Francisco ; and Doctor McLean's and Doctor
Eell's of Oakland.
A specimen of their amusing attempts at
English, is given herewith, as found at the en-
trance to an alley or court on Sacramento Street,
just below Stockton:
MA KE (M(*E
LI yE IN THE LANE
The meaning is, Lee Tuck makes cages, and
his workshop is at No. or room 16, in the alley
or court, and it can be reached without climbing
long flights of rickety stairs, and this being his
dwelling also, he is at home at all times.
Whether they are more successful in making
poetry, the reader may determine, from the fol-
lowing, which has been attributed to one of
their scholars, but perhaps erroneously, viz :
" How doth the little husy bee,
Delight to bark and bite,
And gather honey all the day,
And eat it up at night."
It is even doubtful whether it has been de-
rived in any way from Confucius, or any of
Instances are told of their honesty to an extent
that is exceedingly rare among American Chris-
tians, as of one who in purchasing a knife select-
ed one at a dollar and a half, instead of one at
half a dollar, and received a dollar too much in
change, and discovered the error only after he
reached his home. The next day he walked back
three miles to return the money !
(UHojttkrs of tlw Jlwfeg
The Yellowstone Park,
HOW TO REACH IT.
Bjr Prof. F. V. Harden, â€” U. S. geological Surrey.
The Yellowstone Park is the grandest pleasure
ground and resort for wonderful scenery on the
American Continent, and doubtless the time is
not far distant, when Pacific tourists will make
it one of their most interesting pleasure trips.
The word park, naturally brings to the mind
of the reader, visions of the park as he finds it
in our eastern cities, or in foreign capitals ; with
its beautiful drives, and its well kept walks, and
neatly trimmed grass-plats. In imagination he
sees the usual sign-board ; with rules and regula-
tions, and the warning, " keep off the grass."
He sees them in imagination alone ; for in the
Yellowstone National Park, roads are few and
far between. Animals untamed, sufficient to
furnish innumerable zoological gardens, wander
at will through the dense pine forests, or bask
in the sunlight in beautiful grassy openings,
whose surfaces are perfect flower gardens, re-
splendent with hues that rival the rainbow.
Elk, deer, antelope, and smaller game, are
found in profusion ; and all the streams and
lakes abound in fish ; large and delicious trout ;
making the park a paradise for the hunter and
To the artist, and lover of nature, are pre-
sented combinations of beauty in grand pan-
oramas and magnificent landscapes, that are
seldom equaled elsewhere. Snow-capped mount-
ains tower grandly above the valley, seeming to
pierce the clouds ; while at their feet are streams,
that now plunge into the depths of dark and
profound canons, and anon emerge into lovely
meadow-like valleys through which they wind
in graceful curves; often expanding into noble
lakes with pine fringed shores, or breaking into
picturesque falls and rapids.
To the student of science, few portions of the
globe present more that is calculated to instruct
or entertain. Strange phenomena are abundant.
In the crevices of rocks, which are the result of
volcanic action, are found almost all the known
varieties of hot springs and geysers. Geysers
like those of Iceland are here seen on a grander
scale. The wonderful " Te Tarata " Spring of
New Zealand, has its rival in the Mammoth Hot
Springs of Gardiner's River ; while the mud
springs and mud geysers of Java have their rep-
resentatives. Sulphur and steam vents, that
are usually found in similar regions, are nu-
Captains Lewis and Clarke, in their explora-
tion of the head waters of the Missouri, in 1805,
seem to have heard nothing of the marvels at the
sources of the Madison and Yellowstone. They
placed Yellowstone Lake on their map, as a large
body of water, having in all probability, derived
their information from the Indians.
In later years, however, there began to be
rumors of burning plains, boiling springs, vol-
canoes that ejected water and mud ; great lakes,
and other wonders. The imagination was freely
drawn upon, and most astounding tales were
told, of petrified forests, peopled with petrified
Indians ; and animals turned to stone. Streams
were said to flow so rapidly over their rocky
beds, that the water became heated.
In 1859, Colonel Eaynolds, of the United
States Corps of Engineers, passed entirely
around the Yellowstone Basin. He intended
going to the head of the Yellowstone, and down
the river, and across to the three forks of the
Missouri, but was unable to carry out his plans.
In 1869, a party under Cook and Folsom, visited
Yellowstone Lake and the Geyser Basins of the
Madison, but no report of their trip was pub-
The first trustworthy accounts given of the re-
gion, were the result of an expedition led by
General Washburn, the Surveyor-General of
T'JXE &mâ‚¬IFIÂ© TQUtllST.
