Henry Vincent Hubbard.

Landscape architecture ; a comprehensive classification scheme for books, plans, photographs, notes and other collected material, with combined alphabetic topic index and list of subject headings online

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Online LibraryHenry Vincent HubbardLandscape architecture ; a comprehensive classification scheme for books, plans, photographs, notes and other collected material, with combined alphabetic topic index and list of subject headings → online text (page 1 of 9)
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Landscape Architecture



A COMPREHENSIVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

FOR BOOKS, PLANS, PHOTOGRAPHS, NOTES

AND OTHER COLLECTED MATERIAL

WITH COMBINED
ALPHABETIC TOPIC INDEX A.\
OF SUBJECT HEALINGS



BY



HENRY VINCKinT Hu ..liARD

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF 1,A !)&'^'.vPk'aBCITITECTLBE
AT HARVARD t NlVRRSt TY

AND

THEODORA KiMliALL

I.TBRARIAN OF TilU SfHOOL Oy IjANIjSCAPE AECBITECTURE
AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY




CAMBRIDGE
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRF'-^-



•Mm



i'mli



Landscape Architecture

A COMPREHENSIVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

FOR BOOKS, PLANS, PHOTOGRAPHS, NOTES

AND OTHER COLLECTED MATERIAL



WITH COMBINED

ALPHABETIC TOPIC INDEX AND LIST

OF SUBJECT HEADINGS



BY

HENRY VINCENT (HLIBBARD

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF luA.NDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY

AND

THEODORA KIMBALL

LIBUARIAX OF THE SCHOOL OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY




CAMBRIDGE
HAR\ARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

19^20



\fy \ L-^






^S^



COPYRIGHT, 1920
BY HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS



TABLE OF CONTENTS



PAGE



Preface and Guide to the Use of the Classification 5

Definition of the Field of Landscape Architecture ... 5

Usefulness of the Classification 5

Practical Application of the Classification to Arrange-
ment of Existing Material b

This Classification in relation to other Classification

Schemes 7

Preliminary Landscape Architecture Scheme ... 7

City Planning Classification 7

Library of Congress Classification 8

Adaptations to other Systems of Classification . . 9

Organization of this Classification 9

Headings 9

Numbering 10

Indentation 11

Explanatory Notes 11

Cross-references 12

Summary Outline 12

Geographical Table 12

The Index and List of Subject Headings 13

Acknowledgments 13

Summary Outline 15

Classification Scheme 21

Geographical Table 91

General 91

Estates and Gardens 93

Alphabetic List of Subject Headings and Index to the

Classification Scheme 97

Introductory Note . 97

List and Index 99

W

3



4256ai'



PREFACE

AND GUIDE TO THE USE OF THE CLASSIFICATION



DEFINITION OF THE FIELD OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

" Landscape Architecture is the art of fitting land for
human use and enjoyment.

" The Landscape Architect designs and advises regarding
the arrangement, and directs the development, of land and
the objects upon it in connection with private grounds and
gardens, institutions, public parks, playgrounds and squares,
cemeteries, streets and parkways, residential communities,
and problems of city and regional planning." ^

USEFULNESS OF THE CLASSIFICATION

This is the first comprehensive classification of the field
of Landscape Architecture. It attempts to show in detail
both the subjects making up the field, as far as possible in
their logical relations and as regarded from various points of
view, and also the relation of the field itself to tangent fields.
The profession of Landscape Architecture is now so well
established, with a background of accomplishment, and pub-
lic familiarity with the subject and with its literature is now
so general, that a classification can be produced with the
reasonable certainty that its main divisions will remain per-
manently useful, and that future developments of the sub-
ject can find logical places within the present outline, with
changes, if at all, only in some of the minor headings. This
classification has been worked out primarily for use with the
extensive collections of the Harvard School of Landscape
Architecture Library, and has proved increasingly satis-
factory through eight years of development and adaptation.

The Classification Scheme should prove useful to libra-
ries, to offices of practitioners, and to students, who need an
organized scheme under which to file and record the data

1 From Official Statement of Professional Practice, American Society of
Landscape Ajchitects, Adopted September, 1919.



PREFACE

they are collecting, and a logical analysis of the subject
showing as a whole the ground which their education may
eventually cover.

