Herbert Maxwell.

Studies in the topography of Galloway; being a list of nearly 4000 names of places, with remarks on their origin and meaning, and an introductory essay online

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pasture beside water. See under INCH.

INNERMESSAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Inuermessan; P. Innermessen).
' Inch.' Inbher [inver] Messain [?], mouth of the Messan Burn.
The stream to which Pont sives the name of Messan Burn



204 AN TfR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

does not bear it now, but takes the names of the various
farms through which it flows. Innermessan has been tenta-
tively identified with Ptolemy's Rerigonium, a town of the
Novantes, on Eerigonius Sinus (Loch Ryan). Cf. KNOCK-
MASSAN in the next parish.

INNERWELL (P. Innerwell). ' Sorbie.'

INSHANKS (P. Inschacs, Inchacks; Inq. ad Cap. 1610, Inschanke).
'Kirkcowan, 'Kirkmaiden.' Uinnse, uinnsedg or uinnseann
[inshie, inshug, or inshin], the ash-tree. Uinnseann is the word
in the north of Ireland which appears as fuinnseann in the
south. See under DRUMNAMINSHOG. Cf. Unshog in Armagh,
and Hinchoge in Dublin.

INSHAW HILL. ' Whithorn.' Uinnse, uinnsedg [inshie, inshug],
an ash-tree. See under INSHANKS.

IRELAND-TOWN (P. Yrlandstoun). ' Twynholm/

IRONCRAIGIE. ' Balmaclellan.' Ard na creage, height of the crag.
Cf. Ardencraig in Bute. See under ERNAMBRIE.

IRONGALLOWS. ' Carsphairn.'

IRONGRAY (P. Arngra). Kirkpatrick (formerly Kilpatrick) Iron-
gray (a parish in the Stewartry). Ard an grdaich [graigh],
height of the moor. " Gre"ach, a mountain flat, a level
moory place, much the same as reidh. It is common as an
element in townland designations in the counties of Cavan,
Leitrim, Roscommon, Monaghan, and Fermanagh. Greagh,
the usual Anglicised form, is the name of several places,
Greaghawillin in Monaghan, the mountain flat of the mill ;
Greaghnagleragh in Fermanagh, of the clergy ; Greaghnagee
in Cavan, of the wind." Joyce, ii 393. Cf. AUCHENGRAY
and KNOCKGRAY.

IRONHASH. ' Colvend.'

IRONL6SH. 'Balmaclellan.' Ard na loise [1], hill of the fire
(O'Reilly).

IRONMACANNIE. 'Balmaclellan.'

IRONJSIANNOCH. ' Parton.' Ard na' manach, hill of the monks.
IRON SLUNK. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' The " slunk" or gully of the iron.

ISLAND BUOY. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.' Oilean buidhe [buie], yellow
island.

ISLAYFITZ. 'Port Patrick, s.c.'



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 205

ISLE-NA-GARROCH. ' Port Patrick, s.c.'

IsLE-NA-G6\VER (on the Bladenoch). ' Kirkcowan.' Oilman na'
gobhar [gour], the pasture of the goats. Cf. INCHNAGOUR.

ISLE OF LANNA. ' Stoneykirk, s.c.'

ISLE OF PINS (in the Fleet K.). ' Girthon.'

ISLE RIG (a hill of 800 feet). Dairy.' Aill [?], a cliff (see under
ALGOWER) ; or isle, pasture (see under INCH).



d ARDINTON. ' Kirkpatrick Irongray.'

JARKNESS (a hill). 'Minigaff.'

JEAN'S WA'S. ' Balmaclellan.' A place on the Garpel where
traces of buildings remain. According to the popular belief
Miss Jean Gordon, of the family of Shirmers, having been
jilted by her lover, retired to this place, and died of a broken
heart.

JEDBURGH KNEES (a hill of 2021 feet). ' Carsphairn.' Cf. CALF
KNEES.

