UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
LOS \NGELES. CALIF.
SCHOOL HISTORY OF THE
>9 -*" Q
HENRY WILLIAM ELSOffL
AUTHOR OF "HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES," "SIDE
LIGHTS ON AMERICAN HISTORY," ETC., ETC.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON : MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.
All rights reserved
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.
Set up and electrotyped. Published May, 1906.
J. 8. Gushing & Co. Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
PROBABLY in no other civilized land are the intelligent
classes so unfamiliar with the history of their country as
In the United States. Why are we not a nation of history
readers? The answer lies partially, no doubt, in the fact
that our school histories too often have been written with
such mathematical precision as to render them dry and
insipid. Too often they repel rather than attract, and the
pupil learns to dislike the study of history. The defect
is a difficult one to overcome, owing to the necessity of
condensing and of leaving out so many interesting inci-
dents. The fault has in part been corrected, as attested
by various excellent school histories now in use, and my
belief that it could be corrected in a greater degree has
led to the writing of the present volume. From beginning
to end I have used the greatest care to make the book
interesting as well as instructive to the pupil. My object
has been twofold : first, to tell the great story of our coun-
try, with all its leading facts and their meaning; and,
second, to lead the pupil to love history.
In following this aim I have found no occasion to insert
matters of mere tradition or anecdotes that only amuse
the reader. The authentic story itself of our great coun-
try is one of absorbing interest, and to make it repelling
to the pupil by assuming a traditional text-book style is
to do an injury to American citizenship of the future. To
give the narrative accurately and naturally is the first duty
of the writer of the school history.
We may drop algebra and geology 4 - and many other
things when we leave school, but no one can afford to
drop history. The importance, therefore, of beginning
right in the study and teaching of history is obvious.
Like all other studies in the schools, history requires
the inspiration of a skillful teacher. The teacher should
enlarge upon matters that the writer has been obliged to
condense, and thus awaken an interest that the text alone
could not do. He should see that each pupil does some
collateral reading. The references given here and there
in this volume are to standard books ; but many school
libraries will contain other books equally suitable for the
purpose of outside reading. The object of collateral read-
ing, it is almost needless to say, is not only further to
elucidate the subject in hand, but also to lead the pupils
into the larger field of historical literature, with the hope
that they may become lifelong students of the subject.
In this volume the usual "helps," questions and topics
for discussion, have been omitted, on the supposition that
an intelligent teacher can prepare these better than the
writer and that he prefers to do it.
No pains have been spared to make this book historic-
ally accurate. It has been prepared in accordance with
the recognized authorities, including the most recent re-
searches of modern scholarship. But owing to the great
number of subjects to be treated, absolute accuracy is
scarcely possible, and the pointing out of any errors by
the reader will be deemed a kindness.
In the treatment of the subjects, I have in the main
followed the order of my larger " History of the United
States," published in 1904, and some of the notes at the
ends of the chapters are taken from that work. But it
must not be inferred that this work is merely a condensa-
tion of that one. On the contrary, it is a new work,
intended for the upper grades of the grammar schools and
for the lower grades of the high schools.
HENRY WILLIAM ELSON.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
No thoughtful teacher will require the pupils to remember
all the dates and facts found on the pages of the text-book in
history. The author must sift his multitudes of facts in writing
a history, and the reader must sift again, as, even in a condensed
history, many things are recorded in addition to that which is
salient and vital. It is better to drill a class thoroughly on
some important character or event than to give equal study to
every item in a chapter. It is better, for example, to study the
character of Columbus with care, though his contemporary
navigators can be noticed but lightly, than to give equal notice
to all at the risk of having them hopelessly mixed in the minds
of the pupils soon after leaving the subject. In studying the
founding of the colonies, it is well to choose out a few salient
features and to drill the class on these till they are fixed in the
minds of the dullest pupils.
The same is true of dates. Nothing in teaching history is
more unwise than to require the pupils to remember all the
dates given in the text. But some dates must be remembered.