Montana, and escorted by a small body of U. S.
Cavalry, under Lieut. G. C. Doane, in 1870.
They spent about a month in the interesting
localities on the Yellowstone and Madison Riv-
ers, and Mr. N. P. Laugford made the results of
the exploration known to the world, in two ar-
ticles published in the second volui if Scrib-
ner'i Magazine, Lieutenant Doane also made a
report to the War Department, which was pub-
lished by the government. (Ex. Dim-., No. 51,
1 1 st Congress).
In 1(S71, a large ami thoroughly organized party
made a systematic survey, under the auspices of
the Department of the Interior, conducted by Dr.
Hayden, United States Geologist. He was accom-
panied, also, by a small party, under Brevet Col.
John W Barlow, Chief Engineer of the Mili-
tary Department of the Missouri, who was sent
out by General Sheridan.
Through the accurate and detailed reports of
that exploration, tne wonders of the Yellowstone
became widely known, both at home and abroad.
In February, IsVl', the Congress of the United
States passed an act reserving an area of about
3,400 square miles, in the north-western corner
of Wyoming Territory, and intruding partially
upon Montana, withdrawing it from settlement,
occupancy, or sale, under the laws of the United
States ; dedicating and setting it apart as a pub-
lic Park, or pleasuring ground, for the benefit
and enjoyment of the people.
Ii extends from the 1 1th to the 45th parallel
of latitude, and from the 110th meridian to a
short, distance beyond the 111th. Its general
elevation is high; averaging about 6,000 feet; or
nearlj the height of Mount Washington, in the
White Mountains. The Mountain Ranges have
a general elevation from 9,000 to 10,000 feet
above sea level, although many sharp and rug-
ged peaks rise considerably above this. The
country is so elevated that it could scarcely ever
be available for agricultural purposes. The win-
ter extends far into the spring, and it is no un-
usual thing to find snow covering September's
During July and August the weather is de-
lightful ; the thermometer rarely, if ever, rising
higher than 711Â° Fahrenheit. In the early morn-
ing, however, it often records 26Â° ; and some-
times tails as low as 1(1Â° or ll"-'. The air is so
dry and invigorating that the cold is not felt as
much as higher temperatures are, in the moister
Near the north-east corner of the Park, heads
Clarke's Fork, of the Yellowstone From the
south-west, Snake River, or Lewis' Fork of the
Columbia, starts toward the Pacific; while on
the western side, the Madison and Gallatin
Rivers, two of the three branches that unite to
form the Missouri, have their origin.
We can climb a low ridge and see the water
flowing beneath our feet ; the st reams on one side
destined to mingle with the might} Pacific, and,
perhaps, to lave the shores of China and Japan;
while those on the other. How down the Missouri
and Mississippi Rivers, to be lost eventually in
the great Atlantic. Who knows but that drops
of water, starting here in opposite directions.
may some day meet on an opposite quarter of
The largesi mass of water in the Park is the
Yellowstone Lake, which lies near the south-
eastern corner of the Park, from the upper part
of which the Yellowstone River flows in a north-
erly direction, and alter a course of 1,300 miles.
reaches the Missouri, having descended about
7,iiiiit feet. Thus we have here the heads, or
sources, of two of the largest rivers of the Conti-
nent, rising in close- proximity to each other.
The divides, or water-sheds between them, are
comparatively low, and sometimes it is difficult
to say in which direction the water flows;
whether to the Pacific, or to the Atlantic.
Routes to the National Park. â€” There
are several routes to the wonder-land of the Na-
tional Park. The first, which is the most practi-
cable, the pleasantest, and the one in common
use, is the following, via Ogden :
Ogden, Utah, is reached from the Fast rin the
Union Pacific Railroad, and connecting lines,
and from the West by the Central Pacific Rail-
From Ogden, fake the Utah Northern Railroad
to Franklin in Idaho Territory, whence there
is a stage line to Virginia City and Bozeman.
The tourist has the choice of starting from either
of these places, at both of which a complete out-
fit of supplies, animals and guides may be ob-
From Bozeman, the route is up the Yellow-
stone River and across to the Geyser Basins, and
thence by way of the Madison River to Virginia
City. This is the route that will be followed in
the description. There is a wagon road from
Bozeman to the Mammoth Hot Springs, where
there is said to be a hotel.