JEXOCH. 'Anwoth.'

JERRY PEAK'S CRAIG. ' Minigaff.'

JERUSALEM PARK. ' Old Luce.' A field close to Kirkchrist.
JIB. ' Kirkmaiden.' Gob, a snout. Cf. GIBB.
JOCKLIG (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Jakleig). ' Colvend.'

JORDIELAND. ' Kirkcudbright.'

JUNIPER FACE. ' Leswalt, s.c.' The wild juniper, though well-
nigh extinct in Galloway, still survives in a few places on the
sea cliffs, and inland on the moors of Penninghame.



.AINTON. 'Girthon.'

KELLS (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Kells). There are
several places of this name in Ireland, the principal, in
Meath, deriving from ceann Us, chief fort ; the others, says
Joyce (ii. 235), "are all probably the Anglicised plural of till,
namely ceaHa [kella], signifying churches." It is more pro-
bable that this parish takes its name from coill, wood.

KELLS BURN. ' Colvend.'

KELTON (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Keltoun).



206 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

KEMPLETON. ' Twynholm.'

KENDLUM. ' Berwick. Cf. KENLTTM.

KENDOWN. ' Girthon.' Ceann don, brown head or hill. See
under CAMBRET.

KENICK WOOD (Inq. ad Cap. 1548, Canknok; 1607, Kammuik,
v. Kandnik ; 1611, Candnik; P. Keandnick). 'Balmaghie.'
Cam cnoc [?], crooked or sloping hill. Cf. CUMNOCK.

KENLUM HILL (1001 feet). ' Anwoth.' Cf. KENDLUM.

KENMORE (Inq. ad Cap. 1598, Kenmoir ; P. Keandmoir). ' Kirk-
cowan.' Ceann mdr, big head. See under CAMBRET.

KENMUIR. ' Kirkmaiden,' ' Stoneykirk.' See under KENMORE.

KENMURE (P. Kenmoir). ' Balmaclellan.' A place on the river
Ken, the moor of the Ken.

KENNAN. ' Balmaghie.' Ceanndn, dim. of ceann, a head.

KENNANS HILL. ' Tungland.' See under KENNAN.

KENTIE BURN and HILL. ' Minigaff.'

KEN, WATER OF. ' Carsphairn/ etc. The stream that gives the
name to the GLENKENS and to KENMUIR.

KEOCH LANE (a stream). ' Carsphairn.'

KERBERS. ' Kelton.'

KERM!NACHAN. ' Kirkcolm.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou], manachan,
quarter-land of the monks. Referred to in Inq. ad Cap. 1590,
as " Monkis Croft, pertaining to the Abbey of Glenluce."

KET, THE (a stream). ' Whithorn.'

KEVAN BRAES. ' Whithorn.' Cabhdn [cavan], a hollow. See under
CAVAN.

KEVANDS (W. P. MSS., Crugiltoun Kevennis ; Inq. ad Cap. 1695,
Cavenscroft). ' Sorbie.' Cabhdn, a hollow.



KEVAN Ho^'i:. ' \Vhithorn.' Cabhdn, a hollow, and BR. sc. howe,
hollow (pleonastic).

KIBBERTIE KITE WELL. ' Kirkmaiden.' Tiobar Ugh Cait, the
well of Kate's house. Catherine's croft is the name of the
adjacent land, the remains of an early dedication to St.
Catherine. The change from tiobar to chipper and kibber is a
common one. See under TIBBERT.



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 207

KIDSDALE ( W, P. MSS. Kiddisdaill). ' Glasserton.'

KILBREEN. ' Stoneykirk.'

KiLBtiiE. ' Kirkmaiden.' It is impossible to distinguish, except
by local circumstances, between till, a cell or chapel, and coill,
a wood. Cuil, a corner, and cul, a back, posterior part, also
get corrupted into the same sound. This is probably coill
buidhe, yellow wood, like Kilboy in Ireland.

