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and their villages.

40 ^ And the seventh lot came out for the tribe of
the children of Dan according to their families.

41 And the coast of their inheritance was Zorah,
and Eshtaol, and Ir-shemesh,

42 And Shaalabbin, and Ajalon, and Jethlah,

Cinneroth was on the little plain south of
Mejdelj also on the lake.

Ver. 36. Adamah was probably in the Ard el-
Ahmar.

RamaJi is Rameh.

Hazor is Huzzur.

Ver. 37. Kedesh is Kedes.

Edrei is unknown.

Mn-liazor is Ain Hazur.

Yer. 38. Iron is Jarun.

Migdal-el is Magdala (Mejdel) on the lake.

Sorem is, perhaps, Hurah.

Beth-anath is, perhaps, Ainata.

Beth-shemeth is Bessum (see on ver. 22), which
probably had a district in each tribe, Issachar and
Naphtali.

The Lot of Dan.

Ver. 41. Zorah and BshtaoL (See on chap.
XV. 33.)

Ir-shemesh, same as Beth-shemesh (1 Ki. iv. 9.
See chap. xv. 10.)

Ver. 42. Shaalabbin is Selb\t, north of Ajalon.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XIX. 198

43 And Elon, and Thimnathah, and Ekron,

44 And Eltekeh, and Gibbethon, and Baalath,

45 And Jehiid, and Bene-berak, and Gath-rimmon,

46 And Me-jarkon, and Kakkon, with the border be-
fore Japho.

47 And the coast of the children of Dan, went out
too little for them: therefore the children of Dan went
up to fight against Leshem, and took it, and smote it
with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt
therein, and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of
Dan their father.

Ajalon is Salo.

Jethlah is unknown.

Ver. 43. Elon is unkuowu.

Thimnathah (Timnah) and Ekron, (See on
chap. XV. 10, 11.)

Ver. 44. Eltekeh and G-ihbethon are unknown.

Baalath (Baalah). (See on chap. xv. 11.)

Ver. 45. Jehud is, perhaps, Jehudiyeh, and Bene-
herak is Ibn-Ibrak, both on the north side of Wady
Muzeirah. If so, then Gath-rimmon must be
sought in this vicinity. It may be, however, that
Gath-rimmon and Gath are the same, and then we
must look for Jeliud and Bene-berak in the vicinity
of Tell es-Safieh.

Ver. 46. Me-jarkon and Bakkon are unknown.

TJie border before Japho^ i.e., Japho (Joppa) and
the border of the sea that lies near it. (Comp.
the phrases like ol dfiqil IlQiafiov, so common in the
Greek.)

Ver. 47. The Hebrew literally translated is this :
" And the border of the children of Dan went forth
from them, and the children of Dan w^ent up," &c.
The first clause is equivalent to '^ the children of

9 M



l94 COMIMENTARY ON



48 This is tHe inheritance of the tribe of the chil-
dren of Dan according to their families, these cities
with their villages.

49 "^ When they had made an end of dividing the
land for inheritance by their coasts, the children of
Israel gave an inheritance to Joshua the son of Nun
among them:

50 According to the word of the Lord they gave
him the city which he asked, even Timnath-serah in
mount Ephraim: and he built the city, and dwelt
therein.

51 These are the inheritances which Eleazar the
priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of
the fathers of the tribes of the children of Israel,
divided for an inheritance by lot in Shiloh before the
Lord, at the door of the tabernacle of the congrega-
tion. So they made an end of dividing the country.



Dan went forth from their border." So the LXX
nnderstand it. It is a metathesis of subject and
object. (Comp. Shakespeare's " His coward lips
did from their colour flj.")

The '' too little " of our English version is gratui-
tous, and the " for " is erroneous.

LesJiem is Laish. See Judges xviii. for the full
account. Laish is Tell el-Kadi, a few miles west
of Baneas, at one of the sources of the Jordan, and
about one hundred miles distant from Dan's in-
heritance. This raid upon Leshem was made after
Joshua's death, and its story is inserted here to
complete the view of Dan's settlement. We see
in Judges i. 34, the reason for this movement ; to
wit, that the Amorites were too strong for Dan, and
kept them out of their best territory.

