Henry Jones.

A critical account of the philosophy of Lotze; the doctrine of thought (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 29)
Online LibraryHenry JonesA critical account of the philosophy of Lotze; the doctrine of thought (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 29)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


DSTl



,.r^



A HISTORY OF ^

BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA



BY y
ROBERT WILLIAM ROGERS

PH.D. (LEIPZIG), D.D., LL.D., F.R.G.S., PROFESSOR IN DREW
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, MADISON, NEW JERSEY



IN TWO VOLUMES
VOLUME II




NEW YORK : EATON & MAINS

CINCINNATI : JENNINGS & PYE

1900



Copyright, iqoo, by

EATON & MAINS

New York

.A.11 Rights Reserved



CONTENTS.



BOOK IIi: THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA.

CHAPTER I.

The Beginnings of Assyria.



The settlers of Assyria came from Babylonia

The earliest rulers called IshakJcu ....

Bel-Kapkapu prince of Asshur 1700 B. C. .

Bel-bani ; Thutmosis III invades Asia

Karaindash and Asshur-bel-nisheshu .

Puzur- Asshur, Asshur-nadin-akhe, and Asshur-uballit

Muballitat-Sheru'a marries king of Babylon

A letter of Asshur-uballit to Amenophis IV. .

Bel-nirari and Pudi-ilu, about 1360

Adad-nirari I, about 1345 B. C.

Contests with Kurigalzu II and Nazi-Maruttash

The great conquests of Shalmanescr I . . .

The building of Calah ; Tukulti-Ninib king 1290

He conquers Babylon .......

His was the most brilliant reign up to this time .
Assyrian progress checked by Babylonian rebellion
Asshurnazirpal I, Asshur-narara, and Nabu-daian
Bel-kudur-usur, Ninib-apal-esharra, Asshur-dan, and
Mutakkil-Nusku .....

Asshur-rish-ishi, about 1140 B. C, .

His successor Tiglathpileser I . . . .



PAGE

1
2

3
4
5
6



9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19
20



iv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER II.

TlGLATIIPILESER I AND IIlS SONS.

PAGE

Tiglathpileser I, the grand monarch of western Asia , 21

The Mushke a menace to Assyria . . . . 2-1

Tiglathpileser conquers them 23

And establishes supremacy over Kummukh . . 24

Invasion of the lands of Shubari, Alzi, and Purukhumzi 25

Campaigns against Kharia and Qurkhi ... 26
Invasion of the lands of Nairi . . . . ,27

Sini of Daiyaeni 28

The king's boasts of his conquests . . . .29

His building enterprises . . . . . . 30

End of his reign ........ 31

Estimate of his success ...... 32

Asshur-bel-kala and Shamshi-Adad . . .33, 34

CHAPTER III.

Increase of Assyrian Power over Babylonia.
The dynasty of the Sea Lands ; Sibar-shikhu (1074-

1057) 35

Ea-mukin-zer to Silanim-shukamuna ... 36
The Kassite influence in this dynasty . . . .37
Appearance of the Chaldeans; Nabu-ukin-abli . 38

Developments in Syria and Palestine . . . .39
Migrations of the Aramaeans ..... 40
Their settlements and j)rogress in commerce . ,41
The Hebrew conquest of Palestine .... 42

Assyria between 1050 and 950 B. C 43

Tiglathpileser II, Asshur-dan II, and Adad-nirari II 44
Tukulti-Ninib II, 880-8G5 45

CHAPTER IV,

Reign of Assiiurnazirpal.
The beginning of the reign of Asshurnazirpal . . 46
Historical matei'ial of his reign . . . . 47

Conquests in the land of Nimme . . . . .48



CONTENTS. V

PAGE

Invasion of Qurkhi of Betani . . , . , 49

Aramaean communities along the Euphrates . . 60

The surrender of Bit-Khalupe . . . . 51

Revolt of Khula 52

The rebuilding of Tuskha 53

Uprising of Zab-Dadi (882) 54

The collection of tribute as a military necessity . 55
Its careful gathering ....... 56

The great westward campaign of STO ... 57

Preparations to restore the temple in Sippar . .58

Further revolts among the Aramaeans ... 59

Asshurnazirpal founds new cities on the Euphrates . 60

Destruction of Kap-rabi . . . . . . 61

The success attained in compelling tribute paying . 62

Character of the Assyrian army .... 63

The Ilittite city of Carchemish entered . . .64

The state of Patin ; Lubarna ..... 65

Invasion of the far west . . . . . .66

The west sends j) resents to the Assyrian conqueror 67

Asshurnazirpal on Mount Amanus . . .68

The final campaigns of his reign .... 69

Character of Assyrian budding . . . . .70

Canal building; end of reign . . . . . 71

CHAPTER V.

