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Icelandic Primer with Grammar, Notes and Glossary online

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76. _lē_ (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is _ljā_.

77. _oxi_ (ox) has pl. _öxn_.

78. _herra_ (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.

Weak Neuters

SINGULAR PLURAL

_Nom._ hjart-a (_heart_) hjǫrt-u
_Acc._ hjart-a hjǫrt-u
_Dat._ hjart-a hjǫrt-um
_Gen._ hjart-a hjart-na

79. So also _auga_ (eye).

Weak Feminines

SINGULAR PLURAL

_Nom._ tung-a (_tongue_) tung-ur
_Acc._ tung-u tung-ur
_Dat._ tung-u tung-um
_Gen._ tung-u tung-na

80. So also _stjarna_ (star) pl. _stjǫrnur_, _kirkja_ (church),
gen. plurals _stjarna_, _kirkna_.

_Sg. Nom._ ęlli (_old age_)
_Acc._ ęlli
_Dat._ ęlli
_Gen._ ęlli

81. So also _glęði_ (joy) and many abstract nouns.

82. _lygi_ (falsehood) has pl. _lygar_; so also _gǫ̈rsimi_
(precious thing).

Adjectives

83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns,
though with partly different endings, together with strong and
weak forms.

Strong Adjectives

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ ung-r (_young_) ung-t ung
_Acc._ ung-an ung-t ung-a
_Dat._ ung-um ung-u ung-ri
_Gen._ ung-s ung-s ung-rar

_Pl. Nom._ ung-ir ung ung-ar
_Acc._ ung-a ung ung-ar
_Dat._ ung-um ung-um ung-um
_Gen._ ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra

84. So also _fagr_ (fair), fem. _fǫgr_, neut. _fagrt_.

85. Some insert _j_ before _a_ and _u_: _nȳr_ (new), _nȳjum_,
_nȳjan_.

86. Some insert _v_ before a vowel: _hār_ (high), _hāvan_,
_dökkr_ (dark), _dökkvir_, _kykr_ (alive), _kykvir_.

87. The _t_ of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: _nȳtt_,
_hātt_. Monosyllables in _ð_, _dd_, _tt_ form their neut. in
_-tt_: _breiðr_ (broad), _breitt_; _leiddr_ (led), _leitt_.
_gōðr_ (good) has neut. _gott_. _sannr_ (true) has neut. _satt_.
In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, _tt_ is shortened
to _t_: _kallaðr_ (called), _kallat_; _blindr_ (blind), _blint_,
_harðr_ (hard), _hart_, _fastr_ (firm), _fast_.

88. _l_ and _n_ assimilate a following _r_: _gamall_ (old), fem.
_gǫmul_, fem. acc. _gamla_, dat. _gamalli_. _vǣnn_ (beautiful),
gen. pl. _vænna_.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ mikill (_great_) mikit mikil
_Acc._ mikinn mikit mikla
_Dat._ miklum miklu mikilli
_Gen._ mikils mikils mikillar

_Pl. Nom._ miklir mikil miklar
_Acc._ mikla mikil miklar
_Dat._ miklum miklum miklum
_Gen._ mikilla mikilla mikilla

89. So also _lītill_ (little).

90. Dissyllables in _-inn_ have _-it_ in the neut., and _-inn_ in
the masc. sg. acc.: _tīginn_ (distinguished), _tīgit_, _tīginn_,
pl. _tīgnīr_. So also _kominn_ (come).

91.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ annarr (_other_) annat ǫnnur
_Acc._ annan annat aðra
_Dat._ ǫðrum ǫðru annarri
_Gen._ annars annars annarrar

_Pl. Nom._ aðrir ǫnnur aðrar
_Acc._ aðra ǫnnur aðrar
_Dat._ ǫðrum ǫðrum ǫðrum
_Gen._ annarra annarra annarra

Weak Adjectives

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ ung-i ung-a ung-a
_Acc._ ung-a ung-a ung-u
_Dat._ ung-a ung-a ung-u
_Gen._ ung-a ung-a ung-u

_Pl. Nom._ ung-u ung-u ung-u
_Acc._ ung-u ung-u ung-u
_Dat._ ung-u ung-u ung-u
_Gen._ ung-u ung-u ung-u

92. So also _fagri_, _hāvi_, _mikli_, etc.

_Sg. Nom._ yngri (_younger_) yngra yngri
_Acc._ yngra yngra yngri
_Dat._ yngra yngra yngri
_Gen._ yngra yngra yngri

_Pl. Nom._ yngri yngri yngri
_Acc._ yngri yngri yngri
_Dat._ yngrum yngrum yngrum
_Gen._ yngri yngri yngri

93. So also all comparatives, such as _meiri_ (greater), and
pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as _gefandi_
(giving), dat. pl. _gefǫndum_.

Comparison

94. (1) with _-ari_, _-astr_: _rīkr_ (powerful), _rīkari_,
_rīkastr_; _gǫfugr_ (distinguished), _gǫfgari_, _gǫfgastr_.

95. (2) with _-ri_, _-str_ and mutation: _langr_ (long),
_lęngri_, _lęngstr_; _stōrr_ (big), _stœrri_, _stœrstr_; _ungr_
(young), _yngri_, _yngstr_.

96. The following are irregular:

gamall (_old_) ęllri ęlztr
gōðr (_good_) bętri bęztr
illr (_bad_) vęrri vęrstr
lītill (_little_) minni minstr
margr (_many_) fleiri flestr
mikill (_great_) meiri mestr

Numerals

97.

CARDINAL ORDINAL

1. einn (_one_) fyrstr (_first_)
2. tveir annarr
3. þrīr þriði
4. fjōrir fjōrði
5. fimm fimmti
6. sex sētti
7. sjau sjaundi
8. ātta ātti
9. nīu nīundi
10. tīu tīundi
11. ellifu ellifti
12. tōlf tōlfti
13. þrettān þrettāndi
14. fjōrtān
15. fimmtān
16. sextān
17. sjautān
18. ātjān
19. nītjān
20. tuttugu
21. einn ok tuttugu, etc.
30. þrīr tigir, etc.
100. tīu tigir
110. ellifu tigir
120. hundrað
1200. þūsund

_einn_ is declined like other adjectives: -

98.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Nom._ einn eitt ein
_Acc._ einn eitt eina
_Dat._ einum einu einni
_Gen._ eins eins einnar

It also has a pl. _einir_, _einar_, _ein_; gen. _einna_, etc. in
the sense of 'some.'

The next three show various irregularities.

99.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Nom._ tveir tvau tvær
_Acc._ tvā tvau tvær
_Dat._ tveim tveim tveim
_Gen._ tvęggja tvęggja tvęggja

Similarly _bāðir_ (both):

100.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Nom._ bāðir bæði bāðar
_Acc._ bāða bæði bāðar
_Dat._ bāðum bāðum bāðum
_Gen._ bęggja bęggja bęggja

101.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Nom._ þrīr þrjū þrjār
_Acc._ þrjā þrjū þrjār
_Dat._ þrim þrim þrim
_Gen._ þriggja þriggja þriggja

102.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Nom._ fjōrir fjogur fjōrar
_Acc._ fjōra fjogur fjōrar
_Dat._ fjōrum fjōrum fjōrum
_Gen._ fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra

103. The others are indeclinable up to _þrīr tigir_, etc.; the
_tigir_ being declined regularly as a plural strong _u_-masculine
_tigir_, _tigu_, _tigum_, _tiga_.

104. _hundrað_ is a strong neut.: _tvau hundruð_ (240), _tveim
hundruðum_, etc. It governs the gen. (as also does _þūsund_):
_fimm hundruð gōlfa_, 'five (six) hundred chambers.'

105. _þūsund_ is a strong _ir_-feminine: _tvær þūsundir_ (2400).

106. _hundrað_ and _þūsund_ are rarely = 100 and 1000.

107. Of the ordinals _fyrstr_ and _annarr_ (§ 91) are strong, the
others weak adjectives. _þriði_ inserts a _j_: _þriðja_, etc.

Pronouns

108.

Personal

_Sg. Nom._ ek (_I_) þū (_thou_) -
_Acc._ mik þik sik (_oneself_)
_Dat._ mēr þēr sēr
_Gen._ mīn þīn sīn

_Dual Nom._ vit it -
_Acc._ okkr ykkr sik
_Dat._ okkr ykkr sēr
_Gen._ okkar ykkar sīn

_Pl. Nom._ vēr (_we_) þēr (_ye_) -
_Acc._ oss yðr sik (_oneselves_)
_Dat._ oss yðr sēr
_Gen._ vār yðar sīn

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ hann (_he_) þat (_it_) hon (_she_)
_Acc._ hann þat hana
_Dat._ honum þvī hęnni
_Gen._ hans þess hęnnar

_Pl. Nom._ þeir (_they_) þau þær
_Acc._ þā þau þær
_Dat._ þeim þeim þeim
_Gen._ þeira þeira þeira

109. _ek_ was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry,
being sometimes added twice over: _mætta-k_ (I might), _sā-k-a-k_
(I saw not; _a_='not'). So also _þū_: _er-tu_ (art thou),
_skalt-u_ (shalt thou) = _*skalt-tu_.

Possessive

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ minn (_my_) mitt mīn
_Acc._ minn mitt mīna
_Dat._ mīnum mīnu minni
_Gen._ mīns mīns minnar

_Pl. Nom._ mīnir mīn mīnar
_Acc._ mīna mīn mīnar
_Dat._ mīnum mīnum mīnum
_Gen._ minna minna minna

110. So also _þinn_ (thy), _sinn_ (his, etc., reflexive).

111. _vārr_, _vārt_, _vār_ (our) is regular: acc. masc. _vārn_,
masc. plur. _vārir_, _vāra_, _vārum_, _vārra_, etc.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ yðarr (_your_) yðart yður
_Acc._ yðarn yðart yðra
_Dat._ yðrum yðru yðarri
_Gen._ yðars yðars yðarrar

_Pl. Nom._ yðrir yður yðrar
_Acc._ yðra yður yðrar
_Dat._ yðrum yðrum yðrum
_Gen._ yðarra yðarra yðarra

112. So also _okkarr_ (our two) and _ykkarr_ (your two).

113. _hans_ (his), _þess_ (its), _hęnnar_ (her), and _þeira_
(their) are indeclinable.

Demonstrative

114.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ sā (_that_) þat sū
_Acc._ þann þat þā
_Dat._ þeim þvī þeiri
_Gen._ þess þess þeirar

_Pl. Nom._ þeir þau þær
_Acc._ þā þau þær
_Dat._ þeim þeim þeim
_Gen._ þeira þeira þeira

115. _hinn_, _hitt_, _hin_ (that) is inflected like _minn_
(except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. _hinn_,
plur. masc. _hinir_, _hina_, _hinum_, _hinna_.

116.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ þessi (_this_) þetta þessi
_Acc._ þenna þetta þessa
_Dat._ þessum þessu þessi
_Gen._ þessa þessa þessar

_Pl. Nom._ þessir þessi þessar
_Acc._ þessa þessi þessar
_Dat._ þessum þessum þessum
_Gen._ þessa þessa þessa

Definite

The prefixed definite article is declined thus:

117.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ inn it in
_Acc._ inn it ina
_Dat._ inum inu inni
_Gen._ ins ins innar

_Pl. Nom._ inir in inar
_Acc._ ina in inar
_Dat._ inum inum inum
_Gen._ inna inna inna

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In
its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short
(un-accented) vowel, as in _auga-t_ (the eye), but keeps it after
a long vowel, as in _ā-in_ (the river), _trē-it_ (the tree). The
dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere;
not, however, after the _-ar_, _-r_, of the gen. sg., nor in
_męnninir_ (men, _nom._), _męnn-ina_ (men, _acc._). The _-m_ of
the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed _-num_.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ fiskr-inn skip-it gjǫf-in
_Acc._ fisk-inn skip-it gjǫf-ina
_Dat._ fiski-num skipi-nu gjǫf-inni
_Gen._ fisks-ins skips-ins gjafar-innar

_Pl. Nom._ fiskar-nir skip-in gjafar-nar
_Acc._ fiska-na skip-in gjafar-nar
_Dat._ fisku-num skipu-num gjǫfu-num
_Gen._ fiska-nna skipa-nna gjafa-nna

_Sg. Nom._ bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n
_Acc._ boga-nn auga-t tungu-na
_Dat._ boga-num auga-nu tungu-nni
_Gen._ boga-ns auga-ns tungu-nnar

_Pl. Nom._ bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar
_Acc._ boga-na augu-n tungur-nar
_Dat._ bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num
_Gen._ boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna

Relative

119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable _er_, often
preceded by _sā_: _sā er_ = he who, who, _sū er_ who fem.

Interrogative

120. The neut. _hvat_ has gen. _hvess_, dat. _hvī_, which last is
chiefly used as an adverb = 'why.'

121.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ hvārr (_which hvārt hvār
of two_)
_Acc._ hvārn hvārt hvāra
_Dat._ hvārum hvāru hvārri
_Gen._ hvārs hvārs hvārrar

_Pl. Nom._ hvārir hvār hvārar
_Acc._ hvāra hvār hvārar
_Dat._ hvārum hvārum hvārum
_Gen._ hvārra hvārra hvārra

122.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ hvęrr (_which, hvęrt hvęr
who_)
_Acc._ hvęrn hvęrt hvęrja
_Dat._ hvęrjum hvęrju hvęrri
_Gen._ hvęrs hvęrs hvęrrar

_Pl. Nom._ hvęrir hvęr hvęrjar
_Acc._ hvęrja hvęr hvęrjar
_Dat._ hvęrjum hvęrjum hvęrjum
_Gen._ hvęrra hvęrra hvęrra

Indefinite

123. _einn-hvęrr_, _eitthvęrt_, _einhvęr_ (some one) keeps an
invariable _ein-_ in the other cases, the second element being
inflected as above.

124. _sumr_ (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.

125.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ nakkvarr nakkvat nǫkkur
(_some_)
_Acc._ nakkvarn nakkvat nakkvara
_Dat._ nǫkkurum nǫkkuru nakkvarri
_Gen._ nakkvars nakkvars nakkvarrar

_Pl. Nom._ nakkvarir nǫkkur nakkvarar
_Acc._ nakkvara nǫkkur nakkvarar
_Dat._ nǫkkurum nǫkkurum nǫkkurum
_Gen._ nakkvarra nakkvarra nakkvarra

126.

MASC. NEUT. FEM.

_Sg. Nom._ engi (_none, ekki engi
no_)
_Acc._ engan ekki enga
_Dat._ engum engu engri
_Gen._ engis engis engrar

_Pl. Nom._ engir engi engar
_Acc._ enga engi engar
_Dat._ engum engum engum
_Gen._ engra engra engra

127. In _hvār-tvęggja_ (each of the two, both) the first element
is declined as above, the second is left unchanged.

Verbs

128. There are two classes of verbs, _strong_ and _weak_. Strong
verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by
adding _ð_ (_d_, _t_).

129. The _ð_ of the 2 pl. is dropt before _þit_ (ye two) and
_þēr_ (ye): _gefi þēr_, _gāfu þit_.

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in _-mk_ in the 1 pers.
sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding _sk_ to
the active endings, _r_ being dropt, the resulting _ts_, _ðs_
being written _z_ (§ 36): _kvezk_ (active _kveðr_ 'says'), _þu
fekkzk_ (_fekkt_ 'gottest').

131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb _gefa_
(give), which will show those endings which are common to all
verbs:

Active

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

_Present sg._ 1. gef gef-a
2. gef-r gef-ir
3. gef-r gef-i

_pl._ 1. gef-um gef-im
2. gef-ið gef-ið
3. gef-a gef-i

_Preterite sg._ 1. gaf gæf-a
2. gaf-t gæf-ir
3. gaf gæf-i

_pl._ 1. gāf-um gæf-im
2. gāf-uð gæf-ið
3. gāf-u gæf-i

_Imperative sg._ 2 gef; _pl._ 1 gef-um, 2 gef-ið.
_Participle pres._ gef-andi; _pret._ gef-inn.
_Infin._ gefa.

Middle

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE

_Pres. sg._ 1. gef-umk gef-umk
2. gef-sk gef-isk
3. gef-sk gef-isk

_pl._ 1. gef-umk gef-imk
2. gef-izk gef-izk
3. gef-ask gef-isk

_Pret. sg._ 1. gāf-umk gæf-umk
2. gaf-zk gæf-isk
3. gaf-sk gæf-isk

_pl._ 1. gāf-umk gæf-imk
2. gāf-uzk gæf-izk
3. gāf-usk gæf-isk

_Impers. sg._ 2 gef-sk; _pl._ 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk.
_Partic. pres._ gef-andisk; _pret._ gef-izk _neut._
_Infin._ gef-ask.

Strong Verbs

132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally
has a different vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of
the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: _gāfumk_.
The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated:
_skaut_ (he shot), _skutu_ (they shot), _skyti_ (he might shoot).
But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: _hljōpi_,
inf. _hlaupa_ (leap).

133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three
persons: _ek skȳt_, _þū skȳtr_, _hann skȳtr_, infin. _skjōta_
(shoot). _e_ however is not mutated: _ek gef_, _þū gefr_. The
inflectional _r_ is liable to the same modifications as the _r_
of nouns (§ 32): _skīnn_, _vęx_, infin. _skīna_ (shine), _vaxa_
(grow).

134. Verbs in _ld_ change the _d_ into _t_ in the 1, 3 sg. pret.
indic. and in the imper. sg.: _helt_ (held), _halt_ (hold!),
infin. _halda_. _nd_ becomes _tt_, and _ng_ becomes _kk_ under
the same conditions: _binda_ (bind), _ganga_ (go), pret. _batt_,
_gekk_, imper. _bitt_, _gakk_.

135. The _t_ of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long
accented vowel: _þū sātt_ (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret.
indic. ends in _t_ or _ð_, the 2 sg. ends in _zt_: _lēt_ (I let),
_þū lēzt_, _bauð_ (I offered) _þū bauzt_.

136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished
mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites.

137.

I. 'Fall'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

falla (_fall_) fęllr fell fellu fallinn
lāta (_let_) lætr lēt lētu lātinn
rāða (_advise_) ræðr rēð rēðu rāðinn
heita (_call_) heitr hēt hētu heitinn
halda (_hold_) hęldr helt heldu haldinn
ganga (_go_) gęngr gekk gengu gęnginn
fā (_get_) fær fekk fengu fęnginn
- - - - - - - - -
auka (_increase_) eykr jōk jōku aukinn
būa (_dwell_) bȳr bjō bjoggu būinn
hǫggva (_hew_) hǫggr hjō hjoggu hǫggvinn
hlaupa (_leap_) hleypr hljōp hljōpu hlaupinn

138. The following have weak preterites in _r_:

grōa (_grow_) grœr gröri gröru grōinn
rōa (_row_) rœr röri röru rōinn
snūa (_twist_) snȳr snöri snöru snūinn

139. _heita_ in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a
weak present: _ek heiti_, _þū heitir_.

140.

II. 'Shake'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

fara (_go_) fęrr fōr fōru farinn
grafa (_dig_) gręfr grōf grōfu grafinn
hlaða (_load_) hlęðr hlōð hlōðu hlaðinn
vaxa (_grow_) vęx ōx ōxu vaxinn
standa (_stand_) stęndr stōð stōðu staðinn
aka (_drive_) ękr ōk ōku ękinn
taka (_take_) tękr tōk tōku tękinn
draga (_draw_) dręgr drō drōgu dręginn
flā (_flay_) flær flō flōgu flęginn
slā (_strike_) slær slō slōgu slęginn

141. The following have weak presents:

hęfja (_lift_) hęfr hōf hōfu hafinn
deyja (_die_) deyr dō dō dāinn
hlæja (_laugh_) hlær hlō hlōgu hlęginn

142.

III. 'Bind'-conjugation

INFIN. THIRD PRES. PRT. SING. PRT. PL. PTC. PRT.

bresta (_burst_) brestr brast brustu brostinn
hverfa (_turn_) hverfr hvarf hurfu horfinn
svelga (_swallow_) svelgr svalg sulgu sōlginn
verða (_become_) verðr varð urðu orðinn
skjālfa (_shake_) skelfr skalf skulfu skolfinn
drekka (_drink_) drekkr drakk drukku drukkinn
finna (_find_) finnr fann fundu fundinn
vinna (_win_) vinnr vann unnu unninn


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