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SUCCESS

v ;



LIBRARY

i

OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

- ' v .'

Class ' '



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING



THE GARDEN LIBRARY



Roses and How to Grow Them

By MANY EXPERTS

Ferns and How to Grow Them

By G. A. WOOLSON

Lawns and How to Make Them

By LEONARD BARRON

Daffodils-Narcissus and How to Grow Them

By A. M. KIRBY

Water-Lilies and How to Grow Them

By H. S. CONARD AND HENRI HUS

The Flower Garden

By IDA D. BENNETT

The Vegetable Garden

i By IDA D. BENNETT

The Orchard and Fruit Garden

By E. P. POWELL

House Plants and How to Grow Them

By PARKER T. BARNES

Success in Market Gardening

By HERBERT RAWSON




AN IMPORTANT ADJUNCT TO THE MARKET GARDEN



Success in
Market Gardening

A NEW
VEGETABLE GROWERS' MANUAL



By
HERBERT RAWSON



REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION




ILLUSTRATED

'

ERSITY




NEW YORK

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY
1910






ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION
INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES, INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN

COPYRIGHT, 1892, BY W. W. RAWSON

COPYRIGHT, ipio, BY DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY

PUBLISHED, APRIL, 1910






PREFACE

The present volume is a revision of the book of
the same title written by my father, the late W. W.
Rawson, which ran through several editions.

In 1907, a year before his death, my father fully
appreciated the fact that any further edition of
his work would have to be thoroughly revised in
many important details, especially with regard to
varieties of vegetables at present under cultivation.
With this in mind, he had actually started rewrit-
ing the book, doing it in a leisurely way as oppor-
tunity offered. It is a keen regret to me that he
did not live to complete his labours; death overtook
him before he had done much beyond making
a number of miscellaneous notes and amend-
ments.

I have, therefore, undertaken this task of revi-
sion in a sense of filial duty and regard, allowing
as much as possible of my father's own manuscript
to appear in the present edition, which is offered
to present the most up-to-date methods of com-

[v]

219190



PREFACE

mercial vegetable culture in the Eastern United
States. With his practices and ideals I am nat-
urally familiar, having been associated with him
in the actual business of growing for some years
prior to his death.

Like my father, I have been brought up in the
business of market gardening, and can say as he
said, "my father followed it before me." No
market garden in New England has, at any time,
employed a larger capital or marketed a larger
annual product than does our establishment.

The extent of the establishment and operations
at Arlington has attracted general public notice.
Men who have already embarked in the business,
and have themselves been more or less success-
ful in it, will find in this book the means of com-
paring their own methods with ours. Young
men who are about to choose their vocation,
and who have heard of the increasing extent and
importance of this business of vegetable grow-
ing, will find here facts collected from a long
experience, which I, think, can hardly fail to be
valuable.

A reasonable man will estimate the worth of
this book by what it contains not criticising

[vil



PREFACE

it for the absence of matters which lie beyond its
scope and purpose.

The revisions and enlargements in the present
edition illustrate the most recent changes and
improvements in the art of market gardening.

H. R.

ARLINGTON, MASS., March, 1910.



[vii]



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PAGE

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. Scope of the Work .... 3-5

LOCATION AND SOILS. Choice of a Location. Convenience of

Slopes. Character of Soil 6-9

LAND DRAINAGE. Construction of Drains. Provision for Outlet.

Depths and Intervals. Benefits 10-18

IRRIGATION. Necessity for Watering. Sub-irrigation. Surface
Waterings. Sources of Supply. Storage. Amount and Fre-
quency. Distributing by Hose. Service of the Pump. Out-
fit and Operation. Estimates of Cost. Instances of Success.
Further Instructions /^** ; 1f< ^/-. ;*. .... 19-35

CHAPTER II

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. First Stages. How to Plow. A

Thorough Tillage *:-'<; .,<, v -* ^.N #.<-,= . 36-42

LAYING our CROPS AND ROTATION. Systematic Work. Objects

of a Rotation i +-> . :' : . , : * / "... .-; *K . . 43-47

MANURES AND FERTILIZERS. Amounts and Methods. Sources of
the Supply. Overhauling and Distributing on Land. Pro-
cesses of Fermentation. Commercial Fertilizers. Night Soil.
Wood Ashes. Manuring in the Hill. Composts. Liquid
Manures. Comparative Values. Chemical Constituents.
Works of Reference . . ' ; * > > 48-63

APPLICATION OF MANURES. Rapid-growing Crops. Fertilizing

Land under Crop. Different Methods . ,. ;. f . . 64-68

CHAPTER III

SELECTION OF SEEDS. Growing or Purchasing. Best is Cheapest.

