The Catskill and Canajoharie railroad is now com-
pleted, and in use as far as Cooksburg, a distance of
26 miles. About 14 miles W. S. W. from Catskill,
is the celebrated mountain house of
Pine Orchard. â Which is situated on the N. E.
declivity of Catskill mountains, at an elevation of
3,000 feet above the surface of the Hudson river. A
mile or two beyond the hotel, are the Katerskill falls.
A short distance above the falls are two small lakes,
from which the water escapes through a contracted
channel, and is percipitated at two bounds down a
perpendicular rock to the depth of nearly 200 feet.
The cataract and its surrounding objects form an as-
semblage of every thing that is sublimely picturesque
and romantic in beautiful scenery.
Athens. â An incorporated towa of Greene county,
containing about 1,200 inhabitants. Its chief build,
ings are, 5 places of worship, several taverns, 20
stores, 1 extensive earthen-ware factory, and about
160 dwelling houses.
Hudson. â On the west side of the Hudson, oppn.
site Athens, is a large, handsome and flourishing city
of Columbia county, of which it is the seat of justice.
It was founded in 1783, and chartered in 1785, and
now contains about 1 ,200 buildings of every sort ;
and by the census of 1840 it was found to contain
a population of 5,670.
56 ROUTE FROM
county, containing glass works, 1 grist mill, and
about 25 other buildings.
meeting houses, an academy, a lunatic asylum, 2
banking houses, markets, hotels, stores, v/orkshops,
and factories, &c. &c. Its principal manufactures
consist of leather, hats, boots and shoes, jewelry,
cordage, sperm candles, malt liquors, iron castings,
Hudson is abundantly supplied with water from
a spring a few miles distant.
The Hudson and Berkshire railroad commences
here, extends in a N. E. direction, and unites with
the western railroad of Massachusetts at West Stock-
bridge, a distance of 34 miles ; thence the line pro-
ceeds via Springfield and Worcester to Boston.
Columbiaville. â An incorporated village of Colum-
bia county, situated at the junction of Kinderhook
and Clavarack creeks, one mile from the left bank of
the Hudson. There are two extensive cotton factories
in the village, which afford employment to a large
portion of the inhabitants ; of whom there are about
700 within the limits of the village.
Coxsackie. â A village of Greene county, contain-
ing 500 inhabitants, situated about one mile from the
landing on the Hudson.
Kinderhook Landing â Now called Stuyvesnnt, is
a pleasant little village, comprising 50 or 60 buildings,
including a church, and about 300 inhabitants.
New Baltimore. â An active little town of some 50
or 60 houses, and about 400 inhabitants, situated in
Greene county, on the west basik of the Hudson.
Coeymans. â A manufacturing village of Albany
county, containing two churches, several taverns,
stores &c. ; grist, saw, and plaster mills, two brick-
yards, and about 8i)0 inhabitants.
Snhodack. â A village of Rensselaer county, with
a population of about 400, with a church, stores, &c.
^ Castleton. â A village of the same county, situated
on the east bank of the Hudson, 2 miles from Scho-
dack. Population nearly 400.
NKW-VORK TO ALBA.Mf. 57
Greenhush â A large and flourishing incorporated
village of Rensselaer county, situated on the east
bank of the Hudson, opposite to the city of Albany,
with which it communicates by steam ferry-boats.
Among the buildings, about 130 in number, are 2
churches, 4 public houses, 12 stores, 2 grist mills, gas
factory, and an extensive boat-yard. The present
population is about 1,000, and rapidly increasing.
Here commences the Albany and West Stock-
bridge railroad, which, with the western and Boston
?ind Worcester railroads, form a continuous line from
Albany to Boston, a distance of 200 miles.
A large, rich, and populous city of the state of
New. York, of which it is the capital. Few cities
of its size have their public buildings sofine, nu,
merous, and well kept. Here are many hand-
some churches belonging to various denominations.
The State-house, or legislative hall, is one of the
principal ornaments of the city ; and the immense
basin formed by a pier 4,300 feet in length, is one of
the largest and most commodious on the canal, where
a vast number of canal boats of all sorts may be seen.
The streets are spacious and well paved. In addition
to the facilities of intercourse afforded by the great
Erie and Champlain canals, which commence here,
those of the numerous railroads which centre in Al-
bany are equally important and extensive. Thus
advantageously situated, it forms the principal entre-
pot between the city of New- York and the north
western interior ; and with Troy occupies the com-
mon centre of an immense inland trade.