From Virginia City there is tin' choice of two
roads, one of which is to cross to the Madison
and follow the trail up the river through the
Second Canon to the (ieyser Basins. The best,
however, is to follow the wagon road which is
completed to the Upper (ieyser Basin. It leaves
the south-eastern limit of Virginia City, and
strikes the Madison near Wigwam Creek, when'
it crosses the river and follows it to a point just
above the crossing of Lawrence Creek. Here it
recrosses and closely follows the river to Drift-
wood or Big Bend, three miles below the Second
Canon. It then leaves the Madison Valley and
crosses through ltaynolds' Pass to Henry's Lake,
the head water of Henry's Fork of Snake River.
From Sawtelle's ltanche, on the lake, the road
follows the east shore of the lake for three miles
in a southerly direction, when it turns to the
TSE PstGIFIC fWCWSr.
north-east and passes through Tyghee or Targee
Pass and down Heaver Dam Creek, over the
South Fork of the Madison, and strikes the
mouth of the Fire Hole Canon, 10 miles below
the Lower Geyser Basin. It then follows the
river elosely, crossing twice before reaching the
From the basins, the route is either via Mud
Volcanoes, Shoshone Lake, or Yellowstone Lake,
to the Yellowstone and Bozeman. About a
month ought to be allowed for the round trip.
A second route, and one which shortens the
stage ride, is to purchase an outfit at Salt Lake,
or Ogden, and send it ahead to Market Lake, in
Snake River Valley, joining it via the railroad
to Franklin and stage line to Market Lake.
This saves about 230 miles of staging. It is
about 100 miles by a pack train trail from
Market Lake to Henry's Lake from which point
the Virginia City wagon road is followed to the
" Geyser Basins."
Another route from Market Lake, which is
long and somewhat out of the way, but more in-
teresting, as it gives an opportunity to visit
Mount Hayden and passes some magnificent
scenery, is to travel with a pack train up Pierre's
River, across Teton Pass, and up the main Snake
River to Shoshone Lake, whence the other points
of interest in the Park are readily reached. This
is one of the routes followed by the Hayden
Geological Survey in 1872.
Third. Camp Brown is a military post about
120 miles from Rawlins Springs Station on the
Union Pacific Railroad, with which it is con-
neated by a stage road. The trail from Camp
Brown to Yellowstone Lake is said to be easy
and the distance only about 140 miles. It crosses
the mountains at the head of the Upper Yellow-
stone River, which stream it follows to the lake.
Captain Jones, in 1873, surveyed a route from
Point of Rocks Station, on the Union Pacific
Railroad, via Camp Brown, the Wind River
Valley, and the head of Wind River to the Yel-
lowstone. He claims that it saves 482 miles in
reaching Yellowstone Lake. The great draw-
back is that it is often unsafe on account of
Indians, and very much obstructed by fallen
Fourth. There is the Missouri River route.
The river is navigable as far as Fort Benton
until late in the summer, and thence 140 miles
of staging will take us to Helena, 118 miles from
From Bismark, the present terminus of the
Northern Pacific Railroad, a trip of tenor fifteen
days, will bring the traveler to Fort Benton. It
will lie a tedious journey, however, over the
'â€¢ bad lands " of Dakotah.
Another plan is to disembark at the mouth of
the Mussel Shell River, and having ordered
horses to be in readiness, to take the wagon trail
to the Crow Indian Agency at the Big Bend of
the Yellowstone. This woidd give 150 miles of
land travel through a prairie country abounding
in antelope and buffalo, and sometimes Indians.
The National Park may also be visited from
the British Possessions, and also by a road which
follows the Hell Gate and Bitter Root Rivers
from the west, from Walla Walla.
Outfitting. â€” A few words about outfitting
may be useful.
It is scarcely worth while to take wagons, as
they can be taken over only a portion of the
route, while a pack train may be taken any-
where. The latter is therefore preferable, and
for it a saddle animal apiece, and two pack
mules for every three persons, will be sufficient,
if too many delicacies are not carried. A better
allowance is one pack mule for every member of
the party. Two packers and a cook will be re-
quired. One of the former ought to be well ac-
quainted with the country, so as to act also in the
capacity of guide. A hunter will also be a
good addition to the party. Such men can easily
be found at Bozeman and Virginia City.
Thick woolen clothing, stout boots, and broad-
brimmed hats should be worn. Tents, plenty
of blankets, and hunting and fishing tackle
should not be neglected. In the way of provis-
ions, substantials are in order ; $25 per man, for a
month's trip, will be a liberal allowance. Pack
and saddle animals can be procured at Bozeman
or Virginia City, for from $60 to $125 apiece.