SlIALMANESER II TO AsSIlUR-NIRAlM II.

Inscriptions of Shalmaneser II . . . . .72

Tlis long series of campaigns under personal command 73
Rebellion in Bit-Adini ...... 74

A union for defense in the west .... 75

Shalmaneser's account of his western campaign . 76, 77
Tlie course of the campaign to Qarqar . . . 78

The battle of Qarqar 79

Second invasion of the west in 849 .... 80
The invasion in 846 and again in 842 . . . .81
Jehu paj^s tribute to Shalmaneser .... 82
The comparative failure of these western invasions . 83



CONTENTS.



PAGE



Campaigns into Urartu (Chaldia) .... 84

The defeat of Arame of Chaldia 85

Cluildia invaded again in 833 and 829 ... 86
Campaigns in Namri ....... 87

Conquests in Khubushkia ..... 88

Interference in Babylonia 89

Assyrian protectorate over Babylonia . . . 90
Rebellion at the close of Shalmaneser's reign . .91
Shamshi-Adad becomes king ..... 92

Successful comjDaign in Nairi . . . . .93

Campaigns west, north, and south .... 94

War with Babylonia ....... 95

Adad-nirari III king ...... 96

Campaigning as far as the Caspian Sea . . .97
Attempts to assimilate Babylonia with Assyria . 98
Survey of his reign ....... 99

Shalmaneser III king . . . . . .100

Asshur-dan III king ....... 101

Rebellions ; the eclipse of 763 .... 102

Reign of Asshur-nirari III, peaceful decadence . .103

CHAPTER VI.

The Reigns of Tiglathpileser III and Shalma-
neser IV.
Change wrought by rebellion of 746 . . . .104

Character and training of Tiglathpileser III . . 105
His humble origin ....... 106

Destruction of his inscriptions by Esarhaddon . 107

His first campaign directed against Babylonia . . 108
Continuous victories in Babylonia . . . . 109

New administration of Babylonia . . . .110

Babylonia completely subjected to Assyria . . Ill

Victories east of Assyria 112

Great difficulties in Urartu 113

Sarduris II king of Chaldia, and his conquests . .114
Conquered by Tiglathpileser III . . . .115
Effect of this Assyrian success . . . . .116



CONTENTS. vii

PAGE

Reduction of Arpacl 117

Attempts to win back Naivi . . . . .118

Azariah of Judah begins a new confederation . 119

Meuahem of Samaria surrenders to Tiglathpileser . 120
Conquest of Syria . . . . . . .121

Aramaean communities rebel and are conquered by

their governors . . . . . .122

Renewed attack upon Chaldia . . . . .123

Western campaign in 734 ..... 124

Gaza taken 125

Invasion of hill country of Palestine . . .126
Opportunity for new western alliance . . .127

Perplexities of Ahaz . . . . . .128

Conquest of part of Samaria , . . . .129

Rezin defeated; Arabia invaded . . . . 130

Damascus taken in 732 ...... 131

Reign of Nabonassar in Babylonia . . . .132

Invasion of Babylonia in 731 . . . . .133

Ukinzer retires to Sapia ...... 134

Sapia taken and Ukinzer deposed .... 135

Tiglathpileser III proclaimed king of Babylon in 728 136
End of his reign ........ 137

Estimate of his ability and character . . . 138
Shalmaneser IV becomes king ..... 139

Changes in Palestine during the previous reign 140, 141
The situation in Egypt ...... 142

Hope in Israel for Egyptian alliance . . . 143
Iloshea refuses tribute in 725 ..... 144

Shalmaneser invades Samaria . . . . .145

Siege of the city; end of his reign . . . 146, 147

CHAPTER VII.

The Reign of Sargon II.

Sargon II, king and usurper . , . . .148

His great jjioblems . . . . , . .149

The fall of Samaria in 722 150

Colonization in Samaria . . . . . .151



viii CONTENTS.

