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of meeting," where the meeting is that of God
and men, rather than of men together.

The land was subdued before them. This con-
firms our first supposition at the beginning of the
notes on this chapter, that there had been some
formidable insurrection of the Canaanites that
broke off the division at Gilgal. When that was
subdued, then the work could go on ; and, moreover,
now there was so complete a tranquillity that the
tabernacle could be safely reared in its place.
Shiloh continued to be the site of the tabernacle
for three centuries, till Samuel's day. In Saul's

JOSHUA, CHAP. xvni. 175

3 And Joshua said unto the children of Israel, How
long are ye slack to go to possess the land which the
Loud God of your fathers hath given you?

4 Give oat from among you three men for each
tribe: and I will send them, and they shall rise, and
go through the land, and describe it according to the
inheritance of them, and they shall come afjain to me.

5 And they shall divide it into seven parts: Judah
shall abide in their coast on the south, and the house
of Joseph shall abide in their coasts on the north.

6 Ye shall therefore describe the land into seven
parts, and bring the description hither to me, that I may
cast lots for you here before the Lord our God.

time the tabernacle was at Nob, and in Solomon's
day (before the temple was built) at Gibeon.

Ver. 3. Slack, See prefatory note on this

Ver. 4. A more thorough survey of the land
was needed for the exact division called for. Three
men for each tribe, excluding, of course, Reuben and
Gad, but probably including Judah, Ephraim, and
Manasseh, as they were interested in the division
of the boundaries which actually occurred. The
number of surveyors would thus be thirty.

Ver. 5. This seems to be a general statement
regarding the two great tribes. They should oc-
cupy the relative positions given them, but Judah
was to have Simeon and Dan admitted into its

Ver. 6. Describe the land, probably by enumera-
ating the towns and marking the prominent land-
marks. (See ver. 9.) The seven portions having
been described, these lots were to be cast, to deter-
mine which tribe should receive any given portion.


7 But the Levites have no part among you; for the
priesthood of the Lord is their inheritance: and Gad,
and Reuben, and half the tribe of Manasseh, have re-
ceived their inheritance beyond Jordan on the east,
which Moses the servant of the Loud gave them.

8 ^ And the men arose, and went away: and Joshua
charged tliem tliat went to describe the land, saying,
Go, and walk through the land, and describe it, and
come again to me, that I may here cast lots for you
before the Lord in Shiloh.

9 And the men went and passed through the land,
and described it by cities into seven parts in a book,
and came arjain to Joshua to the host at Shiloh,

10 ^ And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before
the Lord: and there Joshua divided the land unto the
children of Israel according to their divisions.

11 ^ And the lot of the tribe of the children of
Benjamin came up according to their families: and the
coast of their lot came forth between the children of
Judah and the children of Joseph.

12 And their border on the north side was from
Jordan; and the border went up to the side of Jericho,
on the north side, and went up through the mountains
westward; and the gohigs out thereof were at the wil-
derness of Beth-aven.

13 And the border went over from thence toward
Luz, to the side of Luz (which is Beth-el) southward;
and the border descended to Ataroth-adar, near the
hill that lieth on the south side of the nether Beth-

These lots were to be cast as a religious act, with
all the solemnity of the high-priest's official pres-
ence. (Comp. chap. xiv. 1.)

The Lot of Be ' In.

Veb. 11. Benjamin occupied the region left
between Judah's northern boundary and Ephraim's
southern boundary.

Ver. 12, 13. This border is exactly the same
with the southern border of Joseph, as given in


14 And the border was drawn thence^ and compassed
the corner of the sea southward, from the hill that
Ueth before Beth-horon southward; and the goings out
thereof were at Kirjath-baal (which is Kirjath-jearim)
a city of the children of Judah. This luas the west

15 And the south quarter was from the end of Kir-
jath-jearim, and the border went out on- the west, and
went out to the well of waters of Nephtoah:

chap. xvi. 1-3 (which see). Read the first part
of the thirteenth verse thus : " And the border
went over thence (z.e., from Beth-aven) to Luz on
the side of Luz (which is Bethel) southward."
The two towns called Luz are thus distinguished.
(See on chap. xvi. 2.)

Ver. 14. A very erroneous idea may be gath-
ered from our version. Benjamin's lot did not
reach the sea, but here it is said to " compass the
corner of the sea." The Hebrew for ''sea" is
used for " west," and the right rendering here is,
"turned on the west side southward." That is,
Benjamin's Avest boundary left the south boundary
of Ephraim near the hill or mountain in front of
Beth-horon southwards, and struck south to Kir-
jath-jearim (for Kirjath-jearim, see on chap. ix. 3),
a distance of six miles. This west line would run
very near to Chephirah.

Ver. 15. From the end of Kirjath-jearim. Be-
cause Kirjath-jearim 'tself was in Judah.

On the west, i.e., on the west of the south line. So

"the border went out on the west" is equivalent

to " the border w^ent out or started from the west."

It is curious to see how this "yammah" and

8* L


16 And the border came down to the end of the
mountain that Ueth before the valley of the son of
Hinnom, ami which U in the valley of the giants on
the north, and descended to the valley of Hinnom. to
the side of Jebusi on the south, and descended to En-

17 And was drawn from the north, and went forth
to En-shemesh. and went forth toward Geliloth, which
is over aLi;ainst the going up of Adummim. and de-
scended to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben,

18 And passed along toward the side over against
Arabah northward, and went down unto Arabah:

19 And the border passed along to the side of Beth-
hoglah northward: and the out-goings of the border
were at the north bay of the salt sea at the south end
of Jordan. This was the south coast.

20 And Jordan was the border of it on the east side.
This was the inheritance of the children of Benjamin,
by the coasts thereof round about, according to their

21 Now the cities of the tribe of the children of
Benjamin according to their families, were Jericho,
and Beth-hoglah, and the valley of Keziz.

" miyyam," the two opposite s (" seawards " and
" from the sea "), come to mean virtually the same
thing. " Yammah " means literally " seawards " or
" westwards," and " miyyam," " from the west,"
but each is used for " on the west."

Yer. 15-19. This south border of Benjamin is
the north border of Judah, as given (in the other
direction) in chap. xv. 5-9.

Yer. 20. The Jordan formed Benjamin's eastern
boundary, probably from Wady Nawaimeh to its

Yer. 21. Jericho. (See on chap. ii. 2.)

Beth-hoglah. (See on chap. xv. 6.)

The valley of Keziz., or rather '^ Emek ' Keziz."
This place was probably in the Ghor.


22 And Beth-arabah, and Zemaraim, and Beth-el,

23 And Avini, and Parah, and Ophrah,

24 And Chephar-haamnionai, and Ophni, and Gaba;
twelve cities with their villages:

25 Gibeon, and Ramah, and Beeroth.

2o And Mizpeh, and Chephirah, and oNIozah,
27 And Rekeni, and Irpeel, and Taralah,

Ver. 22. Beth-arahah. (See on chap. xv. 6.)

Zemaraim^ perhaps near Mount Zemaraim of
2 Chron. xiii. 4. If so, then we must look for it
near Bethel. The name is, probably, a relic oi
the old Zemarites (Gen. x. 18).

Bethel, (See chap. vii. 2.)

Ver. 23. Avim,' Another form of " Ai."

Parah. Now Farah, on Wady Farah.

Ophrah is probably the same as Ephraim of
2 Chron. xiii. 19, and Ephraim of John xi. 54.
Robinson suggests Taiyibeh as its site, but Taiyibeh
seems to be north of Benjamin's lot.

Vj:r. 24. Chephai'-haammonai and Ophni nve not

Gaha (or Geba) is Jeba, on a height on the
south of Wady es-Suweinit.

Ver. 25. Giheon. (See chap. ix. 3.)

Ramah is er-Ram, near Geba.

Beeroth. (See chap. ix. 3.)

Ver. 26. llizpeh is now (probably) Neby Sam-
wil, the commanding pinnacle five miles north-west
of Jerusalem.

Chephirah. (See on chap. ix. 3.)

3Iozah is not identified.

Ver. 27. Rekem, Irpeel^ and Taralah are un-



28 And Zelah, Eleph, and Jebusi, (which is Jeru- '

salem) Gibeath, and Kirjuth; fourteen cities with their ..

TiUay:es. This is the inheritance of the children of 1

Benjamin according to their families. I

Ver. 28. Zelah and Eleph are unknown. '

Gibeath^ same as " Gibeah of Saul" (1 Sam. j
xi. 4), or " Gibeah of Benjamin " ( Juclg. xx. 10),

is probably Tuleil el-Ful, a conical hill three miles ■

north of Jerusalem. i
Kirjath is perhaps Khirbet el-Kuta, close to ' ;

Gibeah. :



1 And the second lot came forth to Simeon, even
for the tribe of the cliildren of Simeon according to
their families: and their inheritance was within the
inheritance of the children of Jadah.

The Lot of Simeon.

Ver. 1. To Simeon, for the tribe of the children
of Simeon, This repetition of the tribal name is
found with Gad (chap. xiii. 24), with Issachar
(ver. 17), and with Naphtali (ver. 32). In the
last there is a repetition of the word '' children"

The full formula, " tribe of the children of

by their families," is not always given in this
enumeration of the distributions. " Tribe " is
omitted, of course, with Joseph, because he was
really two tribes. Besides this, " tribe " is omitted
withEphraim (chap. xvi. 5), with Benjamin (chap,
xviii. 28), with Zebulun (chap. xix. 10, 16), with
Issachar (chap. xix. 17), with Naphtali (chap. xix.
82), with Reuben (chap. xiii. 23), with Gad
(chap. xiii. 28). Yet with all these, " tribe " is used
elsewhere in the enumeration, with the exception
of Zebulim only. There can be no reason assigned
for these slight differences, and we only notice them
here to disprove the idea (held by the Masorites)


2 And they had in their inheritance, Beer-sheha, or
Sheba, and Moladah,

3 And llazar-shual, and Balah, and Azcra,

4 And Eltolad, and Bethul, and llormah,

5 And Ziklag, and Beth-marcaboth, and Hazar-

6 And Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen; thirteen cities
and their villages:

7 Ain, Renimon, and Ether, and Ashan; four cities
and their villages:

8 And all the villages that ivere round about these
cities to Baalath-beer, Ramath of the south. This in
the inheritance of the tribe of the children of Simeon
according to their families.

tliat every word, as such, had its important mean-
ing in the record, and that the omission of any
word from a formula was significant.

Within the inheritance of the children of Judah.
This was probably not an after-thought, but, when
Judah received its limits at the Gilgal allotment,
it was doubtless expected that while its borders
would not be modified, yet, as occasion might de-
mand, districts within its borders would be given
to other tribes.

Vek. 2. Beer-sheha, or Sheha. Rather, " Beer-
sheba and Sheba." Sheba is a different place,
called Shema in chap. xv. 26. All these towns
have occurred in the list of Judah's towns in
chap. XV.

Ver. 6. TJiirteen cities. There are fourteen in
the list, but Beer-sheba and Sheba may have been
twin cities closely united, and thus counted as one,
or there may be here an error in the transcription.
(See on chap. xv. 32.)

Ver. 8. These cities, i.e., Ain, Remmon, Ether,

JOSHUA, CHAP. xrx. 183

9 Out of the portion of the children of Judah wan
the inheritance of the children of Simeon : for tho
j)tirt of the children of Judah was too much for them:
therefore the children of Simeon had their inheritance
within the inheritance of them.

10 ^[ And the third lot came up for the children of
Zebulun according to their families: and the border
of their inheritance was unto Sarid:

11 And their border went up toward the sea, and
Maralah, and reached to Dabbasheth, and reached to
the river that is before Jokneam,

and Ashan. These cities with their surroundings
were given to Simeon, but the diameter of the
circle did not reach to Baahxth-beer (or Ramath-
negeb, '' Ramah of the south"). This Baahith-
beer may be either the Bealoth or the Baalah ol
the hst in chap. xv. Van de Velde puts it at Tell-
Lekiyeh, north of Beersheba.

Ver. 9. Oat of the portion of the children of
Judah. Simeon's eighteen cities lay scattered
through the Negeb and Shephelah. They did not
form a solid commonwealth. This was in accord-
ance with Jacob's prophecy (Gen. xlix. 7).

The Lot of Zebulun.

Yer. 10. Sarid is, I take it, the south-west corner
of the boundary of Zebulun. It is not identified.
I consider ver. 11 as giving the west boundary, ver.
12, the south boundary, ver. 13, the east boundary,
and ver. 14, the north boundary. Sarid is probably
mentioned so conspicuously as being the nearest
point of Zebulun to the tribes already located.

Ver. 11. After mentioning Sarid, the west
boundary is given from north to south till it


12 And turned from Sarid eastward, toward the sim-
rising, unto the border of Chisloth-tabor, and then
goetii out to Daberath, and goeth up to Japhia,

13 And from thence passeth on along on the east to
Gittah-hepher, to Ittah-kazm, and goeth out to Rem-
mon-methoar to Neah;

reaches Sarid ; tluis, Maralah, Dabbasheth, and
Wady Jokneam, then comes Sarid, from which in
"ver. 12 the south boundary is drawn.

Toward the sea. Rather, "on the west," like
*'on the east " in ver. 13.

If the valley of Jiphthah-el is the second wady
north of Wady Abilin (which seems probable),
then I would place 3Iaralah at Shefa Omar, on the
ridge above the sea plain, and the phrase, " went
up," would refer to the ascent to Shefa Omar from
the wady north of Abilin.

Dabbasheth may be el-Harbaji on the TVady el-
Malek, near its junction with the Nahr el-Mu-
kutta, and Wad^ Jokneam is the Nahr el-Mukutta
itself. s

Ver. 12. Sarid would thus be somewhere near
Tell el-Thureh.

Chisloth-tabor is undoubtedly Iksal, near IMount

Daberath is Deburieh. The boundar}^ went
north of this place, as Daberath was in Issachar
(chap. xxi. 28).

Japhia we must look for near Khan et-Tujjar.

Ver. 13. This verse should read, " And thence
passeth, on the east, eastward of Gath-hepher to
Ittah-kazin." The eastern boundary went up


14 And the border compas.setli it on the noith side
to Hannathon: and the out-goings thereof are in tho
valley of Jiphthah-el:

15 And Kattath, and Nahallal, and Shimron, and
Idalah, and Beth-lehem; twelve cities with their vil-

northward from Japhia, to the eastward of Gath-
hepher (or Gittah-hepher), to Ittah-kezin and

GittaJt-hepJwr is el-Meshhad.

Ittah-kazin may be Kefr Kenna.

Memmofi-methoar, or Rimmon-liammethoar, is
Rummaneh. " Methoar " is not a part of the
name, but is a participle meaning "marked off,"
and the phrase should read, " Rimmon which is
marked off (or ' which belongs ') to Neah."

JVeah is unknown.

Ver. 14. Compasseth it, i.e., the inheritance
(ver. 10).

Hannatlion would probably be Kana el-Jelil.

TJie valley of Jiphthali-el is the valley going down
from Jefat (Jotapata of Josephus) into the Wady

Ver. 15. Keil conjectures from sound reasoning
that there is a gap here between ver. 14 and ver.
15, in which seven other cities would be mentioned
to make the twelve.

Kattath is unknown.

NaJutllal is supposed to be Malul.

Shimron is supposed to be Semmunieh.

Idalah is supposed to be Jeida.

Beth-lehem is now Beit-lahm.


16 This is the inheritance of the children of Zebuhiu
according to their families, these cities wUh. their vil-

17 If Aiul the fourth lot came out to Issachar, for
the children of Issachar according to their families.

18 And their border was toward Jezreel, and Chesul-
loth, and Shunem,

19 And Hapharaim, and Shihon, and Anaharath,

20 And llabbith, and Kishion, and Abez,

Ver. 16. The territory of Zebulun thus described
is a rude square, fifteen miles on each side. The
Wadj el-Melik and its feeder the Wady el-Bed-
awi (or KhuUadiyeh) divides this territory almost
equally into a northern and a southern section. In
the southern section is Nazareth, and in the north-
ern is Cana of Galilee. The region is peculiarly
sacred (Matt. iv. 15).

The Lot of Issachar.

Yek. 18. TTieir border was toward Jezreel, or,
*' their border was to Jezreel," i.e., included Jez-

Jezreel is now Zerin.

ChesuUoth is the same, probably, as Chisloth-
tabor of ver. 12.

Shunem is Sulem.

Ver. 19. Hapharaim is, perhaps, Afuleh.

Shihon is unknown.

Anaharath is, perhaps, en-Na'urah.

Ver. 20. IlahUth is unknown.

Kishion (or Kishon) was probably on the river
Kishon, the el-Mukutta.

Abez is unknown.


21 And Remcth, and En-gannim, and En-haddah,
and Bcth-pazzez ;

22 And the coast reacheth to Tabor, and Sliahazi-
mah, and Beth-shemesh; and the out-goings of their
border ^Yore at Jordan: sixteen cities with their vil-

23 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children
of Issachar according to their families, the cities and
their villages.

24 ^ And the fifth lot came out for the tribe of the
children of Asher according to their families.

25 And their border was Helkath, and Hali, and
Beten, and Achshaph,

Ver. 21. Remeth is unknown.
_ En-gannim is, perhaps, Jenin.

En-haddali is, probably, Beit-Kad, west of Gil-

Ver. 22. Tahor (mountain and town) was on the
boundary of Zebulun and Issachar.

Shahazimah is unknown.

Beth-shemesh is supposed to be Bessum.

Ver. 23. Issachar's portion was the great plain
south of a line of latitude running through Tabor,
extending to the Jordan behind both Tabor and
Gilboa. It was a larger portion than Zebulon's,
and remarkable for its fertility.

The Lot of AsTier.

Ver. 25. Asher's boundary is described from
the neighborhood of Achzib (ez-Zib) southward,
then the south boundary, then the east, and finally
the sea boundary to Achzib, and then some interior
towns added. It was a strip of coast sixty miles
long, and perhaps in no place extending over eight
or ten miles from the sea.


26 And Alammelech, and Amad, and Misheal; and
reacheth to Carmel westward, and to Shihor-libnath;

27 And turneth toward the sun-rising to Beth-dagon,
and reacheth to Zebulun, and to tJie valley of Jiph-
thah-el toward the north side of Beth-emek/and Neiel,
and goeth out to Cabul on the left hand,

28 And Hebron, and Rehob, and Hammon, and
Kanah, even unto great Zidon ;

Helkath^ Hali^ Beten^ AchsJiaph, are supposed to
be towns near Akka, but it may be that they are
towns in the Dor district south-west of Carmel.
If so, the ruins of Hani, east of Tantura, may be
Hali, and Iksim may be Achshaph.

Ver. 26. Alammelech is supposed to be con
nected wdth the present Wady Melik.

Amad is supposed to be Haifa.

3fisheal is Misalli. Eead, " and reacheth to
Carmel on the west (or sea) side." That is, Car-
mel is part of its west frontier.

ShiJior-libiiatJi is supposed to be the Belus (Nahr
Na'man), which enters the sea by Akka.

Ver. 27. Beth-dagon must be looked for in the
plain of Akka.

Reacheth to Zebulun. Asher's portion probably
touched Zebulun's from the neiG:hborhood of Tell
el-Kaimon (Jokneam) up to the wady running
from Jefat (Jiphthah-el).

Beth-emek and JVeiel are unknown.

Cabul still bears the same name.

Ver. 28. Hebron (differently spelled in Hebrew
from the Hebron of Judah) is probably the same
as Abdon in chap. xxi. 30, and may be sited at
Abdeh on the Wady el-Kurn.


29 And tJien the coast tiirneth to Raraah, and to the
strong city Tyre; and the coast turneth to Ilosah: and
the out-goings thereof are at the sea from the coast to

30 Ummah also, and Aphek, and Rehob: twenty
and two cities with their villages.

Helioh is unknown.

Sammon is probably Hamul.

Kanali is Kana, eight miles south-east of Tyre.

Unto great Zidon. Perhaps only to its territory,
that is, to the river Leontes, which would be Ash-
er's north boundary.

Vee. 29. Ramah bears the same name, near

Tyre, (See on chap. xi. 8.)

Hosah is unknown. Read, "and its outgoings
are on the west at the region of Achzib." That is,
Achzib forms part of its west frontier.

Achzib is now ez-Zib, just south of the ladder of

Ver. 30. Ummah and Rehoh are unknown.

Aphek is generally supposed to be Afka, east of
Jebeil, but it seems very doubful to me whether
the fifty miles of territory from the mouth of the
Leontes to Jebeil was ever intended to be divided
among the Israelites. (See note on chap. xiii.
4, 5.) I should rather expect to fmd Ummah,
Rehob, and Aphek between Achzib and Akka.
The supposed identification of Afka with Asher's
Aphek by Robinson and others is the chief argu-
ment for extending Asher so very far to the north.
But Aphek was a common name. There are cer-


31 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the chil-
dren of Asher according to their families, these cities
■with their villages.

o2 ^ The sixth lot came out to the children of Naph-
tali, even for the children of Naphtali according to their

33 And their coast was from Heleph, from Allon to
Zaanannim, and Adami, Nekeb, and Jabnecl, unto
Lakum; and the out-goings thereof were at Jordan:

31 And ihen the coast turneth westvvard to Aznoth-
tabor, andgoeth out from thence to Ilukkok, and reach-

tainly four others mentioned in the Old Testament
history. We are not, therefore, to lay much stress
on the discovery of an Aphek by the river Adonis,
above the thirty-fourth parallel. That it is the
Aphaca of Eusebius and Sozomen, where the fa-
mous temple of Aphrodite stood, there can be no
doubt, but that it is the Aphek of Asher is very
hard to believe.

Twenty and two cities. By leaving out Zidon,
as I have proposed above.

The Lot of NapJitalL

Ver. 33. Heleph is unknown.

Allon to Zaanannim. Rather, " the oak-forest
at Zaanannim." Zaanannim is near Kedesh ( Judg.
iv. 11), north-west of the Huleh.

Adami-neheh should be read as one word. This
place and Jahneel and Lakum are unknown. Jab-
neel may be at Dibbin, and then the Jordan at
Hasbeiya would mark Naphtali's north-eastern

Ver. 34. Turneth westward^ i.e., from Jordan,
which is Naphtali's east border. This begins the


eth to Zebnlun on the south side, and reacheth to Asher
on the west side, and to Judah upon Jordan toward*
the sun-rising.

35 And the fenced cities are Ziddim, Zer, and Ham-
math, Rakkath, and Cinneroth,

south boundary, at the Jordan, just south of the
lake of Tiberias.

Aznoth-tahor and Hulclcoh must have been in the
neicrhborhood of Kefr Sabt. The boundaries of
Zehulun and Asher then are touched, extending to
Jotapata (Jefat), and so northward to the Leontes.
So Zebulun was Naphtah's south limit, Asher its
west limit, and Judah upon Jordan its east limit.
Judah upon Jordan is supposed by Von Raumer
to mean the sixty towns of Jair and the lands
appertaining, which he sites upon the east of the
Jordan, opposite Naphtali's lot. Jair was a Judah-
ite, although inheriting in Manasseh. (See 1 Chron.
ii. 5, 21, 22.) Hence his territory, though in
Manasseh, would be called Judah. Keil accepts
this view. It may be that the w^ord " Judah " has
slipped in, and that the text originally stood simply
*' to Jordan on the east." (Comp. LXX.)

Ver. 35. Ziddim is unknown.

Zer I conjecture to be the Chorazin of the
gospels, on the lake. Chorazin is called by Origcn
X(6Qct Ziv (Chora-zin), or ''the region of Zin."
That Zin should be the same as Zer is very nat-

Ilammdth is certainly Ammaus, the " Hammam "
below Tiberias.

Rakkath is Kerak, at the south of the lake.


36 And Adamali, and Ramah, and Hazor,

37 And Kedesh, and Edrei, and En-hizor,

38 And Iron, and Migdal-el, Horem, and Beth-anath,
and Beth-shenissh; nineteen cities with their villages.

39 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the cliil-
dren of Naphtali according to their families, the cities

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