The^ following tables of distances, are com-
piled principally from the reports of the United
States Geological Survey :
Ogden. Utah, to Franklin, Idaho, hy rail, 8fl>j miles.
Franklin to Virginia City, Montana, (stage), 317 miles.
Virginia City to Bozeman, (stage). 66 miles.
Franklin to Market Lake. Snake River Valley, 152 miles.
Point of Rocks Station, Union Pacific Radroad
lo Yellowstone Lake, hy Captain Jones' route, 289 miles.
BOZEMAN TO GEYSER BASINS, Via YELLOWSTONE RIVER.
Divide between Spring and Trail Creek9,
Boteler's Ranche on Yellowstone River,
Foot of Second Canon of the Ye'lowslone,
Devil's Slide at Cinnabar Mountain.
Bridge near mouth of Gai diner's River,
Cache Valley, the mouth of East Fork of Yel-
Crossing of Tower Creek,
Divide on spur from Mount Washburn,
Crossing of Cascade Creek,
Yellowstone Lake at head of River,
Head of Yellowstone River, lo Hot Springs on
South-west arm of Lake.
Hot Springs to Upper Geyser Basin.
Mud Volcanoes to Lower Geyser Basin.
Bridge near mouth of Gardiner's River, to
Mammoth Hot Springs, 4 miles.
MARKET LAKE TO YELLOWSTONE LAKE.
Lower Geyser Basin,
Upper Geyser Basin,
Shoshone Geyser Basiu,
Hot. Springs, Yellowstone Lake,
VIRGINIA CITY TO YELLOWSTONE LAKE, via TV AGON ROAD
TO GEYSER BASINS.
Virginia City, miles.
Madison Itiver. half mile from Wigwam Creek, 14 miles.
Driftwood or Big Bend of Madison, 42 miles.
Henry's Lake, 60 miles.
Tyghee Pass, 63 miles.
Gibbons' Fork, 86 miles.
l^ower Geyser Basin, 93 miles.
Upper Geyser Basiu, 101 miles.
Yellowstone Lake, 116 miles.
The Yellowstone J'allei/. â€” Starting from
Bozeman, or Fort Ellis, â€” -three miles from the
former place, and one of the most important
military posts in the West, protecting, as it does,
the rich agricultural Gallatin Valley from the
incursions of the Indians, â€” we follow up a small
branch of tin' East Gallatin, through a pictur-
esque canon, in which the road crosses and re-
en isscs the stream many times, in the seven
miles of its length.
From the head of this creek we cross a low
saddle to Trail Creek, down which we proceed to
the valley of the Yellowstone. Long before we
reach it our eyes are greeted with the summits of
one of the most symmetrical and remarkable
ranges to be seen in the West; the Snowy Yel-
lowstone Range, standing on the eastern side of
the river. Sharp, jagged peaks and pyramidal
masses stand out boldly against the sky, their
snow-crowned heads glittering in the sunlight.
As we come into the valley, the first view is
grand and picturesque. The vista extends for
thirty miles along the river ; on the opposite side
the mountains rise magnificently. Emigrant
Peak, 10,029 feet above sea level and nearly
0,000 feet above the valley, stands at the
head of the range, and from its melting snows
are fed numerous streams that water the hills
and plains, sloping to the river.
About 40 miles from Bozeman we reach Bo-
teler's Ranche. For a long time, the Boteler
brothers were the pioneers of civilization in this
region, and (hey have, with true liberality, en-
tertained numerous parties on their way to the
springs and lake.
From Holder's to the Second Canon, a distance
of about 10 miles, the road keeps on the west
side of I he river, skirting the base of low vol-
The Second Canon stands at the head of the
valley we have just described. It is a gorge less
than a mile in length, cut in granitic rocks, which
rise precipitously on either side for a thousand
feet or more. The road here i? really hewn in im
the rock. The river, of a beautiful green color,
rushes furiously through the narrow pass, broken
into foam-capped waves by the rocks, which seem
to dispute its right of way. One of the most
agreeable features of the canon, and one rJso
which is not confined to it. is the abundance of
trout waiting to be drawn from its pools and
Above the canon the valley widens, and we
pass over a sage brush covered bottom for about
ten miles, to the next point of interest, the
"Devil's Slide," at Cinnabar Mountain. This
curious freak of nature is somewhat like the
Slide in Weber Canon, on the Union Pacific
Railroad, but is on a much larger scale. Two
parallel walls of rock, each 50 feet wide and 300
feet high, extend from the summit of the mount-
ain to its base. They are separated about 150
feet ; the rock between, and on both sides, hav-
ing been removed by erosion. Their sides are as
even as if worked with line and plumb. On
either side of the main slide are smaller ones,
and in one, is a bright red band, 20 feet wide,
extending from the top to the bottom, about
1,500 feet. From this red band of clay, which
was mistaken for cinnabar, was given the name
Cinnabar Mountain. The earlier explorers of
these regions, the mountaineers and trappers,
were evidently impressed with the novelty of the
phenomena, and seem to have dedicated many of
the localities with satanic names, which from
their fitness, are not likely to be superseded.