PAGE

Merodach-balaclan takes Babylonia . , . .152
Sargon makes unsuccessful campaign against him . 153
Rebellion in the west in Hamath .... 154

Gaza and Samaria join in it , . , . .155
Victory over confederates at Raphia . . . .156

Rebellions in the north . . . . . .157

C'archemisli becomes an Assyrian province . . . 158
Attack on Urartu in 716. . . . . . 159

Rusas of Chaldia the chief object of the campaign . 160
Which is only partially successful . . . . 161

Invasion of western Media . . . . . ,162

Increasing success over Rusas . . . . .163

Expedition into Arabia . . . . . .164

Campaign against Rusas begun again . . . 165

Argistis II king of Chaldia 166

Small undertakings in Media and in Tabal . .161

Destruction of Melid 168

Conquest of Ashdod, Gath, and Ashdudimmu . . 169
Survey of the first part of the reign . . . 170
Merodach-baladan and his difficulties in Babylonia 171, 172
Sargon looked to by Babylonians as a deliverer . .173
Sargon invades Babylonia . . . . .174
And is proclaimed shakkanak on New Year's Day, 709 175

176

177

178

. 179

180

1, 182



Campaign against Merodach-baladan

Babylonia pacified ; the governor of Que attacks the

Mushke

Success against the Mushke ; Urartu revives .
Sargon's last campaign .....

Building operations ....••

Survey of his reign . . . . . .1'



CHAPTER VIII.

The Reign of Sennacherib.

Beginning of his reign ; authorities

The situation in Babjdonia . . . .

His determination to set aside Babylonian pride



183
184
185



C0!^TENTS. ix

PAGE

The Babylonian people refuse to acknowledge him as

legitimate king . . . . . . .186

Marduk-zakir-shumu and Merodach-baladan . . 187

Embassy to Hezekiah 188

Sennacherib's invasion of Babylonia . . . 189
Campaign against Ellipi . . . . . .190

The great invasion of the west in 701 . . . 191
The political situation in Judah . . . . .192

The Ethioj^ian dynast}^ in Egypt . , . .193
A rebellion against Assyria begins in Eki'on . . 194
Sennacherib attacks the Phoenician cities . , 195
Most of Syria submits ...... 196

The fall of Ashkelon, Beth-Dagon, and Joppa . 197
Battle with the Egyptians at Altaku . . . .198

The fortified cities of Judali taken . . . 199

The humiliation of Hezekiah ..... 200

Negotiations between the Assyrians and the Jews . 201
The advance of Tirhaqa ...... 202

Destruction of Sennacherib's army . . . 203

His failure to capture Jerusalem .... 204

Disturbances begin again in Babylonia . . , 205
Death of Merodach-baladan ..... 206

Further troubles in Babylonia .... 207

Elaraites invade Babylonia ..... 208

Mushezib-Marduk king of Babylon in 602 . . 209

The battle of Khalule 210

Destruction of Babylon in 689 . . . 211, 212
The folly and the sadness of this act . . . 213

Arabia invaded again . . . . . . 214

Estimate of Sennacherib's reign . . . .215

CHAPTER IX.

The Reigx of Esarhaddon.
Beginning of his reign ; authorities . . . 216

Proclaimed shakkanak of Babylon. . . . .217
Difficulty of learning the order of events in his reign;

determines to rebuild Babvlon . . . 218



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Castigation of the Chaldeans 219

Punishment of Bit-Dakkuri 220

Reduces the Gambuli to subjection .... 221

Invasion of the west 222

A new confederation opposes him .... 223
Sidon destroyed ....... 224

The booty of the city 225

Tyre also attacked and besieged .... 226
But the city could not be taken .... 227

The campaign extended into Palestine . . . 228
The first invasion of Egypt in 673 .... 229
Memphis plundered and destroyed . . . 230

Reorganization of the country . . . . .231
Melukhkha and Arabi punished .... 232
A king and queen in Arabi as joint rulers . . 233

Indo-European migrations ..... 234
Esarhaddon's victory over Ishpakai .... 235
The Indo-Europeans invade Media . . . 236

Expedition to help Median pi-inces imsuccessful . 237
The nomadic immigrants overspread the country east

of Assyria 238

The Scythians 239

The great danger to Assyria of this migration . 240
A rebellion in Assyria ; campaign in Egypt . .241
Esarhaddon provides by will for the succession . 242

Esarhaddon dies in 668 243

The great success of his reign . . . 244, 245

CHAPTER X.