They are to the student of history what the milestone is to the
traveler. The dates printed in black type in the Chronological
Table, beginning on page xxi, will aid in deciding what should
be remembered. In the early history of Virginia, for example,
the two dates that should be emphasized are 1607 and 1619,
with the meaning of each.
Again, in keeping the general order of events in mind, it
often aids the memory to group and compare. A few examples
follow : Cortez conquers Mexico at the same time that Magellan
sails round the world, and if the two events are fixed together
X NOTE TO THE TEACHER
in the mind, but one date need be remembered. The founding
of Jamestown, the founding of Quebec, and the discovery of the
Hudson River occurred in three successive years. George
Washington was born the year before the founding of Georgia
and a hundred years before the Nullification of South Carolina.
King Philip's War and Bacon's Rebellion were simultaneous,
exactly a hundred years after the voyage of Frobisher and a
hundred years before the Declaration of Independence was
passed. William Penn founded Philadelphia while La Salle
was floating down the Mississippi. Tennessee and Utah were
admitted into the Union a hundred years apart. Abraham
Lincoln was killed a hundred years after the Stamp Act was
passed, and so on. The teacher will find such recreation
diverting to a class as well as helpful.
At all events, the teacher should see that the pupils under-
stand the meaning and continuity of history, the underlying
causes and results of great movements of the past and their
influence in shaping the conditions of the present. In showing
the part that our great nation is playing in the development of
modern civilization, he should impress upon the pupils the vital
fact that each one is a very responsible factor in the great
I. DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION
II. THE INDIAN . . .
III. COLONIZATION; THE SOUTHERN COLONIES .
IV. COLONIZATION; NEW ENGLAND . . .
V. NEW ENGLAND AFFAIRS ......
VI. THE MIDDLE COLONIES
VII. STRUGGLE FOR A CONTINENT
VIII. COLONIAL LIFE
IX. THE REVOLUTION
X. THE REVOLUTION (Continued)
XI. THE CONSTITUTION AND SELF-GOVERNMENT
XII. TWELVE YEARS OF FEDERAL SUPREMACY .
XIII. JEFFERSON AND THE DEMOCRACY ....
XIV. THE WAR OF 1812
XV. OPENING OF A NEW ERA
XVI. THE REIGN OF JACKSON, 1829-1837 ....
XVII. RISE OF THE SLAVERY QUESTION ....
XVIII. COMPROMISE MEASURES OF 1850; THE KANSAS-
NEBRASKA BILL .......
XIX. DRIFTING TOWARD WAR
XX. THE CIVIL WAR TO GETTYSBURG
XXI. THE CIVIL WAR (Continued} 368
XXII. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE UNION .... 390
XXIII. RECUPERATING YEARS ...... 399
XXIV. INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS 410
XXV. WAR AND EXPANSION 426
XXVI. DAWN OF THE NEW CENTURY 444
Constitution of the United States 453
Table of the States 469
Table of the Territories 47
Table of the Presidents 471
Table of the Cities exceeding 25,000 Inhabitants . . . 472
Congress voting Independence ....
The Fleet of Columbus .....
The Landing of Columbus .....
Americus Vespucius ......
Magellan . . . . ~ .
Pueblos of New Mexico .....
Discovery of the Mississippi River
Dakota Bow and Quiver, with Bow-sack
Indian Bows . . . . ...
Tomahawk and Stone-headed Club
Calumets, Indian Peace-pipes ....
An Indian Headdress . . . ' .
Snow Shoes made by Algonquin Indians .
Scalpi^' 'jKnife and Tomahawk ....
JonnAdfg of the Indians . .
Mount V|i Indian Face
Thomas ! st i ne
Alexander Rale i g h
Robert ty- Governor White to Roanoke Island .
The Clet, Jamestown t^
James IV|i aware ' s Ships meeting the Colonists
General arre i between Berkeley and Bacon .
Isaac Hjt o f Charleston, South Carolina
James Ij) g l e thorpe * .
Oliver B o f Savannah in 1734 ....
James lading of the Pilgrims ....
