Of the difierent kinds of Trusts 269

Of the Estate of the Trustee 270

Of the Estate of Cestui qiie trust ... 272

Of modern Statutes as to Trust Estates ... 274



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. XVU

CHAP. X.

Of Title in General.

PAGE

Of Title 276

Of Title by Act of Law, or by Purchase 277

CHAP. XI.

Of Title by Descent.

Of the Nature of the Heir's Title in general... ... ... ... 278

Of the Inheritance Act, 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 106 279

Of tracing Descent from the Purchaser ... ... ... ... 280

Oi the Muxim Seisina/acit Stipitem ... ... ... ... 285

Of Descent to the Issue ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 287

Of the Preference of Males to Females 287

Of Primogeniture... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 287

Of the Representation of Children ... ... ... ... 288

Of the Descent to Lineal Ancestors ... ... ... ... ... 290

Of the Preference of the Paternal Line to the Maternal ... 291

Of the Descent to the Issue of Lineal Ancestors ... ... ... 292

Of Whole and Half Blood 293

Of certain Special Cases of Descent ... ... ... ... ... 295

Of the Mode of tracing and ascertaining the Heir ... ... 296

Of Entry by the Heir 297

Of Breaking the Descent ... ... ... ... ... ... 298

Of the Liability of the Heir for the Debts of the Ancestor ... 298

Of the Payment of Debts under the Land Transfer Act, 1897 301

CHAP. XII.

Of Title by Escheat.

Of the Nature and Principle of Escheat in general 302

Of Escheats propter Defectum Sangidiiis ... ... . . 303

Of Monsters 303

Of Bastards 304

Of Aliens taking by Descent 305

Oi Hscheats 2Jropter Delictum Tenentis ... ... ... ... 306

Of Attainder 306

Of Corruption of Blood ... ... ... ... ... ... 307

Of Forfeiture in case of Trust and Mortgage Estates 309

Of the Remission of Forfeitures ... ... ... ... ... 310

s.c. — VOL. I. b



XVI 11 CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

CHAP. XIII.
Of Title by Occupancy.

PAGK

Of the Nature of the Title bjf Occupancy ... ... ... ... 311

Of its Application ... ... ... ... ... ... 311

Of Adverse Possession ... ... ... .. ... ... ... 311

Of Common and Special Occupancy ... ... ... ... 312

Of Alluvion and Dereliction ... ... ... ... ... ... 314

Of Boundary Rivers ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 315

CHAP. XIV.

Of Title by Forfetture.

Of Alienation in Mortmain ... ... ... ... ... 316

Of Gifts to Charitable Uses 320

Of Alienation by particular Tenants ... ... ... ... ... 324

Of Disclaimer ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 325



CHAP. XV.

Of Title by Alienation in General.

Of the An tient Law as to Alienation ... ... ... ... ... 327

Of the Present Law on the subject 328

Of the Capacity to Aliene ... ... ... ... ... ... 331

Of Alienation by Persons attainted ... ... ... ... 331

Of Alienation by Corporations .. . ... .... ... ... ... 332

Of Alienation by Idiots and Lunatics ... ... ... ... 333

Of Alienation by Infants 333

Of Alienation by Married Women... ... ... ... ... 334

Of Alienation by Aliens 335

Of the Disclaimer (Partial or Total) of the Alienee ... ... 335



CHAP. XVI.

Of Deeds.

Of tlic Nature of Deeds ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 337

Of Indentures and of Deeds-poll ... ... ... ... ... 33^

Of the Requisites of Deeds 339

Of the Premises 340



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. XIX

CHAP. XVl.—(contmued.) i'ACK

Oi the HabendtiTH and Teneyidum ... ... ... ... ... 341

Of the Reddendum ...
Of Conditions



Of Warranty ...

Of Covenants

Of the Conclusion and Date

Of Reading the Deed

Of Scaling

Of Signing

Of Delivery

Of the Attestation

Of the Avoidance of Deeds .

Of the Consideration

Of Voluntary Conveyances . .



342
342
343

344
345
346
346
347
347
348
349
350
350



Of the Construction of Deeds 351



CHAP. XVII.

Of Ordinary Conveyances — and, First, of those
AT THE Common Law.

Of the different kinds of Conveyances 354

Of the Feoffment 354

Of Livery in Deed, and in Law ... ... ... •• .•• 355

Of the Tortious Feoffinent 355

Of the Grant 358

Of the Lease 359

Of Agreements to Let ... ... ... ••• ••• •■• 360

Of Covenants rvmning with the Land ... ... ... 361

Of the Exchange 362

Of the Partition 363

Of the Pvelease 364

Of the Confirmation 367

Of the Surrender 368

Of the Assignment ... ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• 370

Of the Defeasance 372

Of the Lease and Release ... ... • ■ • • • • 372



CHAP. XVIII.