When to Purchase. Testing for Quality . . . 69-70

[ix]



CONTENTS

PAGE

VITALITY OF SEEDS. How Impaired. How Preserved. Contin-
uance of Vitality. Growth from Fresh or Older Seeds . 71-73

SEED-GROWING. By Vegetable-growers. By Seedsmen. Improv-
ing the Strain. Differences in Maturing. Arlington Seed-
growing. Best is Cheapest. Gathering and Curing . . 74-76

SOWING THE SEED. In Newly Worked Soil. Depth and Other

Conditions 77-79

CULTIVATION OF CROPS. During Growth. Other Rules and Sug-
gestions . * . 80-81

CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HOT-BEDS. Furnishing and
Regulating the Heat. Continuous Care Essential. Tem-
perature and Other Conditions of Success. Four Crops in a
Season . ..'... . ., . . . . 82 ~ 87

GARDENING IN HOT-HOUSES. Growth of the Practice. Advan-
tages Resulting. Requirements for Heating . . . . 88-90

GATHERING THE CROPS. When to Gather. Handling and Pack-
ing . . . . . -.; . , . , . . . 91-92

CAPITAL AND LABOUR. Amounts Required. Practice and Opin-
ions. Rules and Data. Cost of Sundry Items . . . 92-95



CHAPTER IV

VEGETABLES RAISED FOR MARKET. Characteristics of, and Cul-
tural Directions for, the following kinds: Artichoke Jeru-
salem Artichoke Asparagus Dwarf or Bush Beans
Pole Beans Scarlet Runners Lima Beans Beets
Borecole, or Kale Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Cabbage
Carrot Cauliflower Celeriac Celery Chicory Chives 96-14



CHAPTER V

VEGETABLES RAISED FOR MARKET. Characteristics, etc., Con-
tinued. Field Corn Sweet Corn Corn Salad Cress
Upland Cress Cucumber Dandelion Egg Plant En-
dive Herbs Horse Radish Kohl Rabi Leek Lettuce
Martynia Mushrooms Muskmelons and Cantaloupes
Mustard Okra V . . <) . . . . 145-180

Nl



CONTENTS
CHAPTER VI

PAGE

VEGETABLES RAISED FOR MARKET. Characteristics, etc., Con-
tinued. Onions Parsley Parsnips Peas Peppers -*-
Potatoes Radishes Rhubarb Salsify Sea Kale Spinach

Squash Tomato Turnips Watermelons Chinese

Yam 181-220

CHAPTER VII

IMPLEMENTS, ORDINARY AND SPECIAL. Kemp's Manure Spreader

Plows Useful Styles Harrows Rollers Cultiva-
tors Small Tools Wheel Hoes Seed-Drills Com-
bination Wheel Tools Tools for Special Uses . . 221-238

GREENHOUSES, ETC. Modes of Heating Use of Electric Light

Permanent Outside Beds Low Cost Forcing House 238-242
PUMPING OUTFITS. Different Styles Various Kinds of Power 243-246
INSECT PESTS. Preventives Process of Fumigation . . 247-258
FUNGI AND PLANT DISEASES. Nature and Growth of Fungi Pre-
ventives Process of Spraying . . . . . . 259-263

IN CONCLUSION. Practice vs. Theory Experiments and Results

Forcing-House Products Closing Suggestions . . 264-267
INDEX . . . 269



[xi]



ILLUSTRATIONS



An Important Adjunct to the Market Garden Frontispiece



FACING PAGE



Testing Seeds for Vitality . . ... 76

Seedlings of Cucumber Pricked Out from the Seed Bed 76

Digging Over Hot-bed After Heat is Put in . . 77

Pulling Radishes for Market 77

Crosby Egyptian Beet . \ . i . .112

Rawson's Perfection Cabbage ... . . 113

Early Jersey Wakefield Cabbage . ... 113

Sea Foam Cauliflower . . * . . . 134

Paris Golden Self-blanching Celery . .- . 135

Rawson's Hot-house Cucumber . . *' 154

Marking for Lettuce Plants . . , . . 155

Lettuce Plants Ready to Set into the House . . 155

Putting in Bottom Heat for a Second Crop of Lettuce 172

Taking up Prickers of Lettuce from Seed Beds . 172

A House of Lettuce One Week Previous to Marketing 173

Danvers Yellow Globe Onion, New England Grown

Strain . . . * . . ... . 182

[xiii]



ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE

Digging Parsnips from Pit to Send to Wash-shed

for Market . , . . . . . 183

Parsnips in Tubs Ready to Wash . . . 183

Rawson's Excelsior Pea . ^4 . . 210

Comet Tomato . 211



[xiv]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS LOCATION AND SOILS

LAND DRAINAGE IRRIGATION OF CROPS

ESTIMATES OF COST INSTRUCTIONS

MARKET GARDENING as a business has some
peculiar features in which it differs from other
branches of agriculture. Many people have an
impression that the growing of vegetables for
market is like any ordinary farming, and are dis-
posed to believe that any person who can plough,
hoe and dig can grow one crop as well as another.
Such people would find themselves sadly mistaken
if they should undertake the business themselves
and actually attempt to carry it on equipped with
only a general knowledge of ordinary farm
work.

Market gardening is made up of details; and,
while each separate step may be easy of mastery
by those who have a natural taste for the business,
the whole art and a full comprehension of it can
be acquired only by actual experience in the

19]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

work and thorough practical acquaintance with
all the minor points.

Therefore we desire every one to understand at
the outset that a book on the subject, no matter
how complete, can be only a helper, and a partial
guide toward the desired knowledge. In other
words, the rules that can be laid down on paper,
however explicit they may be made, will never
educate a man to be a successful gardener, unless he
is himself naturally adapted to the business, and is
willing to do his part by personally devoting him-
self to the work, in all its details, as it goes along.

And so in writing the cultural directions for the
different crops, I do not expect to be explicit
enough to enable a mere novice, with no knowl-
edge whatever of the subject, to achieve a success
in gardening the first year. This would be impos-
sible for me to do, were I to attempt it which
I do not. Even should I set down the most minute
particulars and details, there would be very few
cases where one could carry them out to the letter,
as culture and treatment must necessarily vary
according to soil and locality.

But my aim is simply this: by writing out
practical directions and descriptions, gathered

[4]



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

from my own experience, to enable any one,
already in some degree familiar with the work to
cultivate successfully the various crops enumer-
ated; provided his land and location are adapted
to them. I propose to give my readers, as far as
possible, the benefit of my own practical experi-
ence, and the methods of a success in business
which has been gained only by years of close
application and hard work.

In the following pages, I shall discuss at more
or less length all the different products of the
market garden; and some of the coarser crops,
belonging rather to the "farm garden," or even
to the farm, will be incidentally treated of. In
so doing. I shall go through the whole series in
alphabetical order, in order that the reader may
the more readily turn to the information he is
seeking. I propose to devote space most liber-
ally to the most important crops. A chapter on
Farm Implements and other supplementary mat-
ter will conclude the work.

But there are certain conditions essential to all
crops. Some of the most essential requirements
of high cultivation, and even of the most ordi-
nary soil culture, are often misconceived or over-

[5]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

looked, to a serious extent. For which reason it
seems best, before proceeding to particular direc-
tions for particular crops, to treat, as fully as
space will permit, of these general and very
essential matters.

LOCATION AND SOILS

In seeking a good location for a market garden,
of course the first point to be taken into con-
sideration is the necessity of being near some
good market.

And, right here, we would say that the largest
cities do not always offer the greatest induce-
ments to beginners. There are hundreds of
wide-awake towns all over the country which will
furnish a good, though limited, market for men
who are able to work up a trade.

In these smaller towns, producers will often be
enabled to realize better prices than in metropol-
itan markets, both from the fact that there is less
competition to meet, and also because the purcha-
sers there found will be likely to look more to the
quality, and less to the cheapness, of the article
offered, than those resorting to the city markets.

[6]



LOCATION AND SOILS

As we have mentioned, nearness to market is
an important point, but the character of the soil
and the lay of the land are of importance almost
as vital as location. Of course, for a variety of
crops, the land should be varied in character.
But such variety cannot always be obtained, so
that many are confined to one or two distinct
kinds of soil, and in such cases find themselves
limited to such few crops as are particularly
adapted to their land and location.