Plymouth Rock as it now Appears . . , . . . 70
Edward Winslow . -71
John Winthrop .......... 74
Roger Williams .......... 75
A Battle with Indians ... 84
Edmund Andros 86
The Half Moon in the Hudson River 92
Peter Stuyvesant ......... 94
New Amsterdam .......... 96
A New Jersey Farmhouse 99
William Penn 102
Washington returning from Fort Le Bceuf . . . . .114
General Braddock . . . . . . . . 1 1 7
The Fall of Braddock 118
Mrs. Washington persuades George not to go to Sea . . .126
A Colonial Child Robert Gibbs ...... 128
A Pumpkin Hood, 1800 . . . . . . . .129
The Good Girl and her Wheel . 130
Wool Spinning 133
An Old Tavern . 134
Illustrations from " Plain Things for Little Folks" . . 135
Betty Lamps .......... 137
A Flint-lock Musket .138
A Spinning Wheel . . . . . , . -138
A Foot Stove 139
A Flax-brake .......... 140
An Old Schoolhouse 141
Page from " The School of Manners " 142
Conestoga Wagon . . . .- 144
Advertisement of Express Fast Line 145
A Colonial Child Jane Bonner 147
Stamp Act Stamps 155
Samuel Adams . . 157
Faneuil Hall 158
The Minute Man at Concord 161
Old State House, Philadelphia 163
The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Washington Elm, Cambridge ....
Independence Hall, Philadelphia ....
The Liberty Bell . . . .
Facsimile of a Portion of the Declaration of Independence
General Burgoyne .......
John Stark . . . . . . . ...
The Surrender of Burgoyne . . : .
Sir William Howe .......
Washington's Headquarters at Valley Forge
Washington at Valley Forge .
Benjamin Franklin . . .
John Paul Jones . . . . . ...
Battle between the Serapis and Bon Homme Richard .
General Greene . . . . .
The Surrender of Cornwallis .....
Lord Cornwallis ........
First Fire Engine used in Brooklyn, 1785 . ;
The First Cotton Gin
George Washington .......
Federal Hall, New York ....
John Adams ........
Mount Vernori ........
Thomas Jefferson .......
Alexander Hamilton .......
Robert Fulton ........
The Clermont on the Hudson .....
Monticello . ...
James Madison ........
General Dearborn .......
Battle between the Guerriere and the Constitiition
Isaac Hull .........
James Lawrence ........
Oliver Hazard Perry .......
The Battle of New Orleans
Emigrant Wagons 265
Lafayette's Visit to Boston 268
John Quincy Adams ......... 269
On the Erie Canal, 1825 . . . . . . . 271
An Early Railroad Train 272
Andrew Jackson 276
John C. Calhoun 277
Henry Clay 280
Martin Van Buren . . 283
William Henry Harrison ........ 289
John Tyler ........... 290
James K. Polk 292
General Winfield Scott 295
Zachary Taylor 297
Daniel Webster 304
Millard Fillmore 305
Franklin Pierce .......... 308
James Buchanan . . . . . . . . .318
John C. Fremont . . . . . . . . .319
John Brown . . . . . . . . . . 323
Abraham Lincoln 326
Jefferson Davis 331
Bombardment of Fort Sumter 334
Battle between the Monitor and Merrimac 344
General McClellan 351
General Robert E. Lee 361
Scene at Battle of Gettysburg 363
General Grant 371
General Sheridan 373
Farragut in Mobile Bay 376
General Sherman ......... 379
United States Capitol 384
Andrew Johnson ......... 391
Rutherford B. Hayes 407
Samuel J. Tilden . . 408
James A. Garfield 414
James G. Blaine 415
Chester A. Arthur . . 417
Harbor of Honolulu
Rice Fields in the Hawaiian Islands ......
William McKinley .........
A Street in San Juan, Cuba . . . . '
Admiral George Dewey ........
San Juan Blockhouse, showing Marks of Shot ....
The Oregon in Chase of the Cristobal Colon during the Battle of
Philippine Natives and Cattle
Theodore Roosevelt .
