Herbert Osborn.

The Tingitoidea of Ohio online

. (page 1 of 5)
Online LibraryHerbert OsbornThe Tingitoidea of Ohio → online text (page 1 of 5)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|



Torreya



"orrey Botanical Club, Marshall Avery



owe, ueorqe



3 2044 106 441 983







LIBRARY OF THE GRAY HERBARIUM

\T S V HARVARD UNIVERSITY.

~\-JO BOUGHT.



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



TORREYA



A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News



JOHN TORRBY, X796-1873



EDITED FOR

THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB

BY

JEAN BROADHURST



Volume VIII.



NEW YORK
1908



Digitized by



Google



PR est or

( NIW ERA PRINTIM CONMMT
LANCASTER. PA.



Digitized by



Google



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB



OFFICERS FOR 1908



President,
HENRY H. RUSBY, M.D.

Vice-Presidents,
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. JOHN HENDLEY BARNHART, A. M., M.D.

Recording Secretary,

C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D.
Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, Now York City.

Editor, Treasurer,

MARSHALL AVERY HOWE, Ph.D. WILLIAM MANSFIELD, Phar.D
Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, College of Pharmacy, 115 West 68th St.,

New York City. New York City.

Associate Editors,

JOHN H. BARNHART, A.M., M.D. TRACY ELLIOT HAZEN, Ph.D.

JKAJf TUtflATrTTURST, AM, WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D.

PHILIP DOWELL, Ph.D. CHARLES LOUIS POLLARD, A.M.

ALEX. W. EVANS, M.D., Ph.D. HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D.



Meetings tbe second Tuesday and last Wednesday of each month alternately at the
American Museum of Natural History and the New York Botanical Garden.



PUBLICATIONS. Bulletin. Monthly, established 1870. Price $3.00 per
year ; single numbers 30 cents. Of former volumes only 24-33 can be supplied en-
tire. Certain numbers of other volumes are available, and the completion of sets
will be undertaken.

Memoirs. A series of technical papers published at irregular intervals, estab-
lished 1889. Price $3.00 per volume.

Torreya. Monthly, established 1901. Price |i.oo per year.

All business correspondence relating to the abore publications should be addressed
to William Mansfield, Treasurer, College of Pharmacy, 115 W. 68th St., New York
City.



Digitized by



Google



ERRATA, VOLUME 8

Page 25, 2d line from bottom (footnote), for No. 2, read No. 1.

Page 54, 10th line, for yellew read yellow.

Page 60, 1st line, insert a hyphen at the end of the line.

Page 102, 3d line, for matricariaefolium read neglectum.

Page 125, last line (footnote), complete the brackets.

Page 155, last line, for successively ra^Z successfully.

Page 163, 1 2th line from bottom, for The problems read The
progress.

Page 195, 10th line, for others read other.

Page 207, 1 2th line from bottom, for Lause read Lancelot.

Page 217, last line, for ew read New.

Page 218, 7th linrf', for OEningen read Oeningen.

Page 232, 6th line, for Karston read Karsten.

Page 233, 2d line from bottom (footnote), for Radioactivity
and Life read " Radioactivity and Life ".

Page 237, 2d line, for Linnaeus" read Linnaeus.

Page 237, 3d line, for Specific read " Specific.

Page 246, 5th line, omit comma before are.

Page 250, end of the 12th line from bottom, substitute comma
for the period.



Dates of Publication



No. I,
No. 2,
No. 3,

No. 4,
No. 5,
No. 6,
No. 7,
No. 8,
No. 9,
No. 10,
No. II,
No. 12,



for January.
February.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
August.
September.
October.
November.
December.



Pages



1-24.

25-40.

41-64.

65-92.
93-124-
125-152.

i53-l8o.
181-208.
209-232.
233-252.
253-276.
277-315.



Issued January 27, 1908.

February 26, 1908,

March 27, 1908.

April 29, 1908

May 19, 1908,

June 30, 1908.

July 29, 1908,

September 1, 1908,

September 26, 1908

October 22, 1908,

November 25, 1908,

January 6, 1909.



Digitized by



Google




January, 1908 No. 1

TORREYA

A Monthly Journal of Botanical Notes and News.