KILCORMACK or KiRKCORMACK (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Kirkcormok).
' Kelton.' Cill Cormaic, Cormac's cell or chapel. Skene
mentions this place as the only known dedication in Scotland
to St. Cormac-na-Liathain ; but the old name of the parish
of North Knapdale was Killmochormac. For an account of
Cormac's life see Reeves s Adamnan, ii. 42 and iii. 17, pp. 166
and 219, and Celt. Scot. ii. 131. o. ERSE cell (kell), ERSE cill
(kill), literally, a cell, hence an oratory, a church LAT.
cella + GK. Ka\ia, a hut + SET. khala, a threshing-floor ;
cdld, a stable, a house /y/KAL, to hide (whence LAT. celare, E.
conceal).

KILCROUCHIE (now called Glenlaggan) (P. Coulcreachie). ' Parton.'
Cuil croiche, the gallows corner.

KILDARROCH (P. Kildarrac). 'Kirkinner.' Coill darach, oak
wood. See under AUCHENDARROCH.

KILDONAN (P. Kildonnan). ' Stoneykirk.' Gil Donain, St.
Donnan's church. St. Donnan was an Irish disciple of St.
Columba, and was put to death, with fifty companions, in
the island of Egg by a band of pirates in 617. Places
called Kildonan and Kildonnan, perpetuating his memory,
exist in Egg, in Sutherland, in South Uist, in Ross-shire,
Skye, Argyllshire, Arran, and Ayrshire (Reeves's Adamnan,
p. 309).

KILDROCH BURN. ' Kirkmaiden.'

KiLDR6cHAT (Inq. ad Cap. 1543, Killedroquhat ; P. Kernadrochat).
' Stoneykirk.' Coill, cul, cuil, or cill droichid, the wood, back,
corner, or church of the bridge. Cf. (in the latter sense)
Kildrought in Kildare. See under BARDROCHWOOD.

KILFAD. ' Kirkinner.' Cuil fada, long corner.

KiLFAiRY (near the ruins of Kilgallioch). ' Kirkcowan.'



208 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

KILFEATHER (P. Kildhelir (misprint)). ' New Luce.' Gill Phetir
or Pheadair (St.) Peter's church. Though there are here no
ecclesiastical ruins that can be traced, yet the names im-
mediately adjacent, Altibrair, Knockiebriar, Altaggart, bear
evidence of religious occupation. Cf. Kilpeter in South Uist,
sometimes written Kilphedre. See under CASTLE FEATHER.

KILFERN. ' Twynholm.' Coill fearn [kill farn], alder wood. See
under BALFERN.

KILFILLAN (P. Kilphillen, Kilphillan (' Sorbie ')). ' Old Luce,'
' Sorbie.' Cill Faolain, Fillan's church. St. Faolan of Cluain-
Maoscna in West Meath, known in Scotland as St. Fillan,
left his crozier, now called the Quegrith, in the hands of one
of the pilgrims who accompanied him in his wanderings. It
is now in the Museum of Scottish Antiquaries. St. Fillan
was called 'an lobar,' the leper. See under BARLURE and
ERNFILLAN.

KILGALLIOCH (P. Kilgaillach ; Inq. ad Cap. 16.00, Cullingalloch ;
1698, Killgalloch). ' Kirk cowan.' Cill gaUach []], the
church of the standing stones, adjective formed from gall, a
standing stone (see under DERGALL), like carrach, rocky, from
carr, a stone (Joyce, i. 344). Cf. Cangullia in Kerry (ceann
gaille), and several places in Ireland called Gallagh. Kil-
gallioch is close to Laggangarn, where there are some very
remarkable standing stones (see under LAGGANGARN). There
are some interesting remains here. Close by the site of the
old church, which has been pulled to pieces for dyke-building,
there are three holy wells (Wells of the Rees), each under a
separate dome of rough stones.