Panama Canal in Construction .......
Mining in the West
Modern Machinery in the Corn Belt ' .
Great Voyages . . . . . . . . . -13
Early Distribution of Indian Tribes (colored) . . Facing 26
Indian Reservations (colored) ..... " 32
New England Colonies just before the French and Indian War
(colored) . ... Facing no
Middle Colonies just before the French and Indian War (colored)
Southern Colonies just before the French and Indian War
(colored) ........ Facing
Before and after the French and Indian War (colored) "
Scene of War in the Northern and Middle States (colored) "
Scene of War in the South (colored) .... "
The United States at the Close of the Revolution (colored) "
The United States in 1830 (colored) "
Relief Map of the United States "
Territorial Growth of the United States (colored) . Following
MAPS IN THE TEXT
Bunker Hill and Boston ........
Siege of Charleston . .
Long Island ..........
New Jersey and Trenton ........
Chaniplain and Saratoga ........
Valley Forge, Philadelphia, and Brandywine ....
Siege of Yorktown . . . . . . .
The Lake Region .
Washington and Vicinity ........
Battle of New Orleans
The Erie Canal 2 7
The Mexican Campaign 2 <X>
After the Kansas-Nebraska Bill 3 12
Election Chart. 1860 3 28
The United States in 1861 345
Capture of New Orleans 347
Scene of War in Virginia 35
Vicksburg and Vicinity 3^
Battlefield of Gettysburg 3 62
Chattanooga and Atlanta . 375
Sherman's March 3 8
Center of Population 446
NOTE. The more important dates are printed in bold-faced type.
DISCOVERY AND COLONIZATION
1000. Lief Ericson discovers Vinland (New England).
. 1492. Oct. 12. Columbus discovers the New World.
1497. The Cabots discover the continent of North America.
1498. Columbus on third voyage discovers South America.
1506. Columbus dies at Valladolid.
1507. New World named after Americus Vespucius.
1513. Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean and Ponce de Leon discovers
1519-1521. Cortez conquers Mexico. Magellan sails round the world.
1524. Verrazano and Gomez explore New England coast.
1528. Cabeza de Vaca explores southern United States.
1533. Pizarro conquers Peru.
1534. Cartier sails to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
1541. De Soto discovers the Mississippi River.
1565. Founding of St. Augustine.
1576. Frobisher discovers northwest passage, Frobisher Strait.
1579. Drake explores coast of California.
1584. Raleigh sends first expedition to America.
1588. Defeat of the Spanish Armada.
1604. Acadia settled by the French.
1607. .May 13. Founding of Jamestown, Virginia.
1608. Founding of Quebec by Champlain.
1609. Hudson discovers the Hudson River.
1619. First Assembly meets at Jamestown. Slaves first sold in Virginia.
4620. Coming of the Pilgrims in the Mayflower.
1623. Settlements at New Amsterdam. First settlements in New Hamp-
1630. The great emigration to Massachusetts. The founding of Boston.
1634. Maryland first settled by Calvert.
xxii AMERICAN CHRONOLOGY
1636. Connecticut settled by emigrants from Massachusetts.
Founding of Providence by Roger Williams. Harvard College
1637. War with Pequot Indians. First negro slaves in New England.
1638. Swedes first settle in Delaware.
1639. First constitution in America adopted by Connecticut.
1643. May 30. New England Confederation formed.
1649. Toleration Act in Maryland.
1655. Stuyvesant conquers the Swedes in Delaware.
1656. Quakers expelled from Massachusetts.
1662. Connecticut charter granted.
1663. Charter granted to Rhode Island.
Charter for the Carolinas granted.
1664. Sept. 8. The English conquer New Amsterdam.
1673. Marquette explores the Mississippi.
1676. Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia. King Philip's War in New England.
1681. Penn receives charter for Pennsylvania.
1682. Penn founds Philadelphia and makes treaty with the Indians.
La Salle explores Louisiana and takes possession for France.