EDITED FOR



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB



J KAN BROADHURST



JOHN TORKBY, 1796-1873

contents

The Pine-Barrens of Babylon and Islip, Long Island: Roland M. Hartkr... i

A Trip to Jamaica in Summer : Elizabeth G. Britton 8

The Pine- Barren Bellwort : Kenneth K. Mackenzie 13

A Key to the White and Bright-Colored Sessile Poly pore a e of Temperate

North America — I: William A. Mcrrill 14

Shorter Notes :

Gymnadeniop8is nivea in Southern New Jersey : Bayard Lonc. 16

Rynchospora rahflora in Southern New Jersey : Witmer Stone 16

Reviews :

Kellogg's Darwinism To-Day : C, Stuart Gager 17

Proceedings of the Qlub : C. Stuart Gager 20

News Items 23

Published for the Club

At 41 North Quern Street, Lancaster, Pa.
by The Nbw Era Printing Company

[Entered at the Post Office at Lancaster, Pa, as second-class matter ]



■ *• • - * . *•



Google



THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB



OFFICERS FOR 1908



President,
HENRY R RUSBY, M.D.

Vice- Presidents,
EDWARD S. BURGESS, Ph.D. JOHN HENDLEY BARNH ART, A.M., M.D.

Recording Secretary,
C. STUART GAGER, Ph.D.

Botanical Garden, Brook Park, New York City.



Editor,
MARSHALL AVERY HOWE, Ph.D.

Botanical Garden, Bronx Park,
New York City.



Treasurer,

WILLIAM MANSFIELD, Phar.D
College of Pharmacy, 115 West 68th St.,



New York ity.



Associate Editors,



JOHN H. BARNHART, A.M., M.D.
JEAN BROADHURST, B,S.
PHILIP DO WELL, Ph.D.
ALEX. W. EVANS, M,D., Ph.D.



TRACY ELLIOT HA^ZEN, Ph.D.
WM. ALPHONSO MURRILL, Ph.D.
CHARLES LOUIS POLLARD, A.M.
HERBERT M. RICHARDS, S.D.



Torreya is furnished to subscribers in the United States and
Canada for one dollar per annum ; single copies, fifteen cents. To
subscribers elsewhere, five shillings, or the equivalent thereof. Postal or
express money orders and drafts or personal checks on New York City
banks are accepted in payment, but the rules of the New York' Clearing
House compel the request that ten cents be added to the amount of any
other local checks that may be sent. Subscriptions are received only
for full volumes, beginning with the January issue. Reprints wiW be
furnished at cost prices. Subscriptions and remittances should be sent
to Treasurer, Torrey Botanical Club, 41 North Queen St.> Lan-
caster, Pa., or College of Pharmacy, 115 West 68th St., New York City.

Matter for publication should be addressed to

JEAN BROADHURST

Teachers College, Columbia University
Hew York City



Digitized by



Google'-



nz



i«k_ Iwu£-«3*_» J



TORREYA



January, 1908
Vol. 8. No. 1.

THE PINE-BARRENS OF BABYLON AND ISLIP,
LONG ISLAND

By Roland M. Harper

To the botanist who regards a habitat merely as a place where
certain species of plants may be found, the pine-barrens to be
described below possess few attractions, for their flora is not very
rich, and nearly all the species are pretty widely distributed and
well known. But to the phytogeographer every habitat that has
not been too much disfigured by civilization is of interest, whether
its plants are few or many, common or rare ; so no apology is
necessary for publishing the following notes.

The pine-barrens of Long Island are very easy of access, but
they seem never to have been adequately described, chiefly for
the reason given above. Brief references to them occur in some
old historical works, such as B. F. Thompson's History of Long
Island (1839), on P a g e *6 of which is the following statement:
" There is another extensive tract lying eastward from the
Hempstead plains, and reaching to the head of Peconic Bay,
composed so entirely of sand as to seem in a great measure
incapable of profitable cultivation by any process at present
known."

The first distinct published list of Long Island pine-barren
plants seems to be that of Dr. N. L. Britton (Bull. Torrey Club
7: 82. 1880), who selected from Miller & Young's flora of
Suffolk County, N. Y. (published in 1 874) 46 species which he
had found in New Jersey and on Staten Island to be confined to
the coastal plain, or nearly so. Essentially the same list was
copied by Dr. Arthur Hollick in 1893 (Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci.

