similiar description. The power employed by these
extensive concerns,, chiefly hydraulic, is derived from
the Hudson, in which a pool has been formed which
creates a fall of lU feet. In addition to this valuable
power, another is afforded by the Poasten kill, whose
waters are conducted by means of a tunnel 800 feet
in length into the city, and thus a fall of 180 feet
has been effected.
The falls and cascades of Paosten and Wyant'a
creeks deserve attention.
Troy is also distinguished for its literary and sci-
entific institutions; among these are the Rensselaer
institute, Troy Femalace, afford
a most valuable and extensive water power, which aa
yet is only partially employed.
Antwerp. — A small village, consisting of 60 or 70
buildings, including 2 churches, and some small fac-
tories, situated on Indian river, Jefferson county.
Somerville. — A little village of St. Lawrence coun-
ty, of 30 or 40 buildings.
De Kalb, of St Lawrence, is a small village, con-
taining some 50 buildings, including several mills,
taverns, stores,. &c.
Ogdensburg. — An incorporated village of St. Law-
rance county, situated on the right bank of the St.
L-awrence, at the junction of the Oswegatchie. Its
present population is nearly 4,000. Its public build-
ings are, 5 churches, an academy, 2 banking houses,
3 flour mills, 1 tan yard, 1 cloth factory, 2 iron foun-
dries, a brewery, 2 machine and several other shops,
taverns, and about 100 stores of various kinds. A
steam ferry boat plies across the St. Lawrence to
Prescott, in Canada West. Passage by steamboat
may be had daily, from Ogdensburg to the principal
towns on the St. Lawrence, and above the village,
on Lake Ontario.
UTICA TO BIWGHAMTOIT. 103
Routes from Utica to Binghamton, by sta^e.
New Hartford 4 Sherburne 5 41
Paris Hill 6 10 Norwich 11 52
Waterville 6 16 Oxford 8 60
Madison 8 24 Greene 14 74
Hamilton 6 30 Chenango Forks... 7 81
Earlville 6 36 Binghamton 12 93
New Hartford. — A village of Oneida county, situ-
ated on both banks of the Sadaquada creek, contain-
ing 850 inhabitants, 4 churches, 3 cotton and 1 leather
factories, mills, a bleaching and dyeing concern, &c.
Paris Hill. — A pretty little village of Oneida
county, consisting of some 30 or 40 buildings, includ-
ing 3 churches, with the customary stores and
Waterville. — A neat and thriving village of Oneida
county, containing about 1,000 inhabitants, with 2
churches, an academy, a bank, and factories of
starch, woolen goods, iron castings, steel springs,
lumber, machinery, musical instruments, and flour.
Madison. — An incorporated village of Madison
county, comprising about 100 buildings, 2 churches,
Hamilton — A large incorporated village of Madi-
son county, containing nearly 1,700 inhabitants. Its
chief buildings are, 3 churches, a college, (the Ham-
ilton Literary and Theological Institution,) belonging
to the Baptists, an academy, with the usual comple*
ment of stores, shops, &c. The Chenango canal
passes through the village.
Earlville. — A village of Madison county, with 700
inhabitants, 2 churches, stores, &c.
Sherburne. — An incorporated village of Chenango
county, situated on the left bank of the Chenango
river, and on the line of the Chenango canal. Its
chief buildings are, 4 churches, an academy, 1 furnace-,
1 pottery, with about 700 inhabitants.
Norwich. — An extensive incorporated village, and
seat of justice of Chenango county, containing about
1,600 inhabitants. Besides the customary county
buildings, court-house, jail, &c., there are 230 dwell-
ings, 4 churches, 1 saw mill, 2 grist mills, store-
houses, &c. Its manufactures consist of leather and
leather goods, broadcloth, coaches and carriages of
all descriptions," musical instruments, machinery, iron
w^are. These, in addition to an extensive trade with
the surrounding fertile country, and the facilities of
transportation afforded by the Chenango canal, give
to Norwich an imposing and business-Hke appear-
Oxford. — An incorporated village of Chenango
county, containing about 1,500 inhabitants, with 2U0
dwelhngs, 5 churches, an academy, 2 large store-
houses, 2 mills, 1 foundry, carriage factories, print-
ing offices, &c.