Rocky ground is, of course, and by all means to
be avoided for garden crops, in view of the deep
and uniform cultivation they need to receive.
And low lands which require under-draining are
adapted only to certain special crops, and involve
heavy outlays to make them capable of profitable
culture. Preferably to either, a sandy loam with a
sandy or gravelly subsoil should be selected. Such
land is far better than soils resting on clay, not
only because its nature is warmer, but because it
is naturally well drained. A .clay subsoil, at
least until deep drains have been sunk and oper-
ated a considerable time, will render any land
cold, as it retains the moisture.



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

If one can have his choice as regards the lay
of his land, gently rolling or undulating slopes
with a general eastern or southern exposure
should by all means be selected. This will make
more difference than some might imagine; as a
northern or western slope is not nearly so soon
affected by the genial spring influences as a more
sunny location.

The difference between a northern and a south-
ern slope often amounts to one crop a year; for
on the sunny side of a rise of land the soil can be
worked in the spring so much earlier that, by
right calculation, two crops a year can be grown,
the first of which can be planted earlier and the
second can actually be harvested sooner than
the one crop raised on a northern slope.

Sloping land has still another advantage, almost
equally desirable with that derived from having
the right exposure, consisting in the facility it
affords for irrigation. If a water supply can be
brought to and stored in a tank, constructed on
a natural elevation within the area to be irri-
gated, the slopes of course furnish the most con-
venient means possible for its distribution to the
crops. And if the location is fortunately near a

[8]



LOCATION AND SOILS

large pond, or unfailing brook, the privilege of
access to such a water supply would very greatly
increase the real value of the land for every sort
of cultivation.

It should be noticed that some ground which in
its native condition is quite incapable of bearing
good crops has yet a superior natural capacity,
that may be developed by skilful handling and
liberal expenditure. This is especially true of
lands lying on a retentive subsoil, and such lands,
after some years of thorough draining and deep
tilth, will show admirable results. In treating
of drainage, we shall endeavour to make it clear
how such a course of culture operates to mellow
and warm the cold, barren soils, and bring them
into high condition. In fact having a good
exposure to begin with by drainage, deep tilth,
generous and judicious manuring and irrigation,
as required, the most barren spot on earth can be
made as highly productive as any other soil, even
the richest. It is only a question of time and
expense. Accordingly it has been said, not with-
out some truth, that after all the chief matter in
choosing a location is its convenience to markets of
sale and supply; because if the soil be never so



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

unfavourable the owner can make it over to suit
himself, while if he is remote from market he can
do nothing to help himself as regards that diffi-
culty. All these considerations have weight, and
must be duly allowed for; but the point I desire
most to insist upon is the advantages possessed
by the loams lying on sandy or gravelly subsoils,
in their excellent natural drainage, and in being
easy of cultivation.

LAND DRAINAGE

Land, Soil, or Agricultural Drainage is a topic
already touched upon, because inevitably presenting
itself in connection with the choice of a proper
location; but it is quite too large a subject to
be dismissed with a brief and merely casual
mention.

In selecting a location for either market garden-
ing or farming, it is preferable, as we have said, to
secure land that is naturally well drained. By
this description we designate a soil which, owing
to inclination of surface, or from having a porous
subsoil, lets the water pass off quickly after a heavy
rainfall, and which therefore stands in no need of

[10]



LAND DRAINAGE

artificial drainage. But it is not always possible
to secure such a location, and in many cases arti-
ficial drainage is the only means by which the best
of farming land can be brought under cultiva-
tion.

It would be impossible in a volume of this
size, even if wholly devoted to the topic, to give
a complete description, with all details of methods
and materials employed, for constructing the
tile drains now in general use. We can only hope
to give a few detached suggestions on the subject,
such as may be of benefit to our readers in improv-
ing waste land, and in rendering heavy, soggy fields
more tillable, and turning to account their natural
fertility.

Amongst all the various ways of constructing
permanent drains with stone, brush, square and
sole tile, etc. it has become the well-established
general opinion that well-burned round tiles, with
collars, if well laid, form the best. And in
the long run they also prove the cheapest;
although at first more expensive than some other
devices.

Cobble-stone drains, such as in some localities
are largely used in place of tile, are, when properly

[11]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

laid, actually more costly. And still more objec-
tionable is the fact that, although in some instances
they may last a long time and prove quite service-
able, they are always liable to be reached by
surface water, which, by carrying silt into them,
stops them up, and of course renders them
useless.