The Reign of Asshukbanapal.

Asshurbanapal ; authorities for his reign . . 246

His inscriptions beautifully written .... 247

Difficulty of ascertaining the order of events . 248

Narrative of Esarhaddon's third expedition to Egypt 249

Asshurbanapal occupies Memphis ... . 250
Ferocity of Asshurbanapal in Egypt . . .251

Tanut-Amon (Tandamani) seizes Thebes . . . 252



CONTENTS. xi

PAGE

13ut is conquered by the Assyrians .... 253

Impossibility of holding Egypt ..... 254

Campaign against Tyre . . . . . .255

Gyges of Lydia and his dealings with Asshurbanapal . 256
Invasion of the land of Man . . . . .257

The sons of Gagi; Elam 258

Asshurbanapal shows favor to certain Elamites . 259
Insurrection among the Gambuli .... 260

Shamash-shum-ukin's rule in Babylon . , .261

His ambition for independence 262

Starts numerous rebellions against Assj'ria . . 263
Plots revealed to Asshurbanapal .... 264

Asshurbanapal laments his brother's unfaithfulness . 265
And receives a favorable omen for himself . . 266
Elamite support withdrawn from the Babylonians . 267
Asshurbanapal's terrible ])unishment of the Babylo-
nians ........ 268

Also punishes Elam ....... 269

For the assistance given to Nabu-bel-shume . . 270
Dur-Undasi taken; Ummanaldash escapes . . . 271
Immense plunder secured ..... 272

Elam yields to superior force . . . ' .273
The folly of this destruction of Elam . . .274

Punishment of Arabians 275

New alliances against the Assyrians . . . 276

Peaceful relations with Urartu ..... 277

Building operations ....... 278

The collection of the great librar}-^ . . . .279

The glory and the faihire of his reign . " 280, 281, 282

CHAPTER XI.

The Fall of Assyria,
Asshur-etil-ili-ukinni king of Assyria . . .283

His poor building work; meager knoAvledge of his

reign .....-•• 284
Sin-shum-lishir; Sin-shar-ishkun .... 285

Authorities for the events of his reign . • . 286



xii CONTENTS.

PAGE

He invades Babylonia 28V

Tlie Manda 288

Advance of the Manda against Nineveh . . . 289
The plunder of Nineveh as a reward for its enemies 290
The siege of Nineveh by the Manda . . . 291

The city taken and plundered ..... 292
Tlie complete destruction of the city . . . 293
Tlie division of its territory .... 294, 295



BOOK IV: THE HISTORY OF THE CHAL-
DEAN EMPIRE.



CHAPTER I.

The Reigx of Nabopolassar.

Asshurbanapal and Kandalanu the same person . . 297
The beginning of a new revolt in Babylonia . . 298
The Assyrians still hold part of Babylonia in the reign

of Sin-shar-ishkun ..... 299

The Chaldean supremacy over the Babylonians . . 300
The origin and first appearance of the Chaldeans . 301
Their first experiences in government .... 302

Attempts to Avin Babylon 303

Diffei-ent Chaldean communities 304

Death of Asshurbanapal offers a new opportunity . 305
Nabopolassar's kingdom was Chaldean . . . 306
Abydenus's account of Nabopolassar . . . 307

Inscriptions of Nabopolassar 308

Canal digging; Egypt under Necho II . . . 309
Necho's expedition against Assyria . . . .310
Battle of Megiddo; death of Josiah . . . 311

Necho master of Palestine 312

Battle of Carchemish 313

Survey of Nabopolassar's reign . . . 314, 315



CONTENTS.



xiu



CHAPTER II.
The Reign of Nebuchadrezzar.



PACK

316
31V
318
319
320



Nebuchadrezzar becomes king 604 B. C.

Jehoiakim of Judah and Jeremiah .

The first siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar .

The city taken ; seven thousand people deported

Hophra, king of Egypt, incites Syria to rebellion

The rebellion begun in Edom, Moab, and other places 321

Embassy from these people asks Judah to join . 322

The matter much discussed in Judah .... 323

Judah rebels; Jerusalem besieged again . . . 324

Determination and confidence in the city; warnings . 325

Jeremiah counsels submission .... * 326

Egyptian allies driven back homeward . . .32*7

Siege begun anew 328

The city taken 329

Zedekiah punished 330

Jerusalem plundered . . . . • • .331

The city destroyed; population deported - . 332

Gedaliah governor; Jews emigrate to Egypt . . 333

The Chaldean policy and its success

The Jews survive their captivity

The punishment of Tyre begun

Chaldeans not seamen; siege of Tj-re .