KlLHERN. ' New Luce.' Cul chuirn [1] [him], hill-back of the
cairn. Remains of a large cairn exist here, enclosing eight
cists made of immense stones. It is called, locally, the Caves
of Kilhern. Cf. KILQUHIRN and KILWHIRN ; also, in Ire-
land, Kilcarn, which is from the genit. plur. earn.

KILHILT (Barnbarroch, 1 568, Kenhelt ; P. Kinhilt). ' Port Patrick.'
Ceann elite [?], the hill of the hind. Cf. Annahilt in Down,
Cloonelt in Roscommon. See under CARNELTOCH.

KILL AD AM. ' Kirkcowan.'

KILLANTRAE (Inq. ad Cap. 1582, Kerantra; 1600, Kerintraye ;
P. Killentrae). ' Mochrum.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] cill or
cathair [caer] an traigh, land-quarter, church, or fort of the
shore. See under DRUMANTRAE.



TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLO WA Y. 209

KILLANTRINGAN (P. Kilantrinzean). ' Port Patrick.' Gill sheant
[hant] Ringain, church of St. Ringan, another form of Ninian.
See under CHIPPERDINGAN and CLAYSHANT.

KILLASER (Barnbarroch, 1562, Kyllasser; P. Killaister). ' Stoney-
kirk.'

KILLAUCHIE. ' Penninghame.' Cuil or cul achaidh [aghie], corner
or back of the field. But cf. Cill achaidh, or the church of
the field, in the Martyrology of Donegal.

KlLLBR6CKS. ' Inch.' Coill broc, wood of the badgers.

KILLEAL (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Kilzeild ; P. Coulleill). 'Penning-
hame.'

KILLERAN. ' Girthon.'

KILLERN (Inq. ad Cap. 1575, Killerne; 1611, Killarne; P. Kill-
orin). ' Anwoth.' Doubtful whether this is a dedication to
St. Kieran (see under CHIPPERHERON) or, as Font's render-
ing suggests, to Odhran [Oran], a co-temporary of Columba at
Hy, whose name is lent to Killoran in Colon say.

KILLHILL, THE, or GUILHILL. ' Penninghame.' The hill of the
kill or kiln, for drying grain. The BR. SC. kill preserves one
of the M.E. forms given in the Promptorium Parvulorum (1440),
" kylne, hjll, for malt dryynge." A.S. cyln. The n is
integral, as the word is borrowed from LAT. culina, a kitchen.

KILLIBRAKES. ' Mochrum.' Coillidh brec [killy brake], dappled,
variegated woodland. Coillidh, woodland, a deriv. of coill.
See under AUCHABRICK and BARNHILLIE.

KiLLiEG6wAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1604, Killigoune; P. Killigawin).
'Anwoth.' Coillidh gobhan [killy gown], the blacksmith's
wood.

KILLIEMACUDDICAN. ' Kirkcolm.' CUle mo Cudachain [?], church
of St. Cuthbert. Apparently a diminutive of the name of
the famous saint. See under KIRKCUDBRIGHT.

KILLIEM6RE (P. Kaillymort). ' Penninghame.' Coillidh [killy]
mdr, great wood. Cf. CULMORE.

KILLIMINGAN. ' Kirkgunzeon.'

KILLINESS (P. Kelly ness). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.'

KiLL6cHiE. ' Balmaclellan.' Cf. KILLAUCHIE.

KlLLUMPHA (Inq. ad Cap. 1661, Kilumpha-Agnew ; P. Killumpha).
' Kirkmaiden.'



210 AN TJR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

KiLLYBdY. * Kirkinner.' Coillidh buidhe [killy huie], yellow
woodland. Cf. KILBUIE.

KlLLYL6uR. 'Kirkpatrick Irongray.' Perhaps cill an lobhair
[lour], St. Fillan the Leper's church. See under BARLURE and

KlLFILLAN.