Greene. — A village of about 120 buildings and
800 inhabitants, in Chenango county. Here are 4
churches, 1 grist and 1 plaster mill, 1 cloth and 2
Chenango Forks. — A village of 100 buildings, in-
cluding a church, in Broome county, situated at the
point of junction of the Tioughnioga with its recipient,
the Chenango river, and on the canal from Utica to
the Susquehanna. Its manufactures consist of cloth,
leather, and boots, &c.
Binghamton. — An incorporated village of the first
class, and seat of justice of Broome county, contain,
ing about 3,000 inhabitants. The public buildings
are, a court house, jail, 10 churches, several acad-
emies and schools ; and its factories consist of 2
grist, 4 saw and 2 plaster mills, canal boat yard and
dry dock, steam furnace, machine shops, tan yards,
and lath and plough and gun factories, &c. ; together
with many store-houses for the accommodation of
the canal and river trade, which is here extensively
prosecuted by meana of the Susquehanna and Che-
ROUTES FROM TITICA. 105
nango canal, the latter terminating at Binghamton.
The New. York and Erie railroad, now in progress,
will pass through the village, wherfe an extensive de-
p6i has been constructed. Access to any of the
adjacent villages is afforded by the numerous canal
packets and stages, which are constantly departing
from the village in every direction.
From Utica to Little Falls by canal, 22 miles.
•' " by railway, ... 21 "
" Schenectady t by canal, . 80 **
" " by railway, 77 *•
♦♦ Albanyt by canal, 110 •'
*« " by railway, 93 «*
" Rome t by canal, 15 **
" " ^by railway, 14 •*
«♦ Syracuse t by canal, 61 "
" " by railway, 53 "
«' Rochester t by canal,.. ..159 •*
" " by railway,. ...158 ♦•
" Saquoit by railway, 9 **
" Sharon Springs by stage, 43 «
" Bridge water " .... 18 <*
« Cherry Valley « .... 40 «
" Cooperstown " — 37 "
" Morrisville " .... 27 *•
Oneida Lake " .... 28 ««
•♦ Oswego by railroad and
canal, 99 "
High Falls of Black R., 41 ''
" MiddleviUe, 13 "
ROCHESTER.t— (See p. 66.)
Boute from Rochester to Olean, hy stage,
Scottsville, 12 Nunda Valley, ....10 49
Caledonia, 8 20 Angelica, 20 69
Moscow, 16 36 Olean, .....30 99
Mount Morris, 3 39
106 ROUTE FROM
Scotteville, — A village of Monroe county, contain-
ing about 550 inhabitants, 2 churches, 2 grist, 2 saw
and 1 plaster mill, distillery, ashery, «&c.
Caledonia.— A village of Livingston county, com-
prising 80 dwellings, 2 churches, a brewery, saw
and grist mills, «Scc.
Moscow. — A village of Livingston county, contain-
ing about 450 inhabitants, 3 churches, taverns, stores,
Mount Morris. — An incorporated village of Liv-
ingston county, with about 230 buildings, including
4 churches, 1 furnace, a pottery, 4 milts, propelled
by the waters of the Genesee, and 1,300 inhabitants.
The canal here sends off a branch to Dansville, dis-
tant 11 miles.
Nunda Valley. — A village of Allegany county,
■with nearly 1,100 inhabitants, 3 churches, an acad-
emy, 1 woolen factory, 1 furnace, 1 machine shop,
Angelica. — An incorporated village and seat of
justice for Allegany county, with about 1,000 inhab-
itants. In addition to about 150 well built dwellings,
there are, in the village, a court house, jail, a bank, 3
churches, a woolen and leather factory, saw and
Olean. — A neat village of Cattaraugus county,
beautifully situated on the right or north bank of tho
Allegany, containing 700 inhabitants, 2 churches, 4
mills, &c. The Genesee valley canal, which unites
the Erie canal at Rochester with the Allegany river,
terminates here, after having passed through or near
every town on this route.