Albany possesses many splendid public and private
buildings, literary and scientific institutions, and in
every respect presents the appearance of a well
ordered and prosperous city. Population, in 1840,
33,721. It is one of the oldest settlements in the
United States, Lie Dutch having had a fort here aa
58 ROUTE FROM
early as 1612. Many of the buildings of the city, with
their gable ends to the streets, still remain to mark
its origin. A large and respectable portion of the in-
habitants are of Dutch descent, many of whom still
retain much of the primitive simplicity and industry
which characterized their ancestors
The State House. â A fine stone building, 115 ieet
in length and 90 in width, occupies a beautiful po-
sition at the head of State street, at an elevation of
220 feet above the river. The grounds which sur-
round the capitol are tastefully arranged, and form
one of the most attractive promenades of the city.
The other public buildings consist of the City Hall^
a beautiful marble structure, occupied by the various
departments of the Government ; jail, 2 academies^
State Hall. The Albany, Farmers', and Mechanics^
Banks, and ihe Museum, are also remarkably fine
buildings ; Medical College Exchange, in State St.;
Alms-house; 2 Asylums for Orphans; 30 churches,
some very elegant ; 8 banking house3,aud many others
equally deserving of notice. Institutions for the pro-
motion of literature, science, and the arts, are numer-
ous and well conducted. The princij)al branches of
industry carried on in the city, comprise carriages,
malt liquors, fire arms, jewelry, nails, hats and caps,
snuff" and segars, cordage, soap, musical instruments,
tin and sheet iron ware, printing types, woolen and
cotton goods, &-C. ; and its commerce is proportion-
ably varied and extensive. There are nearly 1,400
persons engaged in mercantile pursuits, besides a
vast number employed in the subordinate branches
The situation of Albany is one of the finest on the
Hudson ; seated partly on the declivity of a hill and
partly on the margin of the river, it spreads its build-
ings along the bank, and covers the adjacent eminen-
ct'S with its beautiful structures. Its suburbs stretch
in gentle curves along the shore above, below, and in
the rear ; from whence is beheld an almost unrival-
ALBANY TO NIAGARA FALLS. 59
led assemblage of picturesque and beautiful scenery.
In the north, the shores of the Hudson, with Troy
and the httle villages of Waterford and Lansinburg,
whilst in the east, the hills of Vermont, with their
verdant sides and towering peaks, bound the prospect.
The centre contains the~ city, with its public and
private buildinys rising one above the other, backed
by the heights, on which are the Capitol, State Hall,
the Academy, and City Hall.
Hotels. â City, Eagle, Mansion House, United
States, Mongomery Hall, American, Clinton, Con-
gress Hall, FrankHn, Rensselaer, Columbian, &c.
ROUTES FROM ALBANY.
Route from Albany to Niagara Falls, Buffalo, ^c.
via Utica, Rochester, and Batavia, by railroad.
Tripe Hill, 7
Caughnewaga, ... 4
Palatine Bridge, .11
St, Johnsville,.... 9
Little Falls, 10
Oriskany, 4 100
Rome 7 107
Verona Centre,... 8 115
Canestota, 11 126
Fayette, 16 142
Syracuse, 4 146
Camillus, 8 154
Elbridge, 8 162
Auburn, 10 172
Cayuga, 9 181
Bridgeport, 1 182
Waterloo, 9 191
Geneva, 9 200
Vienna, 9 209
Canandaguia, 14 223
Victor, 10 233
Rochester, 17 250
Churchville, 14 264
Bergen, 7 272
Morgan ville, 7 278
Baiavia, 5 283
Attica, 10 293
Alden, 10 303
Lancaster, 8 311
Buffalo, 12 323
Black Rock, 2 325
Tcnawanda, 9 334
Fort Schlosser, ...11 345
Niagara Falls,.... 1 346
60 ROUTE FROM
Schenectady. â An incorporated city, and seat of
justice for Schenectady county, is situated on the
right or south bank of the Mohawk, 16 miles from
Albany by the railroad, and 30 by the Erie canal.
It IS one of the oldest towns in the state, being nearly
co-eval vvith Albany. Many of the buildings are ele-
gant, but Hke all the ancient towns in New. York, the
various structures present a somewhat incongruous
appearance. Those of a recent date serve to show the
advance in elegance and convenience that has been
effected in the course of a few years. The chief
buildings are, Union College in the N. E. quarter,
which was founded in 1794, and has since main-
tained a high degree of reputation ; a county court
house and jail, city hall, 4 banks, 10 churches, 16 or
18 hotels, 1 extensive cotton factory, grist mills, iron
foundries, together with the usual stores, workshops,
factories, &c. There are a lyceum, and an academy
for females. Population by census of 1840, 6,784.