KILLYMIJCK or KiLLiNiMtiCK (Inq. ad Cap. 1633, Kelenemuck).
' Penninghame.' Coillidh [killy] na muc, wood of the swine.
See under CLACHANAMUCK.

KILLYWHAN. ' Kirkgunzeon.'

KILMACFADZEAN (P. Kilmakphadzen). ' New Luce.' Cill mic

Phaidin, the cell or church of the son of Paidin, or little

Patrick ; Macfadzean's church. See under BARFADDEN.
KILMALLOCH. ' New Luce.'

KILM6RIE (Inq. ad Cap. 1668, Kilmirring). 'Kirkcolm.' Cill

Muire, (St.) Mary's church. There are about fifty townlands

in Ireland called Kilmurry and Kilmorey. W. Meir, Mair,

Mary.

KILNAIR. ' Kells.'

KILNBUT. ' Kells.' Cuil na boc [?], corner of the he-goats. See

under AUCHNIEBUT.
KILQUHIRN [pron. Kilhwern]. ' Wigtown.' Cill, cuil, or coillchuirn

[hirn], the church, corner, or wood of the cairn. See under

KlLHERN.

KiLQTJH6coDALE (Inq. ad Cap. 1670, Killquhowdaill ; P. Kail-

chockadale). ' Kirkcowan.'

KILSTAY. ' Kirkmaiden.'

KILSTIJRE (P. Kilstyre; Inq. ad Cap. 1620, Kilsture; W. P. MSS.

Calstuir). ' Sorbie.'
KlLTERSAN (P. Kiltersan). ' Kirkcowan.' Coill tarsuinn, the

wood athwart. But cf. Kiltarsna, written cill tarsna (the

church of the crossing), in the Martyrology of Donegal. See

under BALTERSAN.
KILWHANIDY (P. Kilwhonnaty ; JFar Committee, 1640, Kilquhen-

nady). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.'
KILWHIRN. ' Kirkmabreck.' See under KILHERN.
KiNclRRACK. 'Kirkbean.' Ceann [ken] carroch, rocky hill, or

ceann carric, head of the crag.
KINDEE. 'Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Ceann dubh [doo, duv], black head.

Dubh often becomes dee in composition. On the opposite

coast of Antrim is Kenbane (ceann ban), the white headland.

Cf. Kinduff in Ireland.



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 211

KINDRAM (P. Keandramm). ' Kirkmaiden, s.c.' Ceann droma,
head of the ridge ; genitive of druim.

KINGANTON. ' Borgue.'

KING'S LAGGAN. ' Anwoth.'

KING'S WELL (within the old fortifications at the Mull of Gallo-
way, and near two other wells called KIPPERNED and
KIBBERTIE KITE WELL). ' Kirkmaiden.'

KINHARVIE (P. Kinharvy). ' New Abbey.' Ceann gharbh [harve],
rough head. Cf. Kingarve, Kingarrow, and Kingarriff in
Ireland, o. ERSE garb, rough, ERSE and GAEL, garbh.

KIPP (P. Kipp). ' Colvend.' " Kip. 1. A sharp pointed hill.
2. Those parts of a mountain which resemble round knobs,
jutting out by the side of the cattle path." Jamieson. Prob-
ably from ERSE ceap [cap], gen. dp, a tree-stock, stump,
or block. O'Reilly also gives to ceap the meaning of " a piece
of ground."

KIPPERNED. 'Kirkcolm.' Tlobar, a well. See under CHIPPER-
HERON.

KIPPFORD. ' Colvend.' The road or ford of Kipp. Cf.
Knockakip in Clare, which the Four Masters (A.D. 1573)
write Bel-an-chip, the (ford) mouth of the dp or tree-trunk.

KIRBREEN or KIRKBREEN (P. Keribroyn). ' Kirkinner.' Ceath-
ramhaidh bruigheain [?] [carrou breen], land-quarter of the
dwelling-house. See under CURROCHTREE and BORGUE.