Thus we have "Devil's Slide;" "Hell Roaring
River;" "Fire-Hole Prairie ;"" Devil's Glen,"
Above Cinnabar Mountain the valley is more
broken ; and we cross several ridges, strewn
with boulders of dark volcanic rocks, obsidian
chips, and beautiful specimens of chalcedony
Six miles above the slide, we come to the foot
of the Third Canon, where the Yellowstone is
joined by Gardiner's River, or Warm Spring
Creek, as it was originally called. Here we
leave the river to visit one of the crowning won-
ders of the region.
The Mammoth White Mountain Hot
Springs, â€” Tins group of springs, is one of the
most remarkable within the limits of the Na-
tional Park, and as far as is known, has not its
equal in grandeur in the world. The Te Tarata
Spring 01 New Zealand, is the nearest approach
to it in appearance, but the formation is of
a different character; the Gardiner's River
Springs depositing calcareous material, while
that in New Zealand is siliceous, like the deposits
in the geyser region of Iceland, and in our own
geyser Basins, at the head of the Madison. The
exploring party of 1*70. did not discover these
springs, and the Hayden Exploring Expedition
of 1871, was the first organized party that ever
Leaving the Yellowstone, we keep some 300
or 400 feet above the level of the river for a
couple of miles, passing several small lakes.
when wc descend to the bank of Gardiner's
River, on the eastern side of which is a high
bluff of cretaceous sandstones capped with a
TME &&GIFIG T&&&IST.
MTS. HAVDEN AND MORAN.
layer of volcanic rock. On the edge of the
stream, we pass over a hard, calcareous crust,
in which we find several warm springs. At one
point we pass a considerable stream of hot water,
revealed by the clouds of steam rising from
it, flowing from beneath the crust into the river.
Turning to the right, we ascend the hill, made
of the same calcareous deposit, which gives forth
a hollow sound beneath the tread of our horses.
This hill must have been the scene of active
springs ages ago. Now, however, the deposit
has crumbled, and is overgrown with pines.
The springs once were much more numerous
and far more active than at present.
Ascending the hill, and turning to the left, we
come suddenly upon the marvelous scene. Be-
FME &&CIFIC TOL'tflST.
fore us stands oue of the finest of nature's archi-
tectural efforts, in a mass of snowy white de-
posits, 200 feet high. It. has the appearance of
some grand cascade that has been suddenly ar-
rested in its descent, and frozen. The springs
are arranged on a series of ten-aces, thai rise one
above the ether like steps. There are I 'teen
of these terraces with active springs, and others
in which they are extinct.
The deposits extend from the level of Gar-
diner's River, to the head of a gorge 1,000 feet
higher, a distance of over 5,000 feet. The
area occupied by it, including the extinct basins,
is about three square miles.
The lowest terrace is flat, and its basins are
very shallow and destitute of water. From their
midst rises the "Liberty Cap," a conical mass
about 50 feet high, composed of calcareous
sediment. The principal springs are contained
in the mass extending from the second to the
twelfth terraces, inclusive. Here the basins are
most perfect, surrounded with beautiful scal-
loped edges. The water falls from the upper
basins to the lower, becoming cooler as it de-
scends, so that water of almost any temperature
may be found in which to bathe. At the head
of the gulch are several mounds, in which there
are miniature geysers. The springs are changing
from year to year; dying out in some places, and
breaking out in others.
Toward the head of Gardiner's River are
several beautiful cascades, and the scenery in
the vicinity of the springs is varied and beauti-
ful. We must wend our way up the river in
search of new wonders. We can follow either of
two trails; one up the Yellowstone River, and
the other up Gardiner's River. Both trails
eventually unite, ami lead us to the mouth of
the East, Fork of the Yellowstone, about I'll
miles from Gardiner's River. A trip up the East
Fork will repay the tourist. The scenery is