Schenectady has frequent communications with the
surrounding towns, by the various railroads now in
use; that to Saratoga, via Ballston Spa, is 22, and
that to West Troy, is 20 miles in length.
. Glenville. â A neat hamlet of Schenectady county,
comprising 18 or 20 buildings, exclusive of 1 church,
Amsterdam. â An incorporated town of Montgom-
ery county, situated on the north bank of the Mo-
hawk, containing upwards of 1,800 inhabitants, and
about 300 buildings of every sort ; including 4 neat
churches, a bank, an academy, several factoiies, &c.
The town is connected by a substantial bridge over
the Mohawk with Port Jackson.
Tripe's Hill. â A mere hamlet of Montgomery
county, containing a church, and some 25 or 30 other
Caughnewaga. â Another village of the same
county, comprising about 40 dv/eiling houses and
a church, with about 200 inhabitants. It communi-
ALBANY TO NIAGARA FALLS. 61
cates, by a bridge across the Mohawk, with Fulton-
ville. (See route by Erie canal.)
Fonda. â A pretty village of Montgomery county,
of which it is the seat of justice, containing about 400
inhabitaits and about 70 buildings, including a
court-house, jail, 1 grist, 1 saw, and 1 plaster mill,
carding machine, with the customary complement of
taverns, stores, and shops.
Palatine bridge. â A village of Montgomery county,
consisting of 40 buildings, situated on the north bank
of the Mohawk, immediately opposite lo Canajoharie.
St. Johnsville. â A small village, comprising about
50 buildings, with 280 inhabitants, in Montgomery
Little Falls. â A large and flourishing settlement,
which has grown up at what are termed the Little Falls
of the JMohavvk.
The site of the town occupies both banks of the
Mohawk, which has obviously worn for itself a pas-
sage through the primitive rock of which the mountain
is composed, and thus formed an immense gap in
which the town is situated. The rugged and pre-
cipitous sides of this petra-like gorge attain to a
great height, whence a scene of wild and romantic
beauty presents itself on every side. The beds of the
Erie canal on the right, and of the railroad on the left
bank, have been excavated from the sohd rock, which
here and there overhangs the hues, and seems to
threaten the beholder with instant destruction.
Little Falls is essentially a manufacturing place,
having an inexhaustible water power of great extent,
which is still in some degree unemployed. Woolen
goods, paper, iron castings, malt liquors and flour,
are its principal manufactures. Every other article
of necessity, such as hats, boots, shoes, tin-ware &c.,
are supplied by the numerous minor factories of the
place. It contains about 400 buildings, including 5
churches, a bank, and an academy, with nearly
62 ROUTE FROM
3,000 inhabitants. Access may be had from hence
by stage to Trenton Falls, distant 26 miles.
Herkimer â The seat of justice for Herliimer county,
is beautifully situated on the left bank of the Mohawk,
it is an incorporated town, and contains about 900
inhabitants; the chief buildings are a court-house, jail,
hall for the county officers, a bank, an academy, and
Whiteshoro. â An incorporated town, and in con.
junction with Rome, the seat of justice for Oneida
county. It occupies a fine situation on the south
bank of the Mohawk, and on the line of the Erie canal.
The town contains a population of about 2,000, a
court house, jail, 4 churches, an academy, an exten-
sive cottun factory, another of water buckets, a grist
Rome, formerly Fort Sianwix. â A large incorpo-
rated town of Oneida county, of which it is, with
Whitestown, the seat of justice. There are within
the corporate limits about 400 buildings, including
the court house and other county buildings ; 6 places
of worship, a banking house, a cotton factory,
grist and saw mills, furnace, and an arsenal belong,
ing to the United States. Here the railroad leaves the
Mohawk valley, and passes into that of the Oswego,
and enters the little village of Verona Centre, con-
taining about 100 inhabitants.
Lenox. â A small village comprising some 20 or 25
buildings, in Madison county.
Syracuse. â A large commercial and manufactur.
ing town of Onondaga county, of which it is the seat
of justice. Besides 800 or 900 dwellings, there are
an academy, court-house, jail, 8 churches, 12 hotels,
an arcade, 2 banks, 3 grist mills, 3 machine shops,
3 iron foundries, and a vast number of mechan-
ics' shops, stores and warehouses. Syracuse stands
on the Erie canal, at the point where the Salina side
canal leaves the main trunk. The SaHna flats ex-
ALBANY TO MAGARA FALLS. 63
tend between Syracuse and the village of Salina. In
a state of nature, these flats being low, in part marshy,
were subject to occasional inundation ; but, by
means of extensive drains, they have now a dry sur-
face, which is an exuberantly rich alluvial deposite.