1686. Edmund Andros made governor of all New England.
1689. Rebellion against Andros; his fall and arrest.
1692. Salem witchcraft delusion.
1700. Iberville plants colony in Louisiana.
1713. Treaty of Utrecht, ending Queen Anne's War, which began in 1702.
1733. Georgia settled by Oglethorpe.
1748. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ending King George's War, which began
1754. Colonial Congress at Albany; Franklin's plan of union.
1755. Braddock's defeat.
1756. French and Indian War formally begun.
1759. Wolfe captures Quebec.
1763. Treaty of Paris; end of the war. Conspiracy of Pontiac.
PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTION
1765. Stamp Act. Colonial Congress in New York.
1770. " Boston Massacre."
1773. Destruction of tea in Boston Harbor.
1774. Sept. 5. Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia. Boston
1775. April 19. Fight at Lexington and Concord.
AMERICAN CHRONOLOGY xx iii
May 10. Capture of Ticonderoga. Meeting of Second Continental
Congress at Philadelphia.
June 17. Battle of Bunker Hill.
December. Daniel Boone settles in Kentucky.
July 4. Declaration of Independence.
Aug. 27. Battle of Long Island.
Dec. 26. Washington captures Hessians at Trenton.
June 14. Flag of stars and stripes adopted by Congress.
Sept. II. Battle of Brandywine.
j&vj ut;. ^r\
,ey Forge and IL
Oct. 17. Surrender of Burgoyne.
Washington encamps at Valley Fprprp and Howe occupies Philadelphia.
June 28. Battle of Monmouth.
Dec. 29. British take Savannah.
Sept. 23. Naval victory of John Paul Jones.
May 12. Charleston taken by British.
Aug. 1 6. Battle of Camden.
Oct. 7. Battle of King's Mountain.
Adoption of the Articles of Confederation.
Oct. 19. Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown.
Nov. 30. Preliminary treaty of peace.
Sept. 3. Final treaty of peace signed.
Nov. 25. British army evacuates New York.
Dec. 4. Washington's farewell to his officers.
Shays's rebellion in Massachusetts.
FROM THE MAKING OF THE CONSTITUTION
TO THE CIVIL WAR
Ordinance of 1787 adopted.
May 14. Constitutional Convention meets at Philadelphia.
Sept. 17. Constitution finished and signed by the delegates.
Rufus Putnam plants first settlement in Ohio.
June 21. New Hampshire becomes the ninth state to ratify the Con-
stitution, securing its adoption.
March 4. New government goes into operation.
April 30. Washington inaugurated first President.
First census. Population 3,929,214.
Vermont admitted to the Union. St. Clair defeated by the Indians.
Jefferson founds Republican (Democratic) party.
Wayne defeats the Indians in battle of Fallen Timbers.
xxiv AMERICAN CHRONOLOGY
1795. Jay's treaty ratified.
1798. Alien and Sedition Laws enacted. Navy department established.
1798-1799. Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.
1799. Dec. 14. Washington dies at Mount Vernon.
1800. Overthrow of the Federal party.
Capital removed to Washington, D.C.
1801-1805. War with the Barbary States, North Africa.
1803. Purchase of Louisiana.
1804. Burr kills Hamilton in a duel.
1805-1807. Lewis and Clark expedition.
1806-1807. Burr's conspiracy, trial, and acquittal.
1807. Fulton succeeds with the steamboat.
June 22. The Leopard fires on the Chesapeake.
December. Jefferson's embargo enacted.
1808. Prohibition of the foreign slave trade.
1810. Population 7,239,881.
1811. Nov. 7. Battle of Tippecanoe.
1812. June 18. War declared against England.
Aug. 16. Hull surrenders Detroit.
Aug. 19. The Constitittion defeats the Guerriere.
Oct. 13. Battle of Queenstown Heights.
1813. Sept. 10. Perry's victory on Lake Erie.
Oct. I. Battle of the Thames.
Nov. 9. Battle of Talladega.
1814. July 25. Battle of Lundy's Lane.
Aug. 25. The British capture Washington.
Sept. II. Battle of Plattsburg and defeat of the British on Lak<
December. Hartford Convention.