[No. 12, Vol. 7, of Torreya, comprising pages 225-258, was issued January
16, 1908.]

1



Digitized by



Google



278

called N rays by plants of the garden cress was reported by
Meyer. 4 Their emission, he said, varies with the activity of the
protoplasm, and is diminished when the plants are exposed to the
vapor of chloroform, and is modified by mere compression of the
tissues.

In 1904 Russel 5 described before the Royal Society the rather
startling discovery of the action of wood on a photographic plate
in the dark. This property, he said, belongs probably to all
woods. Conifers are especially active, and the spring wood most
of all, but the dark autumn wood produced no such effect. Oak,
beech, acacia {Robinid), Spanish chestnut, and sycamore possess
this property, but ash, elm, the horse-chestnut, and the plane
tree only to a slight degree. Most resins manifest it, but not so
the true gums, such as gum Senegal and gum tragacanth. Ex-
posure to sunlight, especially to the blue rays of the spectrum,
increases the activity. Cork, printer's ink, leather, pure India
rubber, fur, feathers, and turpentine are reported to have their
activity increased in the same way. Since bodies such as slate,
porcelain, flour, and sugar, in which there is no resinous or allied
body, do not react in this way, nor affect the plate at all, the
activity of the various kinds of wood is attributed to the resinous
substances in them.

Tommasina's 8 * 9 papers were also published in 1904. He re-
ported that all freshly gathered plants, fruits, flowers, and leaves
possess a radioactivity which is stronger in the young and in in-
dividuals in action than in those at rest, being apparently propor-
tional to the vital energy. For this phenomenon he proposed
the term bio-radioactivity. Buds of lilac, and leaves of Thuja and
of laurel were found by him to be bio-radioactive.

In the following year Tarchanoff and Moldenhauer 7 published
their preliminary note on the induced and natural radioactivity of
plants, and on its probable role in their growth. When seeds of
various grains and of the pea were exposed to the radium ema-
nation, the seedlings growing from such seeds showed induced ra-
dioactivity in their roots, but the stem and small leaves remained
inactive. Also when a mature plant was exposed to the emana-
tion the roots became strongly radioactive, the stem somewhat
less so, the leaves only slightly, and the flowers not at all.



Digitized by



Google



279

This distribution of the radioactivity in the plant body is con-
stant, and the authors. consider that there is in the plant a special
substance, sensible to the emanation, and capable of becoming
radioactive under its influence. This substance occurs in the
roots, but gradually diminishes up the stem. It is found also in
seeds. According to this same paper plants possess a natural
radioactivity, which is distributed throughout the plant similarly
to the induced radioactivity. This natural radioactivity is strong
enough to affect a photographic plate, and plays an important
role in the development of the plant.

In a second paper Russel 6 gives a list of 33 native and 22
foreign woods that are active, and says that the activity of resins
and gums is increased by exposure, not only to sunlight, but to the
arc-light as well. Photographic plates often contain a negative of
the plate-holder. That this is not a case of radioactivity appears to
be proved, says the author, for a glass or a mica screen of one
thousandth of an inch in thickness entirely protects the plate from
being acted on.

Finally Paul Becquerel l undertook a careful study of " plant
radioactivity/' He tested pea seeds, moss (Hyptiuni), and
branches of boxwood for radioactivity, but found not a trace of
it manifest when the electroscope was carefully guarded from
water-vapor. This explains the condition found necessary by
Tommasina, that the parts of plants must be freshly picked in
order to manifest bio-radioactivity. According to Becquerel, the
discharge of the electroscope in Tommasina's experiments was
due to the water in the plants.

From all the investigations noted above, the general conclusion
seems to be warranted that radioactivity is not a property of proto-
plasm nor of living tissues. A clear understanding of the nature
of radioactivity would lead, a priori, to the same inference.

