actors in the tragedy were not likenesses and that the scene of the
life and death struggle was not accurately represented.
No lawyer of the New Haven Bar was more distinguished for high
quality, old school manners, than Hon.
Alfred Blackman, elected
Mayor in 1865. He died April 28, 1880, and at a Bar meeting held
to take suitable action, ex-Governor Charles R. IngersoU said, dur-
ing his remarks upon that occasion: "No one was better known
upon our streets, and his affable presence, companionable ways and
shrewd and lively conversation, brought to him from all pursuits
warm, personal friends." He had a most felicitous way of encoun-
tering rudeness and stupidity on the part of persons with whom he
was brought in contact, for it was then that his exceeding urbanity
was most scrupulously and effectively exercised. All citizens knew
him. He was sensitive whenever his thoroughly democratic sym-
pathies were in any way assaulted. He knew Professor Silliman,
and the professor knew him. But frequently when the two men
happened to pass each other on the street, Professor Silliman would
not appear to be aware of the circumstance. He would be glancing
upward toward the sky or across the street, or would be taking out
or putting into his pocket, his handkerchief, so that he would not
see the polite bow of T^idge Blackman. The latter fancied that
Professor Silliman's behavior savored of Hillhouse avenue aristoc-
racy, offensively displayed, and once called the attention of a friend
to the matter. Said he : " I do not know why Professor Silliman, who
is walking this w^ay, will not see me as we pass each other, but please
note that he will be doing something to prevent him. As the two
men neared each other Professor Silliman took a look at the sky
and did not appear to see anybody. A short time afterward during
the mayoralty of Henry Peck, the President of the United States—
128 THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE.
James K. Polk — was the guest of the city and had a fine reception
in the State House. Hon. Alfred Blacknian, as chairman of the com-
mittee, introduced some of the leading citizens of New Haven to the
country's chief magistrate. The big doors at the north and south
ends of the building were opened wide, the President and his sup-
porters standing on the floor of the main hall, near the north doors,
and a throng of gentlemen passed through the hall from south to
north. The second man to be introduced to the President, was
Theodore D. Woolsey. Mr. Blackman, impressively and with much
polish of manner, introduced President Woolsey, of Yale, to Presi-
dent Polk, the latter making a remark attesting his gratification at
meeting so renowned a scholar and eminent man. Following Presi-
dent Woolsey were some of the college faculty, and next to Presi-
dent Woolsey approached Professor Silliman. Judge Blackman
had seen him in the line. As he reached the proper place, Judge
Blackman said to him :
" Do you wish to be introduced to the President 1 "
"Yes, sir," said Professor Silliman.
"What name ?" enquired the polite committee-man.
Raising his voice a little and inclining his head toward the pro-
fessor, Judge Blackman again enquired : " What name did vou
"Silliman," once more announced the owner of the name,
evidentlv astonished at not being instantlv recognized.
"Ah! Yes!" Turning toward the President, the introduction
was effected. " President Polk — Silliman."
The President, taking his cue from the cnrt method of the introduc-
ing committee-man, nodded to the professor as though somewhat
surprised and in a moment another gentleman was being politelv
"I r-a-t-h-e-r think," remarked Judge Blackman, to his friend
whom he met on Church street, soon after the reception was over,
" that the next time we happen to meet. Professor Silliman will
THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE. 129
really recollect me. I think he will know me well enough to see
me." James Buchanan visited New^ Haven, at the same time with
President Polk. He was then Secretarv of State. Dr. Plinv A.
Jewett was chief marshal of the occasion.
In 1854, Henry Dutton was the candidate of the whigs for
governor. The special interests which engaged the attention of the
people, was the anti-Nebraska movement, the Maine liquor law, the
Air Line Railroad and to some extent, the question of " putting none
but Americans on guard," or in places of public trust. These ele-
ments prevailed with about three-quarters of the General Assemblv.
The result of the election gave Dutton 9,083 ; Samuel Ingham, of
Essex, lacking 4,165 of an election. The candidates were Ingham.
Democrat; Dutton, whig ; Chapman. Maine law; Hooker, free soil.
