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Ver. 35. Third group. Jarmuth. (See on chap,
xii. 15.) AduUam, (See on chap. xii. 15.)

Fourth group. Socoh is Shuweikeh, near to and
south of Jarmuth, Azekah. (See on chap. x. 10.)

Ver. 36. Sharaim, or Shaaraim, is undoubtedly
Tell Zakariya on the edge of Wady Sumt. Adith-
aim, G-ederah, and Gederothaim are unknown.
Gederah may be Kudna, south of Deir Dubban.

Fourteen cities. "There are fifteen in the list.
(See remark on ver. 32.)

Ver. 37-41, Fifth group. Zenan, Hadashah,


39 Lachish, and Bozkath, and Eglon,

40 And Cabbon, and Lahmam, and Kitblish,

41 And Gederotb, Beth-dagon, and Naamah, and
INIakkedah; sixteen cities with their villages:

42 Libnah, and Ether, and Ashan,

43 And Jiphtah, and Ashnah, and Nezib,

44 And Keilah, and Achzib, and Mareshah ; nine
cities with their villages:

45 Ekron, with her towns and her villages:

46 From Ekron even unto the sea, all that lay near
Ashdod, with their villages:

47 Ashdod, with her towns and her villages; Gaza,
"with her towns and her villages, unto the river of
Egypt, and the great sea, and the border thereof:

Migdal-gad, Dilean^ MizpeJi, Joktheel. Sixth group.
Lachish^ Bozkath. Eglon^ Cahhon^ Lahmam^ Kltlilish^
G-ederoth. Seventh group. Beth-dagon^ Naamah^
3Iakkedah, Of these sixteen towns only Lachish
and Eglon are identified with any certainty. (See
on chap. x. 3.) Migdal-gad may be Mejdel, near
Ashkelon, and Cabbon possibly may be Kubeibeh,
seven miles east of Eglon. G-ederoth is prob-
ably the same as the Kedron of 1 Mace. xv. 39, 41,
and xvi. 9, now Kutrah, south of the Nehr Rubin.
Joktheel may be Huleikat, north of Um Lakis.
Makkedah. (See on chap. x. 10.)

Ver. 42-44. Eighth group. Libnah, Ether,
Ashan, Jiphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, Keilah, Achzib,
Mareshah. For Libnah, see on chap. x. 29.
Keilah may be Kila, at the head of the Safieh or
Monsurah Wady. Achzib is put at Ain Kusaba
by Keil. Mareshah is probably Maresh, south of
Beit Jibrin. Nezib is Beit Nusib, near Kila. The
other four places are unknown.

Ver. 45-47. Ninth group. Ekron, Ashdod, and


48 ^ And in the mountains, Shamir, and Jattir, and

49 And Dannah, and Kirjath-sannah, which is Debir,

50 And Anab, and Eshtemoh, and Anim,

51 And Goshen, and Holon, and Giloh; eleven cities
with their villages :

Gaza are mentioned of the Philistine cities, because
they touch the northern, western, and southern
limits of the Philistine land. Gath and Ashkelon
are omitted, as included in this outline. No further
detail is given, because Israel never gained full
possession of this region until the days of Solomon,
and even then did not themselves occupy it.

Ver. 46. Read, F^-om Ekron seaward (or west-
ward), all (z.e., the cities) that was on the Ashdod
side and their (the unnamed cities) villages. Be-
tween Ekron and Ashdod were some large and
important Philistine cities, although not so famous
as the five, as, for example, Jabneh (2 Chron.
xxvi. 6), called Jabneel in this chapter, ver. 11.
The LXX reads Jabneh (in the form Jemnai) in
this place for the phrase '' even unto the sea."

Ver. 47. The river of Egypt. (See on ver. 4.)

The border of the great sea is the strip of land be-
tween the cities and the water.

Ver. 48. Third Division. In the mountains^ i.e..,
in the "hill-country," or mountain centre of the re-
gion between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean.
Its height at Hebron is three thousand feet above
the sea. It is a limestone range, with rich valleys.