The general principles to be observed in laying
a stone drain are quite well understood. But a
mistake is often made by lack of diligence in
securing proper covering, and especially by resort-
ing to the use of turf, which is often dumped in
upon the stones, and which, when decayed, forms
the most effective possible material for obstruct-
ing the drain.

There are many ways of constructing cheap
drains of brush, slabs, poles, etc., but they are
sure to clog up and create trouble sooner or later;
and, as we have said before, the round tile when
well laid, generally speaking, forms the cheapest
and most satisfactory means of draining.

In planning for the draining of a field, the
chiefly important item is to take notice of the
lowest point; at which the outlet must be formed.
If a natural watercourse can be found near by,

[12]



LAND DRAINAGE

as much as four or five feet lower than the lowest
surface of the field, it will be a great saving, both
as regards expense and trouble. The ditch by
which the water is carried from the outlet must be
of sufficient capacity to serve its purpose at all
times and seasons in a thoroughly adequate
manner.

The laying out of mains, sub-mains, and laterals
must depend wholly upon the character and
condition of the land. More skill is required to
lay out properly a complicated system of drains
than to conduct any other branch of the gardener's
work; and the designing of it is a more puzzling
matter than people generally realize, until they
have had some experience in it.

In the brief space which we can give to the
subject it is impossible to describe minutely the
methods of mapping out such a system; and we
cannot do better, therefore, than to refer our
readers to George E. Waring, Jr.'s able work on
"Draining for Profit and Draining for Health,"
which is the most complete work on this subject
with which we are acquainted. Any one who
has even a moderate amount of this class of
improvements in contemplation ought by all

[13]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

means to possess a copy of the above-named book,
and make himself master of its contents by careful
and diligent study.

The author recommends a general depth of
four feet for drains; never admitting a less depth
unless where an outlet at that depth cannot be
obtained, or where ground is underlaid by rock.
There is a general concurrence of opinion amongst
those who have most carefully examined the sub-
ject, favouring this rule for the least depth. At
intermediate points occurring between such (mini-
mum) depths, the depth must be often greater,
because the drain must slope uniformly from
point to point, while the land does not.

As regards the distance between the drains,
there is a difference of opinion, in fact this is a
question which does not admit of any exact or
definite solution, as it obviously depends in a great
degree upon the peculiar constitution of the soil,
which is variable; and, moreover, no amount of
practical experience even will afford data for
reducing practice to any well-grounded theoretical
rule. It is not feasible to state, in exact terms,
precisely what is the operation of these subterran-
ean drains upon the moisture of the soil; but an

[14]



LAND DRAINAGE

idea sufficiently definite for all practical purposes
may be gathered from experience.

In tolerably porous soils, forty, or even fifty
feet apart is generally conceded to be sufficiently
near for four-foot drains. But for the more
retentive clays, all distances from eighteen feet
to fifty have been recommended. The feeling
grows more in favour of the greater width, from
continued observation of the successful working
of drains so placed. Still the author's opinion,
formed from over twenty years of personal experi-
ence and observation of such works, and with
due consideration of views published by others, is
that we should hardly ever, where a soil needs
draining at all, leave widths exceeding forty
feet.

He further says that, in the lighter loams, there
has been good success in following Professor
Mapes's rule: that "three-foot drains should be
placed twenty feet apart, and for each additional
foot in depth the distance may be doubled. For
instance, four-foot drains may be forty feet apart,
and five-foot drains eighty feet apart." But with
reference to this greater distance eighty feet
it is not to be recommended in stiff clays for any

[15]



SUCCESS IN MARKET GARDENING

depth of drain. When it is necessary, on account
of underlying rock or by reason of insufficient fall,
to go only three feet deep, the drains should be
as near together as twenty feet.

No great exactness can be had in such a matter
as this. In consideration of the variety of soils, and
our inability to measure the exact amount of water
to be drawn off (which is never a constant
quantity), or even the rate at which it may reach
the drains by percolation through any given soil,
uniform depths and distances cannot of course
be prescribed with any pretence to theoretical
precision. A general judgment made up from
experience and observation is all that can be
offered.

For explanation of the beneficial influences of
draining, we must endeavour to realize some of
the conditions of plant life. One of these is
moisture at the roots. If drainage were attended
by a complete withdrawal of all the permanent
moisture of the soil, no one would be its advocate.
Some imagine that wherever executed it is to the


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