KIRCALLA. ' Penninghame.' The only evidence of ecclesiastical
occupation here is that a hill close by is called BARNEYCLEARY,
q. v.

KIRCLACHIE. * Inch.' Ceathramhaidh [carrou] cloiche [1], land-
quarter of the stone. See under CARHOWE.

KIRCL6Y. ' Mochrum.' See under KIRCLACHIE.

KIRKANDERS or KIRKANDREWS (formerly a parish) (W. P. MSS.
Kirkandirrs ; Rag. Roll. Eglise de Kircandres). ' Borgue.'
Circ Aindrea, church of (St.) Andrew. BR. SO. &r& = M.E.
chirch, chireche, Jcirk, kirke A.s. cyrice, arc + DU. JcerJc + DAN.
kirke + SWED. kyrka + ICEL. kirkja + O.H.G. chiricha, G. kirche
GK. Kvpiaicov, a church icvpios, the Lord. Occupying, as
it frequently does, the first part of a name, it is easy to see
that it has been substituted for the ERSE dll, or made inter-
changeable as A.S. speech spread among the Celtic population.



212 AN TlR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

In names of directly A.S. or BR. SC. origin circ is placed last,
such as Stoneykirk (Steenie's or St. Stephen's kirk). In
Ireland, whither A.s. speech did not penetrate, circ does not
appear in the topography. See under KIRKLEBRIDE.

KlRKBEAN (a parish in the Stewartry) (P. Kirbyinn). Circ Beain,
Bean's church; Bishop of Mortlach about A.D. 1012. Near
Mortlach is Balvanie, written in Irish Bal-bheni mor, the
dwelling of Bean the Great. Kal. Scot. Saints, p. 277.

KIRKBRIDE (P. Kirkbryid ; Charter by Uchtred, Lord of Galloway,
1170, Ecclesia Sanctae Brigide de Blacket). ' Kirkgunzeon/
' Kirkmabreck,' ' Kirkmaiden.' Circ Brighde, (St.) Brigid's
church. The 'Mary of Ireland,' who died in 523, was
extensively honoured in Scotland.

KIRKCARSEL (Barribarroch, 1562, Kyrcarsall, Kyr-castell). 'Rer-
wick.'

KiRKCiAUGH (Inq. ad Cap. 1605, Kirreclaugh ; P. Kareclauch ;
War Committee, 1640, Kirriclauche). 'Anwoth,' ' Buittle.'
Ceathramhaidh clach, land-quarter of the stones, as Carrowna-
gloch in Connaught, which is written Ceathramhaidh-na-gcloch
in the Book of Lecan. Cf. KIRCLACHIE.

KlRKCHRiST (P. Kirkcrist, Kirkchrist). ' Kirkcudbright,' ' Old
Luce,' ' Penninghame.' Circ Crioisd, Christ's kirk.

KlRKCbLM [pron. Kirkcum] (Act. Ed. I., A.D. 1296, Kyrkum).
Circ Coluim, (St.) Columba's church. Dr. Reeves enumerates
fifty-six of this celebrated saint's dedications and foundations
in Scotland.

KlRKCdNNEL (P. Karkonnell, Kirkonnell). ' Tungland.' Circ
Connaill, church of (St.) Connall. Cf. Tirconnel in Ireland,
called Terra Connallea in a MS. life of St. Modvenna. A
semi- vowel has been dropped ; the name was formerly
Convall, as is shown in another life of St. Modvenna, where
Tirconnell is called populus Convalleorum = W. Cynwal, O. W.
Conffual, and, on an inscribed stone in Cornwall, CVNOVALI
(Rhys, p. 86). "There are seven saints of this name in the
Irish lists. It is impossible to identify any of them with
him who gives his name to Kirkconnell." Kal. Scot. Saints,
p. 311.

KiRKc6RMACK. ' Kelton.' See under KILCORMACK.