Dec. 24. Treaty of Ghent.
815. Jan. 8. Battle of New Orleans.
1818. War with the Seminole Indians.
1819. Purchase of Florida from Spain.
First steamship, the Savannah, crosses the Atlantic.
1820. The Missouri Compromise.
Census shows a population of 9,633,822.
1823. Dec. 2. Monroe Doctrine promulgated.
1825. Opening of the Erie Canal.
1826. July 4. Death of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.
1828. Building of the first passenger railway begun at Baltimore.
AMERICAN CHRONOLOGY xxv
1830. Fifth census. Population 12,866,020.
1832. Nov. 19. Nullification by South Carolina. Jackson vetoes bank
charter. Black Hawk War.
1833. Jackson removes bank deposits. Compromise tariff adopted.
1836. April 21. Battle of San Jacinto.
Wilkes's Antarctic expedition.
1837. Patent of the telegraph by Morse.
1840. Population 17,069,453.
1841. March 4. Howe invents the sewing machine.
1844. First telegraph line in America, between Baltimore and Washington.
1845. Death of Andrew Jackson.
1846. Beginning of the Mexican War. Fight of Palo Alto.
Walker tariff enacted. Wilmot Proviso introduced in Congress.
1847. Feb. 23. Battle of Buena Vista.
March 29. Capture of Vera Cruz by General Scott.
Conquest of California.
September. Fall of the City of Mexico.
1848. February. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Discovery of gold in California.
1850. Death of Calhoun.
July 9. Death of President Taylor.
Clay Compromise enacted.
Census shows population of 23,191,876.
1852. Death of Clay and Webster.
1854. May. Kansas-Nebraska bill enacted.
Commercial treaty with Japan.
1857. March 6. Dred Scott decision.
1858. First Atlantic cable laid.
Sept. 1 8. Mountain Meadow Massacre, Utah.
1859. John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry.
1860. Population 31,443,321.
THE CIVIL WAR AND OUR OWN TIMES
1860. Dec. 20. Secession of South Carolina.
1861. Secession of Mississippi on Jan. 9; of Florida, Jan. 10; of Alabama,
Jan. ii; of Georgia, Jan. 19; of Louisiana, Jan. 26; of Texas,
Feb. I; of Virginia, April 17; of Arkansas, May 6; of North
Carolina, May 20; of Tennessee, June 8.
xxvi AMERICAN CHRONOLOGY
Feb. 4. Confederate government organized.
April 14. Fall of Fort Sumter.
July 21. Battle of Bull Run.
Nov. 8. Capture of Mason and Slidell.
Feb. 1 6. Surrender of Fort Donelson.
March 9. Duel between the Monitor and the Merrimac.
April 6-7. Battle of Shiloh.
April 1 6. Slavery abolished in District of Columbia.
April 25. Farragut captures New Orleans.
July i. Battle of Malvern Hill; last of the seven days' battle before
Aug. 30. Second battle of Bull Run.
Sept. 17. Battle of Antietam.
Dec. 13. Battle of Fredericksburg:
.1863. Jan. i. Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation.
Jan. 2. Battle of Murfreesboro.
May 2. Battle of Chancellorsville.
July 1-3. Battle of Gettysburg.
July 4. Surrender of Vicksburg.
Sept. 19-20. Battle of Chickamauga.
Nov. 19. Lincoln's address at Gettysburg.
Nov. 24-25. Battle of Chattanooga.
1864. May 6. Battle of the Wilderness.
May II. Battle of Spottsylvania.
June 19. The Kearsarge sinks the Alabama.
Aug. 5. Battle of Mobile Bay.
Sept. 2. Sherman captures Atlanta.
Oct. 19. Battle of Cedar Creek.
Nov. 15. Sherman begins his march to the sea.
Dec. 15-16. Battle of Nashville.
1865. April I. Battle of Five Forks.
April 3. Evacuation of Richmond.
April 9. Surrender of Lee at Appomattox.
April 14. Assassination of Lincoln; Andrew Johnson President.