From Olean to Ellicottsville, by stage, ... 20 miles.
" Franklinville, ♦' 25 "
" Bolivar, *' ....... 15 "
" Whitesville, " 35 "
•• Friendship, " 20 "
" Rochester, by canal,.... .....107 "
ROCHESTER TO BATH. 107
From Olean to Piusburg, Pa., by Allegany
river, 210 miles.
" Coudersport, Pa., 35 "
Fioutc from Hochcsicr to Bath, hy stage, via Geneseo
and Avon Springs.
Henrietta, 8 Dansville, 18 48
Avon Springs 12 20 Liberty, 12 60
Geneseo, 10 30 Bath 16 76
Henrietta. — A small village of Monroe county,
containing 190 inhabitants, 30 dvvelUngs, 2 churches,
a high school, stores, &c.
. Avon Springs. — Celebrated medicinal springs,
much resorted to by invalids and others, situated in
the town of Avon, Livingston county. The waters
of these noteci springs, 12 in number, are beneficial
in cutaneous affections, and in disorders of the di-
gestive powers generally.
Tliey are composed of carbonat^and sulphate of
lime, sulphate of magnesia and soda, sulphuretted
hydrogen and carbonic acid gases, with slight traces
of chloride of calcium.
Their temperature is uniform, (45^ of Fan.,) and
specilic gravity, 10.018.
Geneseo. — A large and beautiful village of Liv-
ingston county, of which it is the seat of justice, con-
taiiiing about 1,000 inhabitants. Its chief buildings
are, a court house, jail, a bank, 3 churches, a high
school, together with the usual proportion of taverns,
stores, mechanics' shops, «&c. Geneseo is finely sit-
uated about 4 miles east of the Genesee, which, from
the commanding position of the village, is seen, in
connection with its canal, to great advantage.
Danf^ville. — A large and busy village of Living,
ston county, containing about 1,700 inhabitants, 4
churches, and a bank. Dansville is admirably sit.
uated for manufacturing purposes ; a fall of 65 feet,
in the Canaseraga creek, aflbrds an ahnost unlimited
108 ROUTE FROM
power, which is, as yet, but partially employed^
The village is connected with the Genesee valley
canal by a branch 11 miles in length. The man-
ufactures of the place consist of paper, which is made
in large quantities, leather, flour, iron castings, and
nearly every article of domestic use, as hats, shoes,
Boap, candles, &c.
Liberty. — A neat little village of Steuben county,
on the Conhocten creek, containing 50 dweUings, 2
churches and nearly 300 inhabitants.
\ Bath. — An incorporated village and seat of justice
of Steuben county, containing the county buildings,
5 churches, 230 dwellings, a bank, 2 printing officesy
1 grist, 1 plaster and 1 oil mill, a tan yard, and a .
furnace, with 1,500 inhabitants.
From Bath to Crooked Lake, v""* 6 miles.
" Kennedyville 5. *•
" Avoca, 10 "
" Angelica, 50 "
" Adiimsport 23 *«
CampbeU, 12 *•
*• Corning, , 27 •»
" Elmira, 40 "
«• Seneca Lake, 28 «•
From Rochester to Batavia, by railway,... 30 miles.
" Buffalo, " ... 73 "
•« « by canal, 94 «•
•• Niagara Falls, by canal
and railway, 88 "
" Canandaigua, byr'way, 27 ••
\ *• Auburn, by railway,... 51 ••
»• Utica, " ...157 «•
•• Palmyra, by canal, .... 29 "
•• Lyons, ^' .... 44 "
«« Syracuse, " .... 98 **
•• Utica, *« ....159 «'
« Clean, » ....107 "
♦* Lake Ontario, " ..,. 10 '•
BUFFALO TO DETROIT. 309
Route from Buffalo to Detroit, hy steamboat.