In the Legislature the Hon. Henry Dutton had a majority of foriv-
seven votes, 'i'he military line of the election parade was under com-
mand of Col. John Arnold, and the troops countermaiched through
Temple, Elm and Church streets. At the Tontine there was a halt.
and the lieutenant-governor and other officers were formallv
received. The procession marched through Crown, York, Elm,
State, (31ive, Wooster Place, Chapel and Temple streets, to the State
House. Charles Bishop, the chief marshal, had for assistants :
Newton Moses, Noyes C. Mix, Hiram Camp, A. C. Andrews, Charles
S. Candee, William R. She! ton, Howard B. Ensign, Elam Hull, Jr.,
Thomas Lawion, A. C. Speny, N. D. Sperry, John C. Hollister,
Asa T. Cooper, George Lindley, Alfred H. Terry, S. B. Jerome, A.
B. Mai lory, \V. M. White. Henry i\. Lewis, Wales French, Miles
Tutlle, Jr., Andrew Hotchkiss, Stephen Bishop. Elias Bishop, Robert
Foot, Lafayette S. Root, Leonard Linsley, Charles S. Hall, A. C.
Blakeslee, Ruel P. Cowles, L. A. Dickinson and Stephen Barnes.
The troops were reviewed on the Green by Major-General Guyer and
Brigadier-General Hallenbeck. In the evening the Foot Guards
gave a supper at the L^nion House. Governor Dution being pres-
ent. This was the year in which Deacon Blair, the undertaker, died.
Rossiter, the artist, gave an exhibition of his paintings at Brewster
HOUSE AND SIGN PAINTING,
, WOOD niii,
It A IV s o >r 11 I L, L « ,
4Q2 ST-A-TE S T E. E E O? ,
Whose TMrty-Tliree Years Experience Ensures Satisfactory f orlt,
BOOTH MEAT CO,
370 STATE STREET,
Meats, Vegetables, Butter,
AT WHOLESALE AND RETAIL.
Cor. Dixwell Ave. and Foote St. C. M. Sherman, Manager.
Cor. Grand Ave. and North Front St. E. J. Morse, Manager.
Shamrock Market, 596 Grand Ave. Wm. H. O'Donnell, Manager.
99 Mill River Street, - - - - New Haven, Conn.
Three niinutes' walk from tlie State Street Horse Cars.
I'.rass, Bronze Metal, Composition German Silver, and all kinds ot WHITE
METAL CASTINGS made to order.
Fine Oastiiig-H for T'atterii!-* a JSpecialt > ,
THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE. 131
Plall, one of the works of art being his picture of the " Captive
Israelites." The 31st of July, 1854, was the last day on which citi-
zens could get a drop of intoxicating liquor, and the following day
die enactment prohibitory went into full effect. A large body of
"Invincibles " paraded the streets in a grand glorification or rather
"blow-out," which was to be their last. Some of the closed saloons
were draped in black. Eighty-eight thousand dollars had been
appropriated by Congress for a new custom house, and Dr. Worthing-
ton Hooker was writing his valuable physiology for schools. The
New York and New Haven Railroad Company was paying $8 a cord
for wood for burning on its locomotives. The prohibitory liquor
law was never fully executed in New Haven although more strictly
enforced than in many other places in the State. Henry Gruenert,
a Dane, proprietor of the Columbian Garden on Meadow street, for
many years, and the maker of a very excellent kind of root beer, in
heavy stone-ware bottles, did not refuse to sell liquors to such cus-
tomers as were not likely to betray him. Later, in the second story of
a building on Union street, occupied on the ground floor by Norman
W. Rood, as a baggage express office, the knowing ones could find
something with which to quench their thirst. Soon afterward a
Spaniard named Peter Munoz, opened a house on State near Grand
street, where the boys could meet and drink in private, and very
soon, in two or three other places, lager beer could be bought. Jt
is not within the scope of such a work as this, to describe the riotous
scenes or to even attempt to relate the angry collisions which in
New Haven ar.d in other towns of the State, grew out of the passage
of the prohibitory liquor law and the efforts toward its enforcement.
Some citizens, otherwise of no particular character, became famous
as supporters of the law and amateur detectives. On one occasion,
when there was a town meeting (September 27) to determine
whether New Haven should invest money in liquors to be sold
under sanction of a prescription from a doctor, a noisy and excited
crowd filled the basement room of the State House, used as a town
hall. There was no possibility of preserving order, nor could a vote
] ^2 THE lllsrORY OF THE STATE HOUSE.
be taken. There was an adjournment to the north steps of the Stale
House. Speeclies wtre made by Rev. Leonard Bacon on one side
of the question and Jonalhan Stoddard on the other. People glared
at each other and abused each other like crazy men, and there was
a great deal of shouting and indecorous conduct. Douglass Coan,
brother of Sher. Coan, belter known as Mr. S. C Campbell, of the
Campbell minstrels, and subsequently as the baritone of the Pyne-
Harrison Opera Company, slapped Rev. Mr. Garheld in the face, the
latter being very indignant at this insult to a clergyman. There
was a majority (as counted j of 239 out of 3,053 votes, in favor of
having the town purchase liquors, and the vote was considered to be
a test as to whether the people would sustain the prohibitory law.