Of Conveyances under the Statute of Uses.

Of the Principle of a Conveyance under the Statute of Uses . . . 374

Of the Feoffment to Uses 374

Of the Covenant to stand Seised to Uses 375

b 2



XX CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME.

CHAP. XVlU.-iroiitinued.) page

Of the Bargain and Sale ... ... ... ... ... ... 375

Of the Lease and Release ... ... ... ... ... ... 378

Of the Grant to Uses 379

Of Limitations to Uses in general 380

Of Uses in Ftituro ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 383

Of Powers, and of Estates Executed and Executory 385

Of Innocent Conveyances ... ... ... ... ... ... 388

Of Perpetuities 389

Of Accumulations ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 390



CHAP. XIX.

Op Conveyances by Tenants in Tail and Married Women.

Of the Fine and Recovery 392

OfFines 393

Of Recoveries ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 397

Of Deeds to Lead and to Declare Uses ... ... ... ... 400

Of Disentailing Deeds ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 401

Of Deeds Acknowledged 407



CHAP. XX.

Of the Conveyance by Devise.

Of Devises generally ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 409

Of the Power of Devising ... ... ... ... ... ... 410

Of the Solemnities required ... ... ... ... ... ... 412

Of the Construction of De\-ises ... ... ... ... ... 417

Of the Operation of Devises in Conveying Real Estate ... ... 425



CHAP. XXI.

Of Extraordinary Conveyances, — or those by Matter of
Record.

Of Private Acts of Parliament .. . ... ... ... ... ... 428

Of Royal Grants 430

Of tlie Construction of the Royal Grant ... ... ... ... 432



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME. XXI

CHAP. XXII.
Of Copyholds.

PAGE

Of the Nature of Copyholds in general ... ... .. .. 435

Of Estovers and Waste ... ... ... . ... ... 437

Of Quit Rents 438

Of Fines 438

Of Heriots 439

Of the Liability of Copyholds to Debts ... ... ... ... 440

Of the Enfranchisement of Copyholds ... ... .. ... 441

Of the Alienation of Copyholds ... ... ... ... ... 441

Of Surrender ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 442

Of Admittance 444

Of Devises of Copyholds ... ... ... ... 445

Of the Conveyance of Copyhold Estates Tail 449

Of the Conveyance of Copyholds b}' Married Women ... ... 449

Of the Conveyance of Equitable Estates in Copyholds . . . 450

Of the Copyhold Act, 1894 450

CHAP. XXIII.

Of Incorporeal Hereditaments, called also Purely
Incorporeal Hereditaments.

Of Incorporeal Hereditaments in general ... ... ... ... 456

Of Commons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 457

Of Ways, and of Watercourses ... ... ... ... . . 465

Of Lights 467

Of Franchises ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 468

Of Rents 476

Of the Incidents generally of Incorporeal Hereditaments ... ... 484

Of Prescription ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 487

Of Prescription at Common Law ... ... ... ... ... 488

Of Prescription under 2 & 3 Will. 4, c. 71 491

Of the Extinction of Incorporeal Hereditaments ... ... ... 494

Of the Abandonment of Lights and Watercourses ... ... 495



CHAP. XXIV.

Of the Conveyancing and Land Acts, 1881 — 1892,
and other Acts.

Of the Conveyancing Acts, 1881 to 1892 497

Of the Settled Land Acts, 1882 to 1890 516

Of the Settled Estates Act, 1877 539



XXll CONTENTS OF THE FIKST VOLUME.

CHAP. XXV.
Of Registration of Title to Land.

PAGE

Of Registration generally ... ... ... ... ... ••• •>'!-

Of tlie Land Registry ... ... ... ... ... ... •)43

Of the Lands Charges, &c. Act, 1888 .544

Of the Land Transfer Acts, 1875 and 1897 o46

Of Official Certificates of Searches ... ... ... ... ... 559

Of the Declaration of Title Act, 1862 560

CHAP. XXVI.

Of the Death Duties on Land.

Of the Succession Duty ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 563

Of the Estate Duty 568

Of the Settlement Estate Duty 574



INDEX 577 -622



( xxiii )



VOLUME II.



Book II.

OF RIGHTS OF PROPERTY— continatd.



PART II.

OF THINGS PERSONAL.

CHAP. I.
Ok Things Personal in General and of Property therein.

PAGE

Of Chattels Personal ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1

Of Moveables ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2

Of Animals Fern Naturte ... ... ... ... ... ... S



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