KlRKCbwAN (a parish in the shire) (Synod of Galloway MS.
1664, Kirkuan). Circ Comhghain [cowan], Comgan's church.
He was the brother of St. Caentigerna (the recluse of Inch



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 213

Cailleach on Loch Lomond), and uncle of St. Fillan. He
fled from Ireland to Ross-shire, where there is a dedication
to him, Kilchoan, as well as numerous others in Scotland.
Kal. Scot Saints, p. 310. Simpson remarks the name is
pronounced (as at the present day) Kircuan. Cf. LINCUAN.

KIRKCUDBRIGHT [pron. Kirkqoobry] (Rag. Roll, Kircuthbright ;
Maclellan, Fanum Cudberti ; P. Kircubright). ' Kirkcud-
bright.' A.S. circ Cuisbert, Cuthbert's kirk. " On one
occasion Cudberct went to the land of the ' Niduari Picts,'
or Picts of Galloway, who were then under the dominion
of the Angles. He is described as quitting his monastery
(Melrose) on some affairs that required his presence, and
embarking on board a vessel for the land of the Picts who
are called Niduari, accompanied by two of the brethren,
one of whom reported the incident. They arrived there the
day after Christmas, expecting a speedy return, for the sea
was smooth and the wind favourable ; but they had no sooner
reached the land than a tempest arose, by which they were
detained for several days exposed to hunger and cold ; but
they were, by the prayers of the saint, supplied with food
under a cliff where he was wont to pray during the watches
of the night ; and on the fourth day the tempest ceased, and
they were brought by a prosperous breeze to their own
country. The traces of this visit have been left in the name
Kirkcudbright." Skene (quoting Bede's Fit. S. Cud.), Celtic
Scotland, ii. 208.

KIRKDALE [pron. Curdle, formerly a parish] (P. Kirkdall; W. P.
MSS. Kirkdaill). ' Kirkmabreck.' AS. circ dcel, church por-
tion, i.e. glebe.

KIRKENNAN (Inq. ad Cap. 1611, Kirkcunane, Kirkinane
P. Kerekennan). ' Buittle,' ' Minigaff.' Kirk Adhamhnain
[?] [eunan], (St.) Adamnan's church. Although there is no
authority for adding these places to the list of Scottish
dedications to this Saint given by Dr. Reeves (Adamnan, Ixv.),
yet the similarity of the name to those of other places sacred
to his memory certainly suggest it, especially the old spelling,
Kirkcunane. Cf. Killeunan in Argyllshire, Killonan in
Limerick, etc. Perhaps circ Fhinnain [innan], a dedication
to St. Inan or Finnan. See under KIRKGUNZEON.

KiRKEftcH (P. Kirkock). ' Twynholm.'

KIRKGUNZEON [pron. Kirkgunnion] (a parish in the Stewartry)
(P. Kirkguinnan, Carguinnan ; Charters of 1 2th century



2i 4 AN TtR-CHUNNTAS GALLGAIDHEL.

Kirkwinnyn and Kirkwynnin). Circ Finnain, St. Winnin's
church. On the church bell, cast in 1640, Kirkwinong.
Kilwinning and Southennan in Ayrshire are dedicated to the
same Saint, whom Dr. Skene identifies with the Welsh Saint
Vynnyn or Ffinnan, i.e. St. Finnan of Clonard, educated by
St. Patrick, and patron of Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, the
name of which is a corruption "of the Welsh Llanffinan.

KiRKHdBBLE (P. Kerychapell ; Inq. ad Cap. 1645, Keirchappell).
' Penninghame.' Ceathramhaidh chaipeail [carrou happle],
the quarter-land of the chapel. The next farm is GLENHAPPLE,
q.v. See also under BARHAPPLE.

KIRKINNA. ' Parton.'