2. The Professed Artificial Creation of Life

Radioactivity and vital activity are in two respects very
roughly, but only very superficially analogous. Both radio-
active bodies and living organisms are undergoing a destructive
process ; atomic disintegration in the one, molecular transforma-



Digitized by



Google



280

tion in the other ; both, with exceptions, maintain themselves
constantly at a higher temperature than their surroundings. *
These analogies have in two or three instances proven danger-
ously attractive.

A consideration of radioactivity led Dubois, 18 in 1904, to the
view that the distinction between " matter of life " and *' living
matter" is superficial. He proposed the term bioproteon
meaning the particular state of the " proteon " in living beings,
and suggested the desirability of determining the radioactivity
proper of the bioproteon. In a subsequent paper 21 he says:
41 The unique principle of everything, of both force and matter,
I have called ' proteon,' and when it pertains to a living being,
' bioproteon V Proteon and bioproteon are only two different
states of the same thing. When the bioproteon is dead it has
only ceased to be radioactive and becomes simply proteon. He
claimed also to have discovered the emission, from the lamelli-
branch mollusc, Phaladea dactyle, of rays that could penetrate
paper and opaque substances and darken a sensitive plate.

Early in the year 1905 appeared his paper l9 on " La creation de
retre vivant et les lois naturelles" in which he announced the for-
mation of living organisms in bouillon gelatine by placing on it
crystals of the bromide of both barium and radium. Later in the
same year 20 he claimed to have secured a kind of spontaneous gen-
eration by radium. By the contact of certain crystalloids with or-
ganic colloids, there are obtained, he says, granulations, or vacuo-
lides, possessing the optical and and morphological characters of
simple life, more rudimentary than bioproteon, or living matter.
These bodies arise, grow, divide, grow old, and die, returning to
the crystalline state like all living things, and Dubois applied to
them the generic term eobc (dawn of life). Eobes are held to
form the transition between the organic and the inorganic world.
In his essay 21 on "La radioactivite et la vie" he elaborates the
hypothesis that the energy irradiated by living beings has two dis-
tinct origins — one from the environment, and one ancestral or
hereditary. By their " ancestral energy " living beings are simi-
lar to radioactive bodies. They both give off heat rays, light,
chemical rays, electricity, and possess molecular motion, and
atomic and other movements.



Digitized by



Google



281

Leduc's 26,17 profession to have created life was controverted by
Bonnier, 10 Charrin and Goupil, 17 and by Kunstler, 25 in 1907.

The most extravagant claims made in this direction are those
of Burke, 11 " 1 * whose observations on the spontaneous action of ra-
dioactive bodies on gelatine media form the basis of a voluminous
work entitled "The Origin of Life." While these experiments
have little of the scientific importance they have been held to
possess in the popular mind, it is desirable to state, in Burke's
own words, what he did, and his own interpretation of the results.

" An extract of meat of 1 lb. of beef to 1 liter of water, to-
gether with 1 per cent, of Witter peptone, 1 per cent, of sodium
chloride, and 10 per cent, of gold labelled gelatine was slowly
heated in the usual way, sterilized, and then cooled. The gela-
tine culture medium thus prepared, and commonly known as
bouillon, is acted upon by radium salts and some other slightly
radioactive bodies in a most remarkable manner." 12

When the mixture above described was placed in a test-tube
and sterilized, and the surface sprinkled with 2.5 grains of radium
bromide (activity not given), after 24 hours (three to four days
when radium chloride was used), " a peculiar culture-like growth
appeared on the surface, and gradually made its way downwards,
until after a fortnight, in some cases, it had grown nearly a cen-
timeter beneath the surface." From this growth Burke was not
able to make sub-cultures. He considers them not bacteria, and
not contaminations, but " highly organized bodies." They have
•' nuclei ", subdivide when a certain size is reached, and " the
larger ones appear to have sprung from the smaller ones, and
they have all probably arisen in some way from the invisible
particles of radium." He regards them as colloidal, rather than
crystalline, " of the nature of * dynamical aggregates ' rather than
of • static aggregates '," and coins for them a new name, radiobes.
This forms the experimental basis for a volume of 351 pages.

With reference to these discoveries, Dubois n claims priority
over Burke, and rejects his term radiobe in favor of eobe, be-
cause these bodies may be obtained with non-radioactive sub-
stances.