Ver. 48-51. First group. Shamir is unknown.
Jattir is Attir. Socoh is Shuweikeh. Dannah


52 Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean,

53 And Janum, and Beth-tappuah, and Aphekah,
51 And Ilumtah, and Kirjath-arVja (which is Hebron)

and Zior; nine cities with their villages:
55 Maon, Carniel, and Ziph, and Juttah,
53 And Jezreel, and Jokdeam, and Zanoah,
57 Cain, Gibeah, and Timnah; ten cities with their

villages :

is perhaps, as Knobel suggests, Zanutah. Kirjath-
sannaJi, or Debir. (See on chap. x. 38.) Anab is
still so called. Eslitemoh is es-Semua. Anim is
el-Ghuwein. Goshen^ Holon^ and Giloli are un-
known. The first of the three is, doubtless, con-
nected with the '' land of Goshen " of chap. x.
41, and chap. xi. 16. (See 1. c.) All this group
occupies the region about the sources of Wady

Ver. 52-54. Second group. Arab and EsTieayi,
are unknown. Dumah is Daumeh. Janum and
AphehaJi are unknown. Beth-tappuali is Teffuh.
HumtaJi and Zior are unknown. Kirjath-arba^ or
Hebron. (See on chap. x. 3.) All this group is
north of the first.

Ver. 55-56. Third group, ilia o?i is Main. Car-
mel is Kurmul. These two places are so close to-
gether, that the lack of a conjunction cannot be
considered as putting them in different groups.
Perhaps the conjunction has dropped out. Ziph is
Zif. Juttah is Jutta. Jezreel^ Jokdeam ^^w^ Za)ioah
are unknown. This group lies east of the other two.

Ver. 57. Fourth group. Cain^ Gibeah^ and
Timnah are unknown. A wav (i.e., " and ") is
probably dropped between Cain and Gibeah.

160 com:mentaey on

58 Halhul, Beth-zur, and Gedor,

53 And Maarath. and Beth-anoth, and Eltckon; six
cities with their villages:

GO Kirjatli-baal (which is Kirjatli-jearim) and Kab-
bah; two cities with their villages:

(Jl In the wilderness, Beth-araba, Middin, and Se-

G2 And Xibshan, and the city of Salt, and En-gedi;
six cities with their villages.

Yek. 58, 59. Fifth group. HaUiul, BetJi-zitr^ and
Gedor still retain their names, scarcely altered at
all. Maarath may^ be Beit Kheiran. Beth-anoth
is Beit-anim. Eltehon is unknown. This group
is north of all the preceding. The sixth group, as
given in the LXX, is AA^anting in the Hebrew.
They have been accidentally dropped out. They
are Theko (Tekua), Ephratha orBaithleem (Beth-
lehem, now Beit-lahm), Phagor (Faghur), Aitan
(Ain Attan), Koulon (Kuloniyeh), Tatam, Thobes,
Karem (Ain Karim), Galem, Thether (Bittir),and
Manocho. This group is north of all the rest.

Yer. 60. Seventh group. Kirjath-haal^ or Kir-
jath-jearim. (See on chap. ix. 17.) Rahhah is not

Yer. 61, 62. Fourth Division. In the tvilder-
ness^ i.e., tlie eastern slope of the mountain region,
which is bare and rugged to the Dead Sea, and
including so much of the Jordan plain as apper-
tained to Judah. It was all a barren region,
except in small oases by fountains.

Beth-arahah. (See on ver. 6.) Middin is per-
haps Mird. Secaeah may be Ain el-Feshkhah.
Nibshan cannot be identified. Ir-hammelach (city

JOSHUA, CHAP. xy. 161

63 ^ As for the Jebusites, the inhabitants of Jeru-
salem, the children of Judah could not drive them out:
but the Jebusites dwell with the children of Judah at
Jerusalem unto this day.

of salt) may be preserved in the Wacly er-Rmail.
It must have been in that southern region of the
Dead Sea. (Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 13 ; 2 Ki. xiv. 7 ;
Ps. Ix. 2.) En-gedi is Ain Jidi.