It will be a relief to turn from the consideration of these stormy
days, when the mad passions of men appeared to rage, to look back
for a moment to the year 1724, when the number of all kinds of
buildings in ihe citv was only 163. In 1787, Samuel Chittenden
advertised that " having become dead to the world that he might
live to God, proposes to sell (God willing) at public vendue, the
house and lot where he now lives." The ad\ertisement gives no
hint as to where the advertiser iiUended to reside after taking his
contemplated departure from his house. In these days some of the
lien-coops of the wealthy are healthier and warmer in winter than
some of the homes of the poor. Society, however, is looking into
this and similar matters, and there are political optimists who have
faith in the abolishment of poverty at a future day. Then, perhaps,
will be also abolished, the nerve-torturino- factorv whistles and the
other useless noises, which have for a long time afflicted the citizens
of dear, old, conservative, patient New Haven. It was in 1787,
that Gov. Samuel Huntington advertised a reward for Daniel Shays,
Luke Day, Adam Wheeler and Eli Parsons, ringleaders in the Mas-
sachusetts rebellion, and supposed to be then hiding in Connecticut.
Lead troughs were at so early a date as this, recommended to be
placed around trees, to catch the insects producing the canker worm,
but thev were filled with water instead of oil. This was the vear in
I'HE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE. 133
which Alfred Hewes, of New Jersey, made and sold Windsor chairs,
at his shop on Chapel street.
The Palladium, September 29, 1854, said: "We agree that the
Green should not have been occupied by any State House. The
room is too precious for any such occupancy." In view of more
recent editorial expressions regarding the question of repairing the
building or removing it from the Green, the above transcription is
interesting. From the great mass of arguments on both sides of
the question, printed in the New Haven newspapers for the past
ten years it is absolutely impossible to fairly state the reasons given
pro and con. The New Haven Register was at the expense of
publishing a picture of the building, showing cracks in its 'stucco-
covered wall and the absence of some of the marble of the steps
and of the false water table or basement veneering. One side of
the question was presented as it then stood in the mind of a writer
in the Palladiinn, November 22, 1888, whose screed was signed " Vox
Populi," and which represents pretty well, the views of many citizens
at that time. It read as follows :
" It is a public misfortune for any city or state, whenever the
columns of its newspapers are not open for the free and fair discus-
sion of public questions ; but it is always a far greater evil and one
more destructive of the highest interests of any community when
any of its newspapers advocate the adoption of municipal measures
which can only advance the selfish interests of a few schemers and
speculators, in opposition to the plainest interests of the people."
[The foregoing appears to be a reflection upon the Register, which ad-
vocated the destruction of the building. — Ed.] ** Your recent edito-
rial on the State House question, is therefore gratifying to me and
to a large proportion of the citizens of New Haven, because of its
independence of cliques and the manifest determination of the
Palladinvi to represent and advance the interests of the people of
New Haven. We are beginning to find out who they are, inside and
outside of the Common Council, who are working to nullify and
upset the late vote of the people, who by a large majority declared
134 ^^^^ HISTORY OF THE STATE J JO USE.
their will in favor of an appropriation of $30,000 for repairing the
State House. The speculative firms and the institution which are
co-operating, each from a different but thoroughly selfish standpoint,
to so befog the public mind that it will not perceive the subtle
trickery which underlies the fraudulent proposition to submit the
fate of the building to another popular vote on the question : ' Will
you remove the building or appropriate $100,000 to repair it.-*' are
well known and ought to be exposed. If they suppose their duplic-
ity is not perfectly appreciated and the wretched stuff they give us
in editorials, as well as the insulting resolutions of Tom, Dick and
Harry, together with the insane babble of the special lunatic of the
syndicate — if they suppose these are not taken at their real value,
they are deceived.