A few months after Burke s announcement Rudsre 28 ' ** showed



Digitized by



Google



282

that the alleged growths were " nothing more than finely divided
precipitates of insoluble barium salts." He was unable in a
preparation similar to the one described by Burke, to observe
anything like cell-division, and believes that an occasional group-
ing of the particles in pairs must be purely fortuitous. The
appearance of growth of the radiobes is explained as due to dif-
fusion of the precipitate through the gelatine from a point of
concentration where the radium salt was in contact with the gel-
atine. Salts of barium, lead, and strontium produced effects
exactly similar to those caused by radium preparations.

Again repeating Burke's experiments, Rudge 30 was unable to
secure the radiobes when agar-agar was substituted for gela-
tine and distilled water was used. If tap-water was employed a
slight growth resulted, while the addition of a soluble sulfate re-
sulted in a very dense growth. An examination of 30-40 samples
of gelatine showed that they all contained enough H 2 S0 4 to give
a distinct, sometimes a dense, precipitate with barium chloride in
the presence of HN0 8 . This precipitate was found, on analysis,
to be BaS0 4 . Gelatine was then prepared free from sulfates and
gave no growth. Negative results were obtained with salts
of uranium, thorium, pitchblende, and metallic uranium, thus
clearly indicating that there is not the slightest connection be-
tween the formation of the rabiobes and radioactivity.

A sample of gelatine from which HjS0 4 had been removed was
sealed with a radium salt from June until September. At the end
of that time no growth appeared, but when a soluble sulfate was
added to a portion of this gelatine the growth began at once.

"The cellular form of these precipitates/' said Rudge, "is prob-
ably due to the circumstance that the gelatine is liquefied by the
action of the salt, and each particle of precipitate is formed about
a core of gelatine, so that the layer of barium sulfate forms a
kind of sac or cell which is surrounded by the solutions of the salt
in the liquefied gelatine. This * cell ' may be permeable to the
liquefied gelatine containing a salt in solution, which, passing
through the cell-wall, causes an expansion to take place, the limit
of growth being controlled by some surface tension effect."

No trace of a nucleus or of mitosis was observed under the



Digitized by



Google



283

very highest magnification, and " cells " under a cover-glass sealed
down with cement were observed to suffer no alteration during
four months.

Reference to the extreme claims noted in some of the litera-
ture above cited may be fittingly concluded by the following
quotation from Lord Kelvin : u

" But let not youthful minds be dazzled by the imaginings of
the daily newspapers that because Berthelot and others have . . .
made foodstuffs they can make living things, or that there is any
prospect of a process being found in any laboratory for making
a living thing, whether the minutest germ of bacteriology or any-
thing smaller or greater."

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Supposed Radioactivity of Plants and of Wood

i. Becquerel, P. Recherche sur la radioactivity vegetale. Compt. Rend. Acad.
Sci. Paris 140 : 54. 190$.

2. Greene, A. B. A note on the action of radium on microorganisms. Proc. Roy.

Soc. London 73 : 375. 1 904.

3. Lambert. Emission des rayons de Blondlot au cours de Taction des ferments

soluble. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 138 : 196. 1904.

4. Meyer, E. Emission de rayons N par les vegetaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.

Paris 138 : 101. 1904.

5. RuMell, W. J. The action of wood on a photographic plate in the dark.

Nature 70 : $21. 1904. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 74 : 131. 1904.

6. . On the action of wood on a photographic plate. Nature 73 : 152.

1905.

7. Tarchanoff, I., & Moldenhauer, T. Sur la radio-activite induite et naturelle

des plantes et sur son rdle probable dans la croissance des plantes. Note
preliminaire. Bull. Internal. Acad. Sci. Cracovie No. 9, 728. 1905.

8. Tommaaina, T. Constatation d'une radioactivity propre aux fttres vivant,

vegetaux et animaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 139 : 730. 1904.

9. . Sur un dispositif pour mesurer la radioactivity des vegetaux. Compt.

Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 139 : 730. 1904.

The Professed Artificial Creation of Life

10. Bonnier, G. Sur les pretendues plantes artificielles. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.


1 3 4 5

Online LibraryHerbert OsbornThe Tingitoidea of Ohio → online text (page 1 of 5)