Dunkirk, 40 Cleveland, 70 184
Erie, Penn, 42 82 Sandusky, 54 238
Conneaut, O., ....32 114 Detroit, 62 300
Dunkirk. — An incorporated village of Chautauque
county, situated on the S. E. margin of Lake Erie,
where the Hudson and Erie railroad has its western
terminus. It comprises about 220 buildings, \r)~
eluding 2 cJiurches, several mills, with 1,200 inhab-
Erie, — A large and flourishing town, and seat of
justice of Erie county, Penn., situated at the head of
Presque Isle bay, and contains a population of 3,412.
Its chief buildings are, a court house, jail, 8 churches,
an academy, a bank, a vast number of extensive
warehouses for the lake trade, iron foundries, grist
and other mills, tan yards, &c.
Conneaut. — A neat little town of AsTitabula coun-
ty, Ohio, situated on the Conneaut river, near its en-
trance into Lake Erie. Population 2,642.
Cleveland. — A large and important city of Cuyaho-
ga county, Ohio, beautifully situated on the southern
shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga
river. It is the emporium of an extensive trade by
the lake, and the Ohio and Erie canal, which latter
extends from Cleveland to Portsmouth, on the Ohio
river. In common with every other part of the state
of Ohio, the growth of Cleveland is almost unprece-
dented. A few years since its site presented not a
trace of civilization ; now it yields only to Cincinnati
in point of population, which exceeds 6,000 souls.
The plan of the town is very regular, with wide and
well graded streets, lined with fine buildings. Main
street, the principal avenue, is 120 feet in breadth.
The chief public buildings, some of which front on a
public square, consist of a court house and the usual
110 ROUTE FROM
county offices, 8 handsome churches, 2 banking
Sandusky. — A town of Erie county, of which it is
the seat of justice, beautifully 'situated on the south-
ern margin of Sandusky bay. The buildings, which
are constructed niosily of stoni=i, consist of 350 dwell-
ings, 4 elegant churches, and an academy, with
Detroit. — The capital -of the state of Michigan,
and the most extensive and important city of the N.
W. region of the United States. It occupies the gate
between the upper and lower lakes, and commands
a vast and lucrative trade with the growing interior.
In addition to about 1,700 dwelling houses there are,
the capitol or legislative hall, with its offices, city hall,
10 churches, some of which are large and elegant, 4
banks, a theatre, a museum, a state penitentiary,
mechanics' hall, 2 asylums for orphans, 3 furnaces,
breweries, potteries, &c. Public and private schools
of the first order are numerous. Benevolent and
literary institutions also abound here.^ There are 3
printing offices, from which 3 daily and 4 weekly
newspapers are issued. Detroit is one of the oldest
towns in the United States, having been founded by
the French settlers, in 1763. It was incorporated as
a city in 1815. The central railway, which is de-
signed to intersect the state from east to west, is fin.
ished, and in operation from Detroit to Jackson, a
distance of 80 miles. This, with good common roads
and the facilities of intercourse nfTorded by the lakes,
must insure a full share of trade lo Detroit, which is
justly regarded as the commercial emporium of this
section of the country.
Route from Buffalo to Erie, Fenn., hy stage.
Hamburg, 14 Westfield, 15 60
Irving, 16 30 Erie, 30 90
Fredonia, 15 45
BUFFALO TO ERIE, PA- 111
Hamhurg. — A post office, with a few dwellings, in
Irving. — A mere liamlet of 12 or 15 buildings, of
Chautauque county, situated at the outlet of Cattarau-
gus creek. It is a port of entry.
Fredonia — A large and flourishing village of Chau-
tauque county, situated 3 miles from Lake Erie. It
was incorporated in 1829, and now contains 1,200
inhabitants. Among the buildings are, 6 churches,
an academy, 4 mills of various sorts, a furnace, and
a clothier's estabhshment. Some of the streets and
houses of the village are lighted from a natural gas.
ometer, situated near the bed of the adjoining stream,
from which issues immense quantities of carburetted
hydrogen gas. Several similar inflammable springs
have been discovered in the neighborhood.