Yer. 63. With the children of Judah, Jerusa-
lem belonged to Benjamin. But on comparing
chap, xviii. 28, Judg. i. 21, and this verse together,
it seems that Judah and Benjamin had combined
to reduce this city, but on failing, had both been
represented in the settlement of the lower town,
the citadel on Zion remaining till David's time in
the hands of the Jebusites.



Joseph's Lot.

1 And the lot of the children of Joseph fell from
Jordan by Jericho, unto the water of Jericho, on the
east, to the wilderness that goeth up from Jericho
throughout mount Beth-el,

Ver. 1. Fell. Heb., "went forth." The word
constantly used with this translation in all this
description of boundary. "The lot went forth"
means exactly the same with " the border went
forth," as in verses 6 and 8, the lot being used
metaphoricalh' for its result.

The water of Jericho is the celebrated Ain es-Sul-
tan, the source of Jericho's fertility.

On the east. This phrase is used here preg-
nantly. It means that this line from the Jordan
to Jericho's waters was east of the JNIount Bethel
wilderness, and yet it serves to show that this
whole portion of the boundary was the eastern
portion. The "to" is not found in the Hebrew
before " the wilderness."

3Iou7it Bethel is the high bare region lying east
of Bethel, on which probably the golden calf of
Bethel was in later ages situated.

This boundary probably followed up the Wady
Nawaimeh and Mutyah the whole way from the
Jordan to Bethel.


2 And goeth out from Beth-el to Luz, and passeth
along unto tho borders of Arclii to Ataroth,

3 And goeth down westward to the coast of Japhleti,
unto the coast of Beth-horon the nether, and to Gezer:
and the goings out thereof are at the sea.

4 So the children of Joseph, Manasseh and Ephraim,
took their inheritance.

Ver. 2. From Bethel to Luz. This Luz is Khur-
bet el-Lozeh, three and a half miles west of Bethel,
which was perhaps the city built by the man who
came from the other Luz (Bethel). (See Judg. i.
26. Also see Van de Velde's ISIotes on the Map»
2d ed. p. 16.)

The borders of Arehi, or rather " the border of
the Archite." The Archite, like the " Jebusite,"
may refer to a remnant of an old Canaanite tribe,
or some inhabitant of the Babylonian Erech (of
which '' Archite " is the Gentile noun) may have
settled in this part of Canaan.

Ataroth cannot be Atara, a mile or two south of
Beeroth, but must be sought near the nether Beth-
horon. (See chap, xviii. 13.)

Ver. 3. Japhleti. Rather, ''the Japhletite."
Who he was we cannot tell. But his locality must
have been, it seems, between Wady Suleiman and
the Beth-horon pass.

Gezer. (See on chap. x. 33.)

The places mentioned in these surveys are not
necessarily on the lines. They may be mentioned as
prominent localities near the lines. We beheve that
tlie line of Joseph started at the Jordan with Wady
Nawaimeh, and followed that wady (afterward


5 ^ And the border of the children of Ephraim ac-
cording to their families was Ihus: even the border of
their inheritance on the cast side was Ataroth-addar,
nnto Beth-horon the upper;

G And the border went out toward the sea to ]\lich-
methah on the north side ; and the border went about
eastward unto Taanath-shiloh, and passed by it on tho
east to Janohah;

called Mutyah) to Bethel's vicinity, and then
struck over to Wady Budrus and Wady Miizeiiah
to the sea. This would be a natural and readily
followed boundary. But in making it, we cannot
consider the places mentioned as exactly on the line.

Ver. 5. The border of Ephraim is here desig-
nated as forming a part of Joseph. There seems
to be some error in the text in this verse. We
should expect to read, " the border of their inheri-
tance ({.e., their south border) was/rom the east to
Ataroth-addar and Beth-horon the nether.''^ The
same boundary of course as that described in ver.
1-3 is here intended, for Ephraim lying south of
Manasseh would have Joseph's south boundary as
Jiis south boundary. The Hebrew mizrachah^ " on
the east side," may be an error for mimmizi^acli^
" from the east." Or mizrachah may mean, " be-
ginning on the east side." (See remark on yammaJi
in the next note.) Ataroth-addar must be the same
as Ataroth in ver. 2. Beth-horon the nether lies
at the foot of the pass on a rising ground, and by it
swept the boundary line (ver. 3). It is true Beth-
horon the upper is not far off, at the summit of the
pass ; but why should the change be made ?