Capitulation of the city .

Nebuchadrezzar invades Egypt in 567

And secures heavy booty

His campaigns comparatively few

Literature of his building operations

Rebuilding of the walls of Babylon .

Construction of outer wall and moat

The city rendered impregnable .

New streets and massive gateways.

Temple reconstructions

Repairing of canals

Temples of Borsippa repaired



334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349



xiv CONTENTS.

PAGE

And the walls reconstructed 350

Death of Nebuchadrezzar; his madness . . . 351
His record as a builder, a patron of letters and warrior 352
His piety 353

CHAPTER HI.

The Last Years of the Chaldean Empire.

Evil-merodach delivers Jehoiachin from j^rison . . 354
He is assasinated ....... 355

Nergal-shar-usur follows the example of Nebuchad-
rezzar ........ 356

His work on canals and palaces .... 357

The brief reign of Labashi-Marduk . . .358
Nabonidus made king, and begins building operations 359
His peculiar interest in the foundation stones of build-
ings 360

His archaeological and historical researches . . 361
He pays little attention to statecraft . . .362
But makes his son, Belshazzar, regent . . . 363
Nabonidus rebuilds the temple of the sun at Sii)par . 364
Restoration of the temple E-ulbar . . .365
Rebuilding of the temple of sin in Harran . 366, 367
Neglect of the duties of kingship .... 368

The growth of the power of the Manda . . . 369
Cyrus king of Anshan ...... 370

Cyrus conquers Astyages . . . . .371

And then overwhelms Crcesus ... . 372

Asia Minor a part of the Persian empire . . 373
Nabonidus makes no preparations for defense . . 374
Cyrus invades Babylonia . . . . 375, 376

Nabonidus makes provision for his gods . . .377
Sippar taken; Babylon entered .... 378

Babylon receives Cyrus with acclaim . . . 379

Babylon a Semitic center of civilization . . . 380
Its final end ........ 381



CONTENTS.



APPENDIX.

A.

Literature.

PAGE

Excavations and Decipherment ..... 383
Histories of Babylonia and Assyria . . .384

General Histories 385, 386

Bibliography . 387

B.

The Destruction of Sennacherib's Army.
The Egyptian tradition as reported by Herodotus 387, 388

C.

The Defenses of Babylon.

Herodotus's account of the defenses of Babylon . 388-391
Nebuchadrezzar's account .... 392-395



A HISTORY

OF

BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.



BOOK III:

THE HISTORY OF ASSYRIA.



CHAPTER I.

THE BEGINNINGS OF ASSYRIA.

Of the period when the first settlers of a Se-
mitic race entered Assyria nothing is known, but
all things point to their coming from Babylonia.
The oldest traditions of the Semitic peoples con-
nect the Assyrians with the Babylonians, and the
earliest titles of their rulers point to dependence
upon the previous civilization in the south. We
are unable to trace the political and social history
of Assyria to any point at all approaching the
vast antiquity of Babylonia.

There is evidence, as already seen, that the city
of Nineveh was in existence at least three thousand
years before Christ, but of the men who built it and
reigned in it we know absolutely nothing. As in
Babylonia, we are confronted in the beginnings of



2 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

Assyrian history only by a name liere and there
of some early ruler of whose deeds we have only
the simplest note, if indeed we have any at all.
The first Assyrian raler bears the title of Ishak-
Jcu, which seems to mean priest-prince, and im-
plies subjection to some other ruler elsewhere.
These early rulers must have been subject princes
of the kings in Babylonia, for there is no evi-
dence yet found to connect them with any other
state, while their traditional connections are all
with the southern kingdom. The names of sev-
eral of these Isliahke have come down to us, but
we are unhappily not able to arrange them in any
definite order of chronological sequence. Appar-
ently the first of them are Ishme-Dagan and his
son, Shamshi-Adad I. The latter of these built a
great temple in the city of Asshur and dedicated
it to the gods Anu and Adad. We have no cer-
tain indications of the date of these rulei*s, but we
are probably safe in the assertion that they ruled
about 1830-1810 B. C After a short interval,
probably, there follow two other priest-princes,
whose names are Igur-Kapkapu and Shamshi-
Adad II.' The names of two other Ishakke have
also come down to us, Khallu and Irishum," but
their date is unknown.