Westfield. — An incorporated village of Chautauque
county, containing 1,100 inhabitants, 3 churches, aa
academy, 6 mills, and several factories-
li'rom Buffalo to Mayfield, G5 miks«
Ellicottville, 48 "
" Geneseo, 62 .*•
« Welland canal, -...20 <♦
*• Niagara falls, by railway, .23 '*
" do the Canada side,. 19 "
" Attica, by railway, 31 ^*
« Batavia 43 «
" Rochester, 73 «'
«♦ Pendleton, by canal, 24 "
« Lockport 31 «
Albion, 60 «
«« Brockport, 71 ^
" Rochester, 95 "
112 KUUTJS FKOM
Eoute from Niagara to Montreal, by steamboat, ^c.
Queenston 6 Prescot l4 339
Niagara village . . 7 13 Hamilton 18 357
Toronto 30 43 Cornwall 28 381
Port Hope 66 109 Coteau duLac....32 417
Coburg 36 145 Les Cedres 7 424
Oswego 74 219 Cascades 7 431
Kingston 58 277 La Chine 16 447
Elizabethtown....48 325 Montreal .......... 8 455
From Niagara to Lockport, by railway, ....24 miles.
»' Rochester, R.R. & canal,88
»' Buffalo, by railway, 23
" do stage, Canada side, 19
" Chippewa, 2
« Fort Erie 18
" Welland canal, 5
" Stonebridge, 17
*' Lewistown, 6
Eoute from New- York to Boston, by steamboat and
railroad, via Stonington.
Hell-gate 9 Connecticut river 19 111
Flushing bay 4 13 River Thames.... 14 125
Throg's point 3 16 Stonington 16 141
NewRochelleL,. 8 24 Kingston, r. way 23 164
Stamford 17 41 Providence 24 188
Stratford point ...26 67 Mansfield 17 205
New Haven 13 80 Boston 24 229
Faulkner's islandsl2 92
Hell.gate. — A narrow, crooked, and difficult straft
in the East river, formed by projecting rocks, by which
the water passes with such velocity as to endanger
vessels in navigating this modern Charybdis. By
skillful management, Hell-gate is now passed with„
NEW-YORK TO BOSTON. 113
out apprehension, and the terrors with which it was
formerly approached are no longer felt by navigators.
Flushing Bay. — An indentation of Long Island, at
the head of which is the pretty village of Flushing
mentioned at page 21.
• Throg^s Point. — A projection of' West Chester
county into Long Island sound, on which is situated
Fort Schuyler, a military post recently erected by the
United States government, for the defence of the city
of New. York. Immediately after passing Throg's
Point, we enter
Long Island Sound. — An extensive arm of the
Atlantic ocean, about 100 miles in length from W.
S. W. to E. N. E., and of a mean breadth of 12
miles. Its widest part is off New-Haven harbor,
where it is 22 miles in width. The Sound, which
communicates with the adjacent ocean, both at its
eastern and western extremities, has Long Island on
the south, the coast of Connecticut on the north, and
that of West Chester county of New- York, on the
west. Its outlines are numerously indented by bays
of every form, and its surface diversified by many
small islands which serve to beautify the view. The
navigation of Long Island sound affords a mosi4e-
lightful excursion, as it combines both river and ocean
scenery in the utmost perfection, without the dull
monotony of the latter.
New Eochelle Landing. — The port of New Ro-
chelle, a village of West Chester county, containing
800 inhabitants, a town hall, 3 churches, several
boarding schools, button factory, and ink and car-
riage factories ; many extensive hotels and boarding
houses for the accommodation of the citizens of New
York, many of whom spend the summer months
Stamford. — A beautiful town of Fairfield county,
Connecticut, containing about 2,000 inhabitants.
Stratford Point. — A noted landing place in Fair-
field county, Connecticut.
114 ROUTE FROM
New.Haven Harbor. — A bay of Long Island sound,
at the head of which is the beautiful city of New
Falknefs Islands. — A small cluster of islands
about 5 miles off the coast of New-Haven county.
Connecticut Eiver. — This is the principal river of
New England, which has its first fountain in Canada,
and after passing southward and dividing the states
of New-Hampshire and Vermont, and intersecting
those of Massachusetts and Connecticut, enters Long
Island sound about 30 miles east of New Haven.