The outlet of Salina lake in Seneca river, having been
deepened, contribute also to desiccate the flats.
Syracuse is celebrated for its manufacture of salt, of
which immense quantities, are annually made chief-'
ly by solar evaporation.
Camillus. â A handsome village of Onondaga
county, containing about 700 inhabitants, two
churches, and nearly 125 dwelling houses.
Elbridge â A neat little village of Onondaga county^
containing two churches, 60 buildings and about 300
Auburn. â A large, handsome and important town,
and seat of justice for Cayuga county. It comprises
nearly 900 buildings of all descriptions, including a
court house and other county offices, a town hall, a
theological seminary, an academy, an incorporated
seminary for females, seven churches, two banks, ten
hotels, one cotton factory, one planing machine, four
grist and three saw mills, factories of cards, millstones,
tobacco, machinery, iron castings, leather, carriages
and many other articles. Auburn is the seat of one
of the State prisons, an immense establishment, sit-
uated on the right bank of Owasco outlet. It stands
in the centre of a ten acre lot, which is enclosed by
an elevated stone wall. The principal building, which
contains the various offices, keepers* apartments, &.c.
is three stories high and 186 feet from, and the wine-a
on each two stories high, 45 feet in front and 242
deep. There are 770 cells. The prisoners, ususally
about 700, employed in the various branches of me-
Owasco lake, a beautiful sheet of water, situated
a few miles from the village, affords excellent trout
fishing, and is much frequented. The outlet having
64 ROUTE FROM
a descent of nearly 100 feet in a few miles, furnishes
a valuable and extensive water power, which is only
Cayvga. â A pretty little village of Cayuga county,
situated on the east side of Cayuga ouUet, which is
crossed by a viaduct and bridge, each more than a
mile in length.
The village consists of about 75 buildings, among
which are a church, several public houses, and about
Cayuga Like is one of the largest of the series of
fakes that impart great beauty to this part of the state.
It is about 40 miles in length, with a mean width of
two and a half miles, is of great depth, and abounds
with fine fish. Its banks, which are celebrated for
their picturesque beauty and sublimity, are adorned
with orchards aiid cultivated fields, and interspersed
with towns, villages and habitations.
Steam boats ply regularly between Cayuga bridge
and Ithaca, at the head of the lake, where the rail,
road from Owego terminates. About a mile west of
Bridgeport. â A little village of Seneca county, con,
sisting of about 30 buildings.
Waterloo. â A large and remarkably handsome
town, and, with Ovid, the seat of justice for Seneca
county, containing nearly 3,000 inhabitants. Besides
400 dwellings, there are in the town a court house,
jail, 4 churches, an academy, a bank, 10 or 12 hotels;
together with a woolen factory, 6 grist mills, 5 saw
mills, several factories which produce pails, tubs,
ground plaster, leather, whiskey, iron castings, ma,
chinery, potash, soap and candles, carriages, boats,
&,c., &c. The town is beautifully situated on both
banks of Seneca outlet, which has been improved so
as to render it navigable for canal boats. A few milea
towards the S. W. it receives the waters of
Seneca Lake. â Situated between Seneca and Tom-
kins counties on the east, and Steuben, Yates and
ALBA.NT TO NIAGARA FALLS. 65
Ontario on the west. It is about 43 miles in length,
two and a half in mean breadth, and nearly 600 feet
deep. The waters are remarkably pure and trans-
parent, containing fish of various sorts. It is navi-
gated by steam-boats from Geneva to Jefferson, Avhere
the Elmira canal leaves the lake. The outlet of
Crooked Lake enters Seneca lake on the west, after a
descent of 270 feet in 6 miles. The banks of both
are highly romantic and beautiful : the entire region
presents a series of landscapes, which render it in a
high degree, worthy of attention from the traveler
Geneva. â An incorporated town of Ontario county,
on the north-west margin of Seneca lake, containing
about 4,000 inhabitants. Its site is uncommonly fine,
rising by a gentle acclivity from the water side, and
affording an extensive view of the lake and adjacent
country, which abounds in the most enchanting and
beautiful prospects. The aspect of Geneva and its
environs from the lake, is not less beautiful : the en-
tire scenes will amply repay the tourist for his trouble
in viewing it. The western part of the town is, by
far, the neatest portion of it, and is in part built on
an eminence rising nearly 100 feet above the lake.