Ver. 6. Michmethah is " over against" (alpnd)


7 And it went down from Janohah to Ataroth, and
to Naarath, and came to Jericho, and went out at

Shechem (chap. xvii. 7). This is generally used
for an easterly direction, yet it need not be very
near, as Mount Abarim is over against Jericho, and
yet fifteen miles off. (Deut. xxxii. 49.)

The border here is evidently the north border of
Ephraim, and the description begins at the middle
and runs eastward. The difficulty is in rendering
Jiayyammah (" toward the sea"). We should ex-
pect '•'•from the sea." It is probable that a clause
has dropped out, and that this phrase, " and the
border went out to the sea," belongs to the south
boundary and the fifth verse. Then there may
have been a sentence, " ancZ the horder passed from
the sea to Michmethah on the north side." Yet
"yammah" is used in chap, xviii. 15, for "on the
west," and may possibly refer here to the beginning
of the north border as on the west of what follows.
Michmethah may be at the south end of the
Mukhna, where some place the brook Mochmur of
Judith vii. 18, near Akrabeh (Ekrebel of Judith,
1. c.) In that case, Taanath-shiloh would be on the
Makhfuriyeh Wady, receiving its name perhaps
from its nearness to Shiloh.

Janohah is Yanun.

Ver. 7. Ataroth (evidently a different place
from the Ataroth of ver. 2 and ver. 5) and Naar-
ath are not known.

Came to Jericho. Very curiously the north and


8 The border went out from Tappuah westward unto
the river Kanah; and the goings out thereof were at the
sea. This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children
of Ephraim by their famihes.

9 And the separate cities for the children of Ephraim
icere among the inheritance of the children of Manasseh,
all the cities with their villages.

10 And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt
in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraim-
ites unto this day, and serve under tribute.

south boundaries of Ephraim met at Jericho.
From Jericho to the Jordan we must draw sepa-
rate lines for the two, or else why should the Jor-
dan be mentioned at all in the north boundary ?
Perhaps the south boundary was Wady Nawaimeh,
and the north boundary was Wady Diab, the Jeri-
cho district being intended by " Jericho."

Ver. 8. Tappuah I would put at or near Hareth
on the Wady Kanah, and consider this wady the
river Kanah, becoming the Nahr el-Anjeh as it
approaches the sea.

Ver. 9. (Comp. chap. xvii. 11.) There may have
been in this intermingling of tribal territory a de-
sign to maintain the common brotherhood.

Ver. 10. Gezer was a border town (see ver. 3),
and, if the present Yasur, was on the south bank of
the wady that was Ephraim's south border.



1 There was also a lot for the tribe of "Manasseh;
for he luas the first-born of Joseph; io icit, for Machir
the first-born of Manasseh, the father of Gilead: be-
cause he was a man of war, therefore he had Gilead
and Bashan.

2 There was also a lot for the rest of the children of
Manasseh by their families; for the children of Abiezer,
and for the children of Helek, and for the children of
Asricl, and for the children of Shechem, and for the
children of Hepher, and for the children of Shemida:
these were the male children of Manasseh the son of
Joseph by their families.

o "^ But Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of
Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, had
no sons, but daughters: and these are the names of his
daughters, Mahlah, and Noah, Hoglah, jVlilcah, and

Yer. 1. Manasseli's lot is described as forming
part of Joseph. For the descendants of Machir,
see on chap. xiii. 31.

Ver. 2. According to Num. xxvi. 29-32, these
six families of Manasseh's tribe were descended
also from Machir. They were, moreover, all de-
scended from Gilead, i.e., all "Gileadites" (Num.
xxvi. 29). These Gileadites had shown remarkable
valor in conquering the country east of Jordan,
and hence had received a double inheritance, one
portion on the east side, in addition to their portion
on the west.

Ver. 3. Zelophehad seems to have been the only
representative of the Hepherites, or children of


4 And they came near before Eleazar the priest, and
before Joshua the son of Nun, and before the princes,
sayinj^, The Loud commanded Moses to give us an
inheritance among our brethren : therefore according
to the commandment of the Lono he gave them an
inheritance among the brethren of their father.