The entire course of this beautiful stream is marked
by scenery of the most romantic and alluring descrip-
tion. It is diversified by hill and dale, and towards
the north, it assumes an almost Alpine aspect, with
every characteristic of the most rugged and mountain-
ous regions. In approaching its discharge into the
sound, \\f gradually declines and gently meanders
through the green fields of Connecticut, to its final
union with its great recipient, Long Island sound.
River Thames. — A small stream of the state of
Connecticut, having the towns of New London and
Norwich on its right bank ; the former about 4, and
the latter 20 miles from its mouth. This river forms
a part of a route from New York to Boston, which
will be noticed hereafter.
Stonington. — An incorporated village of New
London county, Connecticut, finely situated in the
S. E. extremity of the state, and on the margin of the
strait between the main land and Fisher's island. It
contains about 1,500 inhabitants, many of whom are
engaged in the v/hale and seal fisheries. Stonington
became quite conspicuous during the late war with
Great Britain. On the 10th of August, 1814, it was
vigorously bombarded by a British fleet, which, how-
ever, was soon obliged to withdraw without accom-
plishing its object.
Here the passengers for Boston leave the steam-
boat and enter the care.
NEW-YORK TO BOSTON. 115
Kingston. — A small village* of Rhode island.
Providence. — A large commercial and manufactur-
ing city of Rhode Island, of which state it is the seat
of government. It is advantageously situated on both
sides of Providence river, a tributary of Narraganset
bay. There are in the city and its dependencies not
less than 4,000 buildings of every sort, including some
elegant public and privafe structures. Among these
are many handsome churches, and several edifices
belonging to Brown's (Iniversity, established in 1770.
The arcade, 222 feet in length and 72 in breadth, built
of stone, is a beautiful building; together with many
others devoted to literar}'-, scientific, and commercial
purposes. The manufactures of Providence and its
neighborhood, in which nearly one-fourth of the in-
habitants are engaged, are vast and various ; consist-
ing chiefly of cottoii goods of every variety, iron,
copper and tin ware, and machinery of all kinds,
jewelry, &c. Besides the railroads to Boston and
Stonington, respectively. Providence enjoys the ad-
vantages of the Blackstone canal, which affords a
navigable communication to Worcester, Mass. By
the aid of these valuable auxiliaries, combined with
excellent common roads, its domestic intercourse with
the neighboring towns is largely promoted. Provi-
dence has also an extensive and valuable foreign
commerce, especially with India and the islands of
Oceana : this, however, has somewhat diminished of
late, owing to the diversion of much of its capital to
the purposes of domestic manufactures.
Boston — The great metropolis and capital of the
state of Massachusetts, and the fifth city of the United
States in point of population and extent. It is beau-
tifully situated on a peninsula, which juts from the
main land into Massachusetts bay ; by which, and
Charles river bay on the west, it is nearly surround-
ed. The former bay, which forms the harbor, is
studded in every direction by several pretty islands,
jBorae of which are crowned with tasty structures and
116 ROUTE FROUT
fortifications. These, with the numerous bridges ex.
tending from the city to the opposite shores and the
adjacent villages, impart great beauty and interest
to the entire landscape, when viewed from any of the
The city itself is somewhat irregular in its plan,
and, with some exceptions, is disfigured by narrow and
crooked streets. Those of a recent date are, how-
ever, laid out on a more commodious and liberal scale,
and lined for the most part with elegant and substan-
tial buildings. Among these, the following deserve
notice : the Old State House, on Washington and
State streets ; State House, on Beacon street, in which
the beautiful statue of Washington, by Chantry, is p!a.
ced, and from the dome of which the city and its envi-
rons may be seen to great advantage ; Faneuil Hall,
in Dock square ; Massachusetts Hospital, on the
banks of Charles river ; Faneuil Hall Market, and
Quincy Hall, on Dock square, is an immeiise pile,
536 feet in length; Tremont House, on Beacon and
Tremont streets, contains 180 apartments; New Court
House, in Court square, 176 feet in length and 54 in