" The advocates of repairing the building give valued and in-
telligent reasons for their opinions and those reasons have never
yet been successfully controverted by either of those interested
parties or their paid attorneys." [This last paragraph appears to be
directed against either the faculty of Yale, or some of the professors.
— Ed.] "The arguments offered by newpapers for the removal of
the building are too puerile to bear repeating ; while the real princi-
pals in the background seem to be no better able to enlighten us ; so
that we are compelled to adopt the belief that their real reasons
Cor desiring the destruction of this very valuable building are such
as they would be ashamed to avow.
" Tlie Court of Common Council, unwilling or not brave enough
to decide the question whether the State House should be repaired,
referred it to the people for decision, and at the time appointed, it
was decided by the people by a large majority, in favor of repairing
the building. But it would be more nearly true to say the council
would never have referred the question to the popular vote for
decision, if the speculators and their backers had dreamed the
people would decide against them. It did, however, decide against
them and in favor of the rights of the people, as against a corpora-
tion. Why does the council now refuse to comply with the condi-
THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE, 1 35
tions of its own making ? Is it because certain lawyers, as paid
attorneys of one of the parties in interest, have by special pleading
so mystified the question that members of the board of aldermen and
council, begin to think that their former action was illegal ? Every
member knows better.
" But the question which that body has got to face, is this : The
council does, or not, consider itself bound by its own acts. If it
does not think itself bound bv its own acts, and did not intend to
obey the edict of the popular will, why was the question submitted
to the people for its decision ? If, on the other hand, it does regard
the will of the people as of paramount authority, why the hesitation
to obey its behests } If now, the council and the contractors and
their responsible backers find themselves in a common hole out of
which it will not be easy if it will be possible, for them to escape
unhurt, who can they blame but themselves ? There is no need to
name the parties and their attorneys and agents by whose means the
Common Council has been led into a position so disreputable and
indefensible. They are well known and are likely to become better
known. But it is a pity that men occupying public positions of
trust as public servants, should be willing to array themselves in
opposition to the will of the people, definitely expressed, and take
action for which not one of the parties, either the attorneys or their
principals, has yet been able to assign a sensible reason. They all
shrink from the sunlight and annoyance from behind a screen their
semi-judicial opinions, but offer no reasons against putting in repair
for public use, this very valuable building.
" There must be, howev'er, very positive reasons — definite and
diverse — but not necessarily conflicting reasons (and they may even
be co-operative), why these queer people of such opposite tastes
and habits of mind, should desire so earnestly the accomplishment
of the same thing — the destruction of almost the best built public
building in Connecticut. Who, among the enemies of the State
House (and they are all antagonistic to the people and their
! 30 THE HISTORY OF THE ST A TE HOUSE.
interests), is expecting to reap material or imaginary benefits by
means of its destruction ?
"The sclieming contractor looks for his profits in the job of
removal and the value of old materials, to say nothing of possible
contracts for a new library building, and perhaps the sale of land ;
but the college professor who ' hopes to live long enough to see
the Green cleared, not onlv of the old State House but the churches
as well,' has his reasons too, perhaps, but is too politic to declare
them prematurely. Very well, gentlemen, let this hocus pocus
leirislation c>o on. But remember this : if the State House is to be
destroyed or removed by such means, every one of the churches on
the Green will have to go also.
'' It has recently been suggested that some of the parties in ^
interest are hoping to entangle the question of repairs or removal
of the State House with the political issues growing out of our
approaching city and town elections. If so, it will be a pertinent
question to be asked of gentlemen candidates : ' On which side are •
you to be found ? ' If you are going to bring this subject up for
another popular vote, showing that you disregard the binding force
of the one already taken by virtue of legal authority, let it be so ;
but when you ask for nominations in ward primaries for the various
offices you seek, we shall ask : ' How will you vote on the question
at issue? ' If elected to office in the city government, will you vote
for or against the repair and preservation of the State House, for the
])urposes of a public library ?
" The subject is not by any means exh.austed, but we rest here."
The foregoing is reprinted, not as presenting the arguments in
favor of saving the State House, but as a fair specimen of column
after column, which if placed together endwise, would piobably
measure some miles, which during the past ten years ha\e been
printed \\\ New Haven newspapers, often with the effect of obscur-
ing the truth and sometimes of either enlightening *' the general
reader," or tending to drive him into idiocy.