5 And there fell ten portions to INIanasseh, besides
the land of Gilead and Bashan, ^Yhich were on the other
side Jordan ;

6 Because the daughters of IManasseh had an in-
heritance among his sons: and the rest of Manasseh's
sons had the land of Gilead.

7 ^ And the coast of Manasseh was from Asher to
Michmethah, that lielh before Shechem; and the border
went along on the right hand unto the inhabitants of

8 A'ow Manasseh had the land of Tappuah: but Tap-
puah on the border of Manasseh belonr/ed to the children
of Ephraim:

Heplier. Hence his five daughters received the
Hepherite portion by a special legislation. (See
Num. xxvii. 1-11.)

Ver. 4. They now prefer their claim.

Ver. 5. Ten portmis. Six as above ; to wit,
the Abiezrites, Helekites, Asrielites, Shechemites,
Hepherites (represented by Zelophehad's daugh-
ters), and Shemidaites. Besides these, there must
have been four other Manassite families, not Gil-
eadites, perhaps not Machirites, represented on the
west side.

Yer. 7. Aslier. Not the tribe, but a town. I
take it to be Ausarin, on the Makhfuriyeh Wady.
For Michmethah and En-tappuah (Tappuah), see
on chap. xvi. 6, 8. For Sheche7n, see chap. xx. 7.

Ver. 8. The land of Tappuah would be the Je-
bel Salmon or Sleiman.


9 And the coast descended unto the river Kanah,
southward of the river. These cities of Ephraiin are
among the cities of iNIanassch: the coast of Manasseh
also was on the north side of the river, and the out-
goings^ of it were at the sea:

10 Southward it ivas Ephraim's, and northward it
was Manasseh's, and the sea is his border; and they
met together in Asher on the north, and in Issachar on
the east.

11 And Manasseh had in Issachar and in Asher,
Beth-shean and her towns, and Ibleam and her towns,
and the inhabitants of Dor and her towns, and the
inhabitants of En-dor and her towns, and the inhabi-
tants of Taanach and her towns, and the inhabitants of
Megiddo and her towns, even three countries.

Ver. 9. There must be an error in this text. I
would read, "And the coast descended unto the
river Kanah. Southward of the river these cities
are of Ephraim, and the coast of Manasseh was on
the north side of the river." Keil's explanation
only makes the "i...:i;dle" worse. For the river
Kanah, see on chap. xvi. 8.

Ver. 10. And tliey met together in Asher.
Rather, ''- And they (the Manassites) reached to
Asher." They reached Asher on the coast, and
they reached Issachar on the great plain.

Issachar on the east, i.e., on the east of Asher.

Ver. 11. Beth-shean is Beisan. Ibleam is sup-
posed to be at Jelamch. Dor is Tantura. En-dor
bears the same name still on the Duhy Mountain.
Taanach is Taanuk. Mecjiddo is Lejjun.

Three countries. Rather, "the three heights,"

probably the name given to the Tell Taanuk, the

Tell Metsellim, and the height on which Megiddo

stood. Taanach and Megiddo are twin towns, and


170 co:m3ientaiiy ox

12 Yet the children of Manasseh could not drive out
the inhabiiants o/" those cities; but the Cauaanites would
dwell in that land.

13 Yet it came to pass, when the children of Israel
were waxen strong, that they put the Canaanites to
tribute ; but did not utterly drive them out.

11 And the children of Joseph spake unto Joshua,
saying, Why hast thou given me hut one lot and one
portion to inherit, seeing I am a great people, forasmuch
as the LoitD hath blessed me hitherto V

15 And Joshua answered them, It thou he a great
people, then get thee up to the wootl-country, and cut
down for thyself there in the land of the Perizzites
and of the giants, if mount Ephraim be too narrow for

Megidcio occupied probably the two lieights indi-

Ver. 12. The fact that these towns were within
the borders of another tribe probably caused this
apathy. See the case of Gezer in chap. xvi. 10.

Ver. 13. The old "cherem " order of God was
forgotten and neglected as time passed on.

Ver. 14. They call it one lot and one portion,
because the portion had probably been drawn by
one lot out of the urn. But it was ample for the
two tribes, or rather the one tribe and a half, for
they were less numerous than other single tribes.
They forget, too, that a part of their brethren had
inherited the largest section of all beyond the Jor-
dan. The Ephraimites Avere probably the princi-
pal complainers. Compare their conduct at other
times (Judg. viii. 1, and xii. 1).

Ver. 15. Joshua gives them permission to go to
the highlands of the Perizzites and giants (Reph-
aim) and settle. Those highlands aie probabl}" the

JOSHUA, CHAP. xvn. 171

16 And the childre-n of Joseph said, The hill is not
enough ior us: and all the Canaanites that dwell in the
land of the valley have chariots of iron, both they who
are of Btth-shean and her towns, and they who are of
the valley of Jezreel.

17 And Joshua s])ake unto the house of Joseph, even
to Ephraim and to Manasseh, saying, Thou art a great
people, and hast great power: thou shalt not have one
lot only:

18 But the mountain shall be thine; for it h a wood,
and thou shalt cut it down: and the out-goings of it
shall be thine: for thou shalt drive out the Canaanites,
though they have iron chariots, and though they he

mountains of Gilboa, lying between Beth-shean
and Jezreel. A remnant of the Perizzites and
Rephaim had strengthened themselves there.

Mount JEpliraim is the mountain-land north of
Judah and extending to the great plain, and lying
between the coast-plain and the Jordan Ghor. It
is now so called, as Ephraim had just received a
part of it as an inheritance. There is some irony
in Joshua's words, and he may call the region
Mount Ephraim, because Ephraim was the chief
com plainer.

Ver. 1(3. The hill. Rather, "the mountain."
That is, the Gilboa mountain just offered them.
That Avould not be enough, and they could not
descend and occupy any of the Beth-shean plain
east of Gilboa, or of the Jezreel plain west of
Gilboa, because of the formidable chariots of the
Canaanites still holding those parts.

Ver. 17, 18. Joshua continues his irony. They
were so strong and brave a people, that they should
have another lot, the Gilboa country and its adjoin-


ing parts (outgoings), and should overcome the
fier(^e enemies. We have no proof that Ephraim
and half Manasseh ever used this permission. The
love of ease and fear of their foes combined to
deter them from ridding the land of the Canaan-

JOSHUA, CHAP. xvni. 173


When the two great tribes of Judah and Joseph
had been located, the one taking the south and the
other the middle portion of the country, there
seems to have been a pause in the work of distri-
bution. We have no direct statement of the
reason, but, from Joshua's words in the third verse
of this chapter, we see that the people generally
were somewhat to blame. Yet there may have
been a good reason for the postponement, such as
the breaking out of some formidable insurrection
among the enslaved Canaanites (see chap. xvii.
13), or the need of further surveying of the land
itself in order to know more exactly the landmarks
(see chap, xviii. 4). The people were perhaps to
blame only for showing no zeal and readiness to
resume and complete the work at the proper time.
We are not told how long the interval was between
the dividing of the land to the two tribes at Gilgal
and the dividing of the land to the seven tribes at
Shiloh. We cannot believe that Joshua would
have permitted it to be long, however the people
in their nomadic habits may have been listless in
the matter.


1 And the whole congregation of the children of
Israel assembled together at Shiloh, and set up the
tabernacle of the congregation there: and the land was
subdued before them.

2 And there remained among the children of Israel
seven tribes, which had not yet received their inheri-

Yer. 1. Shiloh, now Seilun, twelve miles south of
Shecbem and two miles east of the main north and
south road. This retired spot was, nevertheless,
the very centre of the land. Its name ("rest")
is indicative of Grod's fulfilled promise to his cov-
enant people in settling them in their new land,
and giving them rest from wandering and from
enemies. The place was thus typical of the rest
of the soul in Jesus, who is also designated as
Shiloh in Gen. xlix. 10.

The tabernacle of the congregation. The latter
word is not the same as that in the first part of the
verse. This " ohel moed " may be rendered " tent

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 15

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