KIRKINNER (Inq. ad Cap. 1584, Kirkinver ; P. Kirkynnuir).
* Kirkinner.' Kirk Cennera, St. Kennera's Church. St.
Kennera, virgin and martyr, was one of the maidens who
accompanied St. Ursula to Kome. Her story is told at length
in the Breviarium dberdonense, vol. i. fol. cxxxiii. et seq. She
lived with her parents, Aurelius and Florencia, " in Orchada
minore ad urbem didam Orchadam." On returning from Eome,
when St. Ursula and the other virgins were massacred at
Cologna, the king of the Rhine " ob ejus eliganciam miram
motus " (moved by her wonderful beauty) threw his cloak over
her and took her to the Rhenish town where he dwelt. There
she lived a life of piety, " ibat de virtute in virtutem," and be-
came so honoured by the king that he gave into her charge
the keys of his realm, and preferred her above all his house-
hold. Not unnaturally the queen became jealous, and tried
to make him believe evil of Kennera. " Sed quia vincit
opus verbum" the king would not believe the slander, so the
queen resolved upon the removal of the maiden. The king
having gone hunting, she caused Kennera to be strangled
with a towel (manitergium) and buried in the stable. On
the king's return he asked at once where was Kennera. The
queen replied that while he had been absent the parents of
the maiden had come and taken her away. Meanwhile the
king's horse, having been led round to the stable where
Kennera was buried, neither by blows nor coaxing could he
be induced to enter. He was therefore taken to another
stable which he entered at once. The king went to bed, but
was aroused by his groom, who, having had occasion to enter
the stable where Kennera lay, was terrified at seeing burning
candles in the form of a cross. Accompanied by his house-
hold the king entered the stable, where the candles still were



THE TOPOGRAPHY OF GALLOWAY. 215

burning. On his approach they disappeared ; but on search
being made the newly-disturbed floor led to the discovery of
the body of Kennera with the napkin round her neck. She
was canonised, and the 27th October set apart as her day.
Seta. Kenera vgo. el mr. patrona de Kirkyner in Galwedia.
Chalmers says the old name of Kirkinner was CARNESMOEL,
and quotes, among others, a charter of Edward II. in 1319,
giving presentation to Carnesmeol in the diocese of Candida
Casa.

KIRKLAND, in many places, = church land, glebe.

KIRKLANE. ' Kelton.' The stream of the church.

KiRKLAUCHLANE (Inq. ad Cap. 1596, Kerelauchleine; P. Keir-
lachline). ' Stoneykirk.' Cathair [caher] Lochlinn, Lauchlan's
fort. See under BARLAUCHLINE. o. ERSE cathir + w. and c.
caer, B. karia.

KIRKLEBRIDE (P. Kirkilbryde). ' Kirkpatrick Durham.' Kirk till
Brighde, (St.) Brigid's church. We have here the BR. SC.
kirk prefixed to the ERSE rill Brighde. See under KIRK-
ANDERS and KIRKBRIDE.

KIRKLEISH. ' Kirkmaiden.'

KIRKLOCH. ' Minigafi".'

KIRKMABRECK. A parish in the Stewartry. Circ mo Brice, church
of St. Bricius or Brecan. (For the use of the pronoun mo, see
under HILLMABREEDIA.) Of Bricius (episcopus et confessor) it
is narrated in the Aberdeen Breviary that in his youth he bore
great enmity to St. Martin. Once, when a certain sick
person was seeking St. Martin, Bricius mocked him, saying :
" If you are looking for that madman, there he is, staring at
the sky as usual, like a lunatic." When he afterwards denied
having said this, Martin said : " I have obtained this from
God, that you shall be bishop after me ; but know this, that
in your bishopric you shall encounter much tribulation."
Bricius, hearing this, derided him, and continued in enmity
to him ; but the blessed Martin was ever praying for him,


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Online LibraryHerbert MaxwellStudies in the topography of Galloway; being a list of nearly 4000 names of places, with remarks on their origin and meaning, and an introductory essay → online text (page 18 of 28)