Yer. 50. According to the word of the Lord.
This is not recorded in the Pentateuch, just as the



JOSHUA, CHAP. XIX. 195

details concerning Caleb's possession are not re-
corded there. (See on chap. xiv. 9.)

Timnath-serah (Timnath-heres in Judg. ii. 9) is
Tibneh, eight miles north-west of Bethel.

Built, i.e., " built up," or " rebuilt." This chap-
ter ends the account of the distribution of the
land.



196 COMMENTARY OK



CHAPTER XX.

IX. The Cities of Refuge.

1 The Lord also spake unto Joshua, saying,

2 Speak to the children of Israel, saying, Appoint
out for you cities of refuge, whereof I spake unto you
by the hand of Moses:

3 That the slayer that killeth any person unawares
and unwittingly, may flee thither: and they shall be
your refuge from the avenger of blood.

4 And when he that doth flee unto one of those
cities shall stand at the entering of the gate of the city,
and shall declare his cause in the ears of the elders of
that city, they shall take him into the city unto them,
and give him a place, that he may dwell among them.

And if the avenger of blood pursue after him,
then they shall not deliver the slayer up into his hand;
because he smote his neighbour unwittingly, and hated
him not beforetime.

6 And he shall dwell in that city, until he stand
before the congregation for judgment, and until the
death of the high priest that shall be in those days:
then shall the slayer return, and come unto his own
city, and unto his own house, unto the city from whence
he fled.

Ver. 2. Cities of refuge. Rather, " the cities of
refuge," i.e., those referred to in Num. xxxv. 6, 11.

Ver. 3. Unawares and univittingly. Lit., "by
mistake in failure of knowledge." That is, where
there was no design to commit murder, but the
blow was given in ignorance of its result.

Avenger of blood. Heb., " Goel Haddam." For
the law of the avenger, see Num. xxxv. It was a



JOSHUA, CHAP. XX. 197

7 If And they appointed Kedesh in Galilee in moimt
Naphtali, and Shechem in mount Ephraini, and Kirjath-
arba, (which is Hebron) in the mountain of Judah.

8 And on the other side Jordan bj Jericho eastward,
they assigned Bezer in the wilderness upon the plain

system which checked revenge, by giving the aven-
ger a sacred character, and, by the cities of refuge,
protected the innocent from harm.

The?/ shall he. So "shall stand," "shall de-
clare," " shall take," &;c., in the next verse. These
are all preterites in the Hebrew, as marking a system
already established, but now only made available.

Ver. 7. And they appointed Kedesh. This in
Hebrew is a paronomasia, " ^s^^iyjahedishu eth-
Kedesh.'" For Kedesh, see chap. xix. 37.

aalilee. Heb., " Galil" (circle). In Isaiah
"Gelil ha-goyim" (Galilee of the Gentiles), be-
cause so many foreigners dwelt in that northern
part of Palestine.

Mount Naphtali^ i.e.^ the mountainous portion of
Naphtali, as distinguished from that part of Naph-
tali lying in the Jordan valley.

Shechem. The well-known central town of
Palestine, between Ebal and Gerizim, mentioned
frequently in the patriarchal history, the Sychar of
our Lord's day, now Nablus (Neapolis).

Mount Ephraim. The mountain district of
Ephraim : Manasseh and Benjamin was so called.
Shechem was in Ephraim (Josh. xxi. 20, 21).

Hebron. (See on chap. x. 3.)

Ver^ 8. These cities of refuge on the east
side of Jordan had already been appointed by



198 COMMENTARY ON

out of the tribe of Reuben, and Ramoth in Gilead out
of the tribe of Gad, and Golan in Bashan out of the
tribe of Manasseh.

9 These were the cities appointed for all the chil-
dren of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth

Moses (Deut. iv. 43). Bezer is not yet identified,
though we may hope that the American Exploring
Expedition now engaged in triangulating the terri-
tory east of Jordan may find this interesting site.
Bezer is called Bezer in the wilderness (Midbar),
in the plain (Mishor) of Reuben. The Mishor
would appear to be the plain between Heshbon
and the Wady Zerka Main (now el-Belka), and
the 31idhar of this Mishor would be its eastern
frontier. If so, we must look for Bezer near Jebel
Jalul.

Ramoth in Gilead. It is usual to consider es-
Salt, three miles south of Jebel Osha, to be Ramoth-
Gilead, but this site is not near enough to Damas-
cus and Argob to suit the various statements in
the Old Testament concerning it. If Ramoth-Gil-
ead and Ramath-Mizpeh (Josh. xiii. 21) are the
same, and if Jacob's Mizpeh is to be identified with
this, then we have an additional argument for be-
lieving that Ramoth-Gilead is to be placed at or
near Gerash, according to Ewald and the Jewish
traveller Parchi.*

Golan is not identified, but it gave name to the
well-known province of Gaulonitis (Jaulan), east
of the lake of Galilee.

* Since the above was written, Mr. Paine, of the American
Expedition, informs me that he has identified Ramoth-Gilead near
Gerash.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XX. 199

among them, that whosoever killeth any person at una-
wares might flee thither, and not die by the hand of
the avenger of blood, until he stood before the congre-
gation.

Ver. 9. The fugitive, on arriving at the city of
refuge, reported himself, and was protected until
the assembly of his own town could pass judgment
in the case. Thus much is alluded to in this verse.
In ver. 6 reference is made to the death of the
high-priest. This has regard to the case of the
slayer if innocent. If he were guilty of intentional
murder, the city of refuge extended no protection
over him after the assembly of his own town had
convicted him. But if innocent^ then he was taken
back to the city of refuge, and abode there, pro-
tected, till the then high-priest died.



200 COMMENTARY ON



CHAPTER XXI.

X» The Levitical Cities.

1 Then came near the heads of the fathers of the
Levites unto Eleazar the priest, and unto Joshua the
son of Nun, and unto the heads of the fathers of
the tribes of the children of Israel;

2 And they spake unto them at Shiloh in the land
of Canaan, saying, The Lord commanded by the hand
of Moses to give us cities to dwell in, with the suburbs
thereof for our cattle.

3 And the children of Israel gave unto the Levites
out of their inheritance, at the commandment of the
Loud, these cities and their suburbs.

4 And the lot came out for the families of the Kohath-
ites: and the children of Aaron the priest, ichich ivere
of the Levites, had by lot out of the tribe of Judah,
and out of the tribe of Simeon, and out of the tribe of
Benjamin, thirteen cities.

Ver. 1. Heads of the fathers. (See on chap,
xiv. 1.)

Ver. 2. At Shiloh. The occasion is the same as
that mentioned in chap, xviii. 1. We need not
imagine any new gathering at Shiloh. But this
was part of the process of distribution and assign-
ment.

In the land of Canaan. They were actually in
the land promised. (See Num. xxxiv. 29.)

The Lord commanded hy the hand of Moses.
(See Num. xxxv. 2.)

Ver. 4. The children of Levi were Kohath,



JOSHUA, CHAP. XXI. 201

5 And the rest of the children of Kohath had by lot
out of the faniiUes of the tribe of Ephriiim, and out of
the tribe of Dan, and out of the half-tribe of Manasseh,
ten cities.

G And the children of Gershon hul by lot out of the
families of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe
of Asher, and out of the tribe of Naphtali, and out of
the half-tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.

7 The children of Merari by their families hud out
of the tribe of Reuben, and out of the tribe of Gad,
and out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve cities.

8 And the children of Israel gave by lot unto the
Le\dtes these cities with their suburbs, as the Loud
commanded by the hand of Moses.

9 ^ And they gave out of the tribe of the children of
Judah, and out of the tribe of the children of Simeon,
these cities which are here mentioned by name,

10 Which the cliildren of Aaron, being of the fami-
lies of the Kohathites, loho loere of the children of
Levi, had: for theirs was the first lot.

11 And they gave them the city of Arba the father

Gershon, and IMerari (Gen. xlvi. 11). Out of tlie
Kohathites came the priestly family of Aaron.
This priestly portion of Kohath received its thir-
teen cities in Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin.

Ver. 5. The rest of Kohath's family received
ten cities further north, in Ephraim and ^Linasseh,
and also in Dan on the west.

Ver. 6. Gershon received thirteen cities still
further north, in Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and
across