' The date rests upon a statement in the inscriptions of Tiglathpileser I.
See above, vol. i, p. 326.

* There is a little inscription of Shamshi-Adad II, published I R. 6, No.
1, and republished by Winckler, Zeitschrifl fiir Assi/riologie, ii, plate iii.
No. 9, translated by Schrader in Keilinschrift. BibL, i, p. 2.

3 I R. «, No. 2 ; Winckler, ibid., No. 10. •,



THE BEGINNINGS OF ASSYRIA. 3

These six names are all that remain of the his-
tory of the early government of Assyria. At this
period, about 1800 B. C, the chief city was Asshur,
then and long after the residence of the ruler.
There is no hint in these early texts of hegemony
over other cities ; though Nineveh certainly, and
other cities probably, were then in existence. The
population was probably small, consisting, in its
ruling classes at least, of colonists from Babylonia.
There may have been earlier settlers among whom
the Semitic invaders found home, as there were in
Babylonia when the Semites first appeared in that
land, but of them we have no certainty. It is an
indistinct picture which Ave get of these times in
the temperate northern land, but it is a picture of
civilized men M'ho dwelt in cities, and built tem-
ples in which to worship their gods, and who car-
ried on some form of government in a tributary or
other sul)ject relation to the great culture laud ,
which they had left in the south. The later As-
syrian people had but faint memory of these times,
and to them, as to us, they were ancient days.

At about 1700 B. C. the priest-prince ruling in
Asshur was Bel-Kapkapu, according to a state-
ment of Adad-Nirari III (811-783), a later king
of Assyria, while Esarhaddon would have us be-
lieve that he was himself a direct descendant of
a king, Bel-bani, and, though we may put no faith
in such genealogical researches, perhaps greater
credence may be given the other historical state-
ment with which the name of Bel-bani is fol-



4 HISTORY OF BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

lowed/ According to the historiographers of
Esarhaddon, Bel-bani was the first Ishakhu of
Asshur who adopted the title of king, having re-
ceived the office of king from the god Marduk
himself. If there be any truth at all in these
statements, we must see in Bel-bani the first king
of Assyria, but the fact is empty of real meaning,
whether true or not, for we know nothing of the
king's personality or works.

After these names of shadowy personalities there
comes a great silent period of above two hundred
years, in which we hear no sound of any movements
in Assyria, nor do we know the name of even one
ruler." At the very end of this period (about 1490
B. C.) all western Asia was shaken to its founda-
tions by an Egyptian invasion. Thutmosis III,'
freed at last from the restraint of Hatshepsowet,
his peace-loving sister or aunt, had swept along the
Mediterranean coast to Carmel and over the spur

' Whatever may be thought of Esarhaddon's statements concerning Bel-
bani there is at least evidence that a king of this name actually existed,
for Scheil has found a tablet dated in the reign of Bel-bani and written in
archaic Babylonian script {Recueil de Travanx, xix, p. 59).

^ It is quite probable that our ignorance of this period is due simply to
the fact that excavations hitherto made in Assyria have been chiefly upon
sites, such as Kuyunjik and Khorsabad, famous rather in the later than in
the earlier periods of Assyrian history. When Kal'ah Shergat, the site of
ancient Asshur, is explored we may perhaps be able to fill out some of the
lacimcc in the earliest times.

^ Hatshepsowet, Thutmosis II, and Thutmosis III reigned together from
about 1516 to 1449. It was in the twenty-second year that the advance
began upon Syria, Thutmosis III being then sole ruler of Egypt. See
Petrie, Hisiori/ of Egypt during the XVIlth and XVlIIth Dynasties, 3d
ed., 1899, and Steiudorff, Die BlMezeit des Pharaonen Reichs. Leipzig,
1900.



THE BEGINNINGS OF ASSYRIA. 5

of the hill to the plain of Esdraelon. At Megiddo
the allies met him in defense of Syria, if not of all
western Asia, and were crushingly defeated.^ The
echo of that victory resounded even in Assyria, and
whoever' it was who then reigned by the Tigris
made haste to send a "great stone of real lapis
lazuli"' and other less valuable gifts in token of



Online LibraryHenry JonesA critical account of the philosophy of Lotze; the doctrine of thought (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 29)