Its streets are wide and kept in fine condition, with
handsome and commodious buildings, chiefly occu-
pied as dwellings. The lower part is the principal
seat of business, where the factories, stores, &c, are
mostly located. The chief buildings are those of
Geneva college, 10 churches, 2 banking houses, 2
printing houses, several grist and saw mills, furnaces,
carriage factories, and about 500 dwelling houses.
Vienna. â A village of Ontario county, situated on
the right bank of Canandaigua outlet, comprising 200
dv/ellings, 3 churches, 6 grist mills, 1 furnace, 2 brew
houses, 2 distilleries, carriage factory, &c. Popula-
tion about 1,500.
Canandaigua. â A beautiful town and seat of jus-
tice of Ontario county, situated at the junction of Ca-
66 ROUTE FROM
nandaigua lake with its outlet. The principal avenue
extends westward from the lake shore, and is lined
by well built and handsome houses for a distance of
nearly two miles. Among the buildings are a court
house, jail and other county offices, 5 churches, 3
banks, academy, besides stores, warehouses, facto-
ries, mills, &.c. Population 2,800.
The situation of the town is picturesque and beau-
tiful in a high degree, and, taken in connection with
the adjacent country and its silvery lake, affords one
of the most delightful prospects in the world. The
XaA:e, whose waters are as clear r.s crystal, and abound
with trout and other fish, is about 20 miles in length,
one in breadth, and, like the others, very deep.
Victor. â A neat little village of 300 inhabitants,
situated near the railroad, in Ontario county.
A large commercial and manufacturing city of
Monroe county, situated on both sides of the Genesee
river, above the great falls, and six miles from its en-
trance into Lake Ontario. It is the seat of justice
for Monroe county, and the third city of the state in
point of population, which, in 1840, was 20,191, but
has, doubtless, increased greatly since that time.
The Erie canal passes through the city, and across
the Genesee, by a splendid aqueduct, where it is
joined by the Genesse valley canal.
Th â¢ plan of the city is regular, most of the streets
crossing each other at right angles : the public build-
ings consist of the court house and other county of-
fices, 20 places of worship, college, atheneum, mu-
seum, 2 asylums for orphans, arcade, 25 hotels, &cc.
The productions of the numerous factories and work
shops, in and around the city, consist of bread-stuffs
in great abundance, cabinet ware, woolen and cott(m
goods, carpets, jewelry, clothing, hats and caps, boots
and shoes, copper and tin ware, carriages, canal and
other boats, iron castings, machinery, prepared lum-
ALBANY TO NIAGARA FALLS. C7
ber, segars and snuff, saws, buckets and tubs, edge,
tools, arid many other articles. Rochester owesÂ°iis
great eminence, as a manufacturing town, partly to
its advantageous situation, and partly to the industry
and ingenuity of its inhabitants. It is located in the
midst uf a fertile country,- intersected by canals and
railroads and on a river admirably adapted for man-
ufacturing purposes. To the natural facilities thus
aiforded, and the means of disposing of its manufac-
tured products by the aid of its canals and railwaj^s,
may fairly be ascribed the rapid growth of Roches-
ter, and the great prosperity of ks people. Among
the interesting objects of Rochester, that of the falls
claims the first attention.
Genesee Falh. â Like those of Niagara, the upper
Genesee falls consist of three principal Chutes, divi.
ded from each other by clusters of rocks, into three
nearly equal parts. The greatest height of these falls
is 96 feet. The lower fall, about a mile and a half
below, has an unbroken pitch of 105 feet, to a rocky
bed, over which the waters pass rapidly to the head
of navigation, whence it flows calmly into its great
recipient, the "beautiful Ontario."
Mount Hope Cemetery. â A rural place of scpuL
ture, situated in the southern surburb of the city, and
Grand Aqueduct over tlie Genesee, also deserve
Ckurchmlle. â A small village of Monroe county,
containing about 50 buildings including 2 churches,
a woolen factory and 300 inhabitants.
Bergen and Morgansvill'^. â Two small villages of
Genesee county, each containing about 200 inhabi-
Batavia. â Seat of justice for Genesee county, is
finely situated on the north bank of Tonavvanda creek,
and contains upwards of 2,.000 inhabitants. The pub-
lic buildings are, a court house, jail, arsenal, 2 banks,
5 churches, 1 female boarding school, 1 grist mill, 2
68 ROUTE FROM
furnaces, and others. [Persons destined for the fall3
of Niagara, may proceed by stage hence to Lock port,
distant 30 miles, whence a railroad conducts to the
Attica. â An incorporated village of Genesee coun-
ty, containing about 900 inhabitants, 2 churches, a
bank, and the customary complement of stores, tav.
erns and shops. The Tonavvanda and Attica and