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE CLASSIFICATION TO EXISTING
MATERIAL

In collections relating to landscape architecture the fol-
lowing forms of material are useful for reference : published
Hterature, including books, pamphlets, reports, periodical
articles, and clippings; graphic material, published or in orig-
inal form, including maps, plans, drawings, photographs,
plates, postcards and miscellaneous pictorial matter; manu-
script material, including notes and bibliographical refer-
ences. In order that one outline of the subject shall cover
material in such various forms, clearly certain sections must
provide more particularly for books or pamphlets, and cer-
tain other sections more particularly for pictorial material.
The several parts of this classification scheme are therefore
developed according to the amount and form of material
to be classified under each.

The classification scheme has been developed also to pro-
vide alternative places to classify material when considered
from various points of view or with certain special uses in
mind. For example, photographs of walls, fences, hedges,
and shrub borders enclosing gardens might be classified
respectively in the places provided for them as physical
objects; i.e., under Structures, 3300 + , and under Plan-
tations, 1827, etc., 2424; or again they might be grouped
in 4327, being considered as boundaries of a garden. And
a selection of a dozen photographs of various subjects, each
classifiable elsewhere, might be brought together in 1174, as
examples of landscape composition. In the design collec-
tion of photographs at the Harvard School of Landscape
Architecture Library, it has been found desirable to classify
the bulk of photographs according to their actual object
classification, but to select groups of photographs suggestive
in designing for classification under Landscape Composition,
Garden Design, etc.

There are similar possibilities for arranging manuscript
notes from various points of view, with cross-references as

6



PREFACE

necessary. In fact, for the student, the classification scheme
has unusual value for the fiUng of notes; and an up-to-date
alphabetic index to the notes may be maintained in the
printed index to the classification scheme bj' making a
check mark against the topics used.

THIS CLASSIFICATION IN RELATION TO OTHER CLASSIFICATION
SCHEMES

Preliminary Landscape Architecture Scheme

In the January 1913 issue of the quarterly Landscape
Architecture, the authors of this comprehensive Landscape
Architecture Classification published a " Scheme for the
Classification of Reference Material in a Landscape Archi-
tect's Office," based on the fuller scheme in preparation.
The differences between that short scheme and the summary
outline of the present classification are the outcome of ex-
perience in classifying large quantities of material since the
earlier publication.

City Planning Classification

While this Landscape Architecture Classification is a
reasonably complete and independent scheme within itself,
it is nevertheless planned definitely to interlock with the
City Planning Classification already published.^ In an
office or library collecting material extensively on the public
problems of the landscape architect, the two schemes should
be used together, as they are at the Harvard School of Land-
scape Architecture Library, where they have been developed
and apphed simultaneously. Fulfilling the promise made in
the preface to the City Planning Scheme, in this Landscape
Architecture Scheme numerous cross-references to the City
Planning numbers have been made, with an indication of
what has proved the more convenient place to classify ma-
terial covered by both schemes.

' City Planning: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Subject, arranged for
the classification of Books. Plans, Photographs, Notes, and other collected
material; with Alphabetic Subject Index; by James Sturgis Pray, Chairman,
School of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University, and Theodora Kim-
ball, Librarian, School of Landscape Architecture, Harvard University.
Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1913. 103 pages. Paper.
Price, $1.00 postpaid.



PREFACE

Library of Congress Classification

In the Preface to the City Planning Classification (pp. 9
and 10) will be found a full explanation of the selection of
the Library of Congress Classification principle as the basis
for both Landscape Architecture and City Planning Schemes.
To quote: " It is comprehensive, generally known through
the wide circulation of printed catalogue cards numbered
according to it, and adapted in principle to serve as a basis
for the arrangement of the special field of the Library. This
principle is a combination of logical subdivision with con-
venient sequence, allowing a maximum of elasticity in de-
velopment. Its simple sequential system of numbering was
found easy to use in the Library, and convenient of applica-
tion to the outline of the subject without forcing. In cor-
respondence with Mr. Charles Martel, then Chief Classifier
of the Library of Congress (now Chief of the Catalogue
Division) a place was assigned the subject in the general
Librarj^ of Congress scheme (in which no adequate provision
for Landscape Architecture or City Planning existed) in
Class N, Fine Arts. Landscape Architecture and City
Planning were erected as independent sub-classes co-
ordinate with and immediately following Architecture, num-
bered NA. As the sub-class designation NB was already in
use, it was necessary to use a three-letter combination which
would assume Architecture to be NA(A), Landscape Archi-
tecture NAB, and City Planning NAC. Although City
Planning is not primarily a fine art its fundamental esthetic
aspect and its close connection with the practice of Land-
scape Architecture and Architecture were considered to
justify its position in class N."

A library using other portions of the Library of Congress
Classification may wish to make use of the cross-references
to them inserted in the Landscape Architecture Scheme (as,
for instance, to SB and SD, Horticulture and Forestry, TE,
Roads, etc.) ; but the ordinary professional office should not
find this necessary, and should be able to group its material
conveniently under the numbers afforded by the Landscape
Architecture and City Planning Schemes.



PREFACE

Adaptations to other Systems of Classification.

The outline of the subject of Landscape Architecture as
given in this classification can be used in connection with
other systems of classification in general use. For instance,
for the meager section beginning 710 in the Dewey Decimal
Classification, the following outUne might be substituted: '
.01-.08 Bibliography through Museums, .11-.17 Collected
Works through General Special (or these form headings
could be rearranged to conform with general decimal classi-
fication practice); .2 Landscape improvement movement;
.3 Legislation; A Study and teaching; .5 Theory of landscape
design; .6 Methods of technical procedure; .7 Elements and
materials of landscape and landscape design; .8 Types of land-
scape designs, according to use; .9 Geographical arrangement.
Subheads could be adjusted and similarly numbered in deci-
mal fashion.

ORGANIZATION OF THIS CLASSIFICATION ^

Headings

The first series of main headings (see the Summary Out-
line) through 300, General special, have been selected from
those in general use by the Library of Congress. They might
be termed " form headings," since they refer particularly
to the form in which the material appears, e.g., a Periodical,
a Dictionary, The phrase " General special " is used as a
heading for material, which, though general, is not com-
prehensive but deals with some special phase of the general
topic, e.g., under the general subject Landscape Architec-
ture, the topic 305, Purpose and utility, appears under Gen-
eral special. This heading has been used consistently
throughout this scheme, sometimes with subheads, but often
merely with a gap in the numbering to permit the insertion
of future subheads if desired.

The second series of headings beginning with 500, Land-
scape improvement movement, constitutes a systematic
subdivision of the field, adjusted to the demands of classi-

' Cf. the suggestion for use of the City Planning Classification with the
Decimal System (Preface, p. 11).

•' Since the organization of this scheme and of the City Planning scheme are
on the same principle, much of the following explanation has been taken from
that given in the Preface to the City Planning Classification.

9



PREFACE

fying kinds of material which, as physical objects, can stand
in the files only in one place. As has been stated earlier in
this preface, certain headings apply more to literature and
certain others more to pictorial matter. Use of the topics
will soon reveal this distinction. Certain subheads have
been provided uniformly under many analogous headings;
beyond this, an exact uniformity of phrase under all sub-
heads has not been sought: it has seemed better to use
whatever phrases were most expressive in the given instance.

However, as far as possible, corresponding parts of the
outline itself have been constructed as uniformly as possible,
to offer mnemonic advantage, as for instance, under Plants
(see explanation on p. 39).

In order to present the subject clearly, each major sub-
division of the outline is developed to a certain proportion,
even if the subheads are given only as cross-references, e.g.,
Landscape construction and maintenance, 1400 -|-. In
minor cases, however, only typical topics have been given
under a heading, often in order to make clear the kind of
material which should be classified there. These type sub-
heads have been generally chosen because they represented
actual existing material. Gaps have been left in the num-
bering for the insertion of other similar subheads.

In arranging a series of subheads, a coherent sequence has
been preferred to an alphabetic arrangement, on account of
the advantage gained for pictorial material, e.g., Pleasure
buildings and other pleasure structures, 3150 -|-. In general,
the sequence of the actual material as arranged by this
scheme has been carefully considered.

Numbering.

The numbering system is that employed by the Library
of Congress, a sequence of simple cardinal numbers, with
gaps left between the numbers assigned the topics given, in
order to allow for the insertion of new topics. Further ex-
pansion may be provided for by the use of decimals, as in
section 1850+ of this scheme. In addition to the expansion
of the scheme by decimals, numbers for new subheads may
be added on the decimal principle as follows : — g, geo-
graphic, 9^5-^184 (see p. 91) ; m, material, ?nl-m9 (see p. 57) ;

10



PREFACE

c, exact cross-subordination, for any series of existing topics
in the scheme useful as subdivisions under another topic,
e.g., Planting in relation to steps, 1840c3375. The letter is
used instead of a decimal point.

The numbering of the Scheme was done loosely, since the
subject was growing so rapidly, and might develop at an
unexpected point or in an unexpected way. Several hun-
dred numbers have been left open to provide for such emer-
gencies. Sections of the scheme now numbered closely
represent subjects which have developed during the eight
years in which this scheme has been in preparation.

In classifying material in a library using the Library of
Congress Classification, the numbers of the outline would be
preceded by NAB, the general class designation for Land-
scape Architecture. For a collection wholly on landscape
architecture and using only this scheme, NAB need not be
used, since the numerical designation is sufficient. In a col-
lection using the City Planning Scheme (NAC) and this
scheme (NAB), B might be used for Landscape Architecture
and C for City Planning, or whatever other mnemonic de-
vice seemed preferable.

Indentation

It has not been possible to express exact coordination and
subordination of heads and siibheads by the indentation.
Often importance or bulk of material has pulled a logically
subordinate topic into a more important place. Further-
more, indentation by exact logical arrangement would make
many of the headings too far to the right of the page for
convenient printing; and the insertion of headings to show
theoretical relations, where not necessary for clearness,
would render the outline clumsy for use in classifying
material.

Explanatory Notes.

Notes have been given throughout the scheme explaining
the meaning of a heading and what material should be classi-
fied under it, wherever the authors felt that these points
were not self-evident.

11



PREFACE

Cross-references.

Cross-references have been freely made between headings
containing related material, and further to call attention to
headings under which the same material might be arranged
from different points of view. In making these cross-
references, where there has been no doubt as to the connec-
tion, the number referred to has been given alone without
the corresponding heading. In doubtful cases, the heading
referred to has been given in addition to the numerical ref-
erence. The authors did not feel that it was advisable to give
referred-to headings except in doubtful cases, on account of
the great increase in bulk which the headings for the very
large number of cross-references would have caused. In
making the numerical cross-reference to a topic, the initial
number only has been used, followed by a plus sign {e.g.,
18004") if the topic occupies more than one number.
Throughout the scheme the numbers and topics given in
curves followed by a reference to some other number show
where material might be classified if desired for some special
purpose, but where the authors do not think it as well
placed from a general point of view as under the number re-
ferred to. The Index may be used to supplement cross-
references in the text.

Summary Outline

Besides the full Classification Scheme, the authors in-
clude a Summary Outline, consisting of the main heads and
subheads. This Summary shows the general construction
of the Scheme, and also may serve as a briefer basis for ar-
rangement of material for a small collection. The topics
given in the Summary Outline are printed in capitals in the
full scheme, both for emphasis and to facilitate reference
from the Summary to the Scheme itself, and these topics are
starred in the alphabetic index.

Geographical Table

The Geographical Table given with this Classification is
explained in a note on p. 91. It is accompanied by a special
table for use in classifying local material on Estates and
Gardens (p. 93).

12



PREFACE

The Index and List of Subject Headings

A full index to the classification scheme has been com-
bined with a set of standard subject headings to be used for
card indexes or library catalogues. The use of the Index
and Subject Headings is explained in the Introductory Note
on p. 97. As has already been suggested, the index may be
made a record of a personal collection by check marks against
topics on which material has been assembled. In a very
small collection, assembled in a vertical file, it may be ad-
visable to use only an alphabetic arrangement of material,
disregarding the classification numbers, and using the sub-
ject headings as a standard series of topics for filing.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge constructive sugges-
tions received from many sources both in the earlier stages
of the preparation of the Landscape Architecture Classi-
fication and during its development and application, especi-
ally from Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted, Professor James
Stm-gis Pray, Professor Fiske Kimball, Mr. Fletcher Steele,
Mr. Bremer Whidden Pond, ^Ir. Elbert Peets, Mr. Charles
Martel of the Library of Congress, and Mr. Stephen F.
Hamblin who is largely responsible for the Horticultural sec-
tion of the Scheme (nmnbered 1850-1874). Since, however
permanent its main structure may be, no scheme is final in
detail, the authors of this scheme welcome further construc-
tive criticisms arising from the testing of the scheme in per-
sonal collections, special libraries, or offices of practising
landscape architects.

Henry Vincent Hubbard,
Theodora Kimball.

Cambridge, Mass.,

December 30, 1919.



13



Landscape Architecture Classification

Summary Outline

Only the more important headings are given here. If used in

connection with the Library of Congress Classification, prefix

NAB to numbers.



(0)


Bibliography.




(1)


Periodicals.




(15)


Yearbooks.




(20)


Societies.




(40)


Congresses. Conferences. .


. Conventions.


(50)


Exhibitions.




(70)


Museums,




180


Collected Works.




190


Encyclopedias, dictionaries,


etc.


195


Directories.




200


Biography,




210


History. Historic styles of landscape design.



250 General works.

300 General special, including name, field, professional
opportunities, etc.

500 Landscape improvement movement.
510 Organization.
540 Education of public.
560 Forms of improvement.

700 Legislation, Legal aspects of landscape architec-
ture.

900 Study and teaching.

910 Subject matter.

930 Methods.

960 Special countries.

980 Special professional schools.

1000 Theory of landscape design.
(1005) (Economic theory) See 4000 + , Types of landscape
designs, according to use.
15



LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Theory of landscape design (continued). j

1010 Esthetic theory (General). i

1020 Taste. Ideals. Appreciation. Criticism. j

1030 Style in landscape design, i

1050 Landscape character, .

1060 Landscape effect, i

1100 Landscape composition, \

1115 Forms of order in composition. i

1130 Characteristics of objects, and circmiistances |

modifying their appearance, in landscape I

composition i

, . ^

1170 Landscape compositions and their composi- ;
tional elements.

1200 Methods of technical procedure. Profes-
sional PRACTICE. I

1

1210 Professional conduct and relations. I

1230 Organization and equipment of office.

1240 Collection of data. '■

1246 Office procedure in design. J

1250 Presentation of design. I

1355 Superintendence of construction and maintenance. ,

1400 Landscape construction and maintenance. !

i

1500 Elements and materials in landscape and '

landscape design. ^
1600 Ground forms. Natural forms of ground, rock,

and waters. >■
1605 Design,

1640 Geologic origin of ground forms, i
1650 Special forms and units, according to natural

character. j

1800 Plants. Vegetation. ']

1805 Design. Planting design. Plantations. \

1850 Planting and culture. Horticulture. j

1875 Description. Plants as materials of landscape |

design. *
(Special forms of plants).
2100 Trees.

2400 Shrubs. j

16



CLASSIFICATION — SUMMARY OUTLINE

Elements and Materials in landscape and land-
scape DESIGN (continued).
Plants (continued).

2700 Herbaceous plants.

3000 Structures, in landscape.

3005 Design.

3040 Construction and maintenance.

(Special forms of structures).

3050 Buildings for residence and other major uses.

3100 Service buildings and other service structures,

including farm buildings, service yards,
etc.

3150 Pleasure buildings and other pleasure struc-

tures, including pavilions, arbors, garden
theaters, stadiums, tennis courts, etc.

3225 Terraces, embankments, structural shore

treatment.

3300 Walls, fences, gates, steps, etc.

3400 Minor accessory structures.

3405 Primarily for service purposes. Service

accessories.

3425 Primarily for ornamental and pleasure

purposes. " Garden furniture."

3490 Canals, moats, etc.

3495 Dams.

3500 Bridges.

3550 • Tunnels.

3600 Roads, paths, etc.

3700 Pipes, conduits, wires.

3900 Types of landscape. Landscape characters.
Natural scenery. " Free land-
scape."

3910 Types according to dominant ground forms and
topography.

3920 Types according to dominant vegetation.

3930 Types according to climate.

3940 Types according to effect of human occupation and
activities.

3975 Types according to locality.

17



LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

4000 Types of Landscape designs, according to use,
including examples.

4200 Gardens.

4700 Private estates.

5100 Country club grounds.

5150 Hotel grounds, country, seashore, etc.

5180 Recreation camps.

5200 Hospital, asylum, sanatorium, etc., grounds.


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Online LibraryHenry Vincent HubbardLandscape architecture ; a comprehensive classification scheme for books, plans, photographs, notes and other collected material, with combined alphabetic topic index and list of subject headings → online text (page 1 of 9)