An excellent idea of the appearance of the Green in 1800 can be
THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE. I37
had by a study of the accompanying picture. It was drawn and
engraved with fidelity to an original picture of that date, painted in
oil colors. In the distance, about midway between the two churches,
can be seen the house on the Yale grounds, occupied by the presi-
dent of the college. The two college buildings are on the line with
it and in the vista between the Center, or " middle brick '' church
and New Haven's second State House. To the extreme right, a little
east of the church building before mentioned, are Sabba-day houses.
The first burying in this town is also shown. At a public entertain-
ment given in the city, about half a century ago, a prize was offered
such patron as should, in the judgment of a committee, present the
wittiest conundrum, to be read from the platform. The one awarded
the prize was this : '' Why is the Green like the whole earth .? " The
answer was : '' Because it has Day on one side and (K) night on the
other." At that time, Jeremiah Day was living in the president's
house, and Dr. Jonathan Knight lived on Church street. A very
correct view of the second State House is presented. It is at the
left of the picture.
At the time of the first Common Council meeting in 1784, the popu-
lation of New Haven was less than 3000, and for a long lime the
Common Council transactions were very subordinate to the will of the
people as expressed at the town meetings or managed by the select-
men. At a large number of the stated common council meetings,
nothing was done beyond the passage of measures calculated to pro-
tect the city from fire. The Colonization Society was in a very
nourishing condition in 1854. At their annual meeting that year,
Governor Dutton presided, the president, Professor Silliman, being-
out (jf town, Henry Clay of Kentucky was a member of the society.
Mr. Ashnuin, the society's first agent at Liberia, Africa, as is told on
his moinniient, was born at Champlain, N. Y., and died in New
Haven, August 25, 1828. Rev. Leonard Bacon preached the funeral
sermon at the Center Church. The monument to Ashmun is after
the model of Scipio Africanus at Rome. Rev. Mr. Croswell offici-
ated at the grave, and Mr. Gurlev, secretary of the American Coloni-
^ firw M»veii.Coww u S.*. ^
Look for the Name and Trade-Mark
AND TAKE NO OTHER.
YALE, BRYAN & CO
105 to 111 STATE ST.
WHOLESALE GROCERS AND IMPORTERS
Mlill Ag^eiitj-i ±V>i'
BRIDAL VEIL AND WHITE LOAF FLOUR,
Tlie T^eaclin^- Bvaiiclsj iiinde toi- Sale \yy
Jill I^^ii*>it-01as*s R.etnil Grvoeern.
140 THE HISTORY OF THE STATE HOUSE.
zation Society, made an address. The history of Liberia can be found
in various publications.
After Mavor Henrv F. Peck sifrned the order for the removal of
the State House (June 8, 1889), some apprehension was felt by those
wlio had voted for the removal, that there would be legal steps taken
to prevent carrying out the order. They were not mistaken, for at
the solicitation of Eii \\Miitney, E. S. Greeley, James Reynolds, E. B.
Bowditch, Levi Ives, Henry L. Hotchkiss, Charles W. Scranton,
Maier Zunder, Joel A. Sperry, Henry S. Dawson, Henry Bronson,
Leonard J. Sanford, John P. Tuttle, Ellsworth L Foote, Daniel L.
Daggett, Joseph Parker, William H, Eaton, Max Adler, Patrick H.
Cronan, Charles S. Leete, Stephen G. Hubbard, R. P. Cowles, Rob-
ert S. Ives, Thomas R. Trowbridge, George Hotchkiss, 2d, Horace
Day, L. R. Gildersleeve, Joseph Sheldon, Simeon E. Baldwin, Wil-
liam H. Kingsley, Joseph R, Colton, C. B. Bowers, Charles R, Coan,
James M. B. Dwight, John H. Whiting, Charles H. Townshend,
Johnson T. Piatt, W^illiam Hillhouse, Edwaid R. Hayes, William R.
H. Trowbridge, Rutherford Trowbridge. Charles L. Baldwin, James
E. English, William B. Goodyear, and William C. Robinson^ the
Superior Court, Judge Fenn, granted a temporary injunction to
restrain the city from proceeding. The order, dated June 13, 1889,
read as follows :
" Ordered, That the City of New Haven and John W. Lake, City Auditor, and all
other officers or agents of said citv, be and they are hereby enjoined against taking
any further action under the order of the Court of Conuuon Council, approved
June 8, 1S89, described in said complaint, or do any act in execution thereof, and
against making or attemj^ting to make anv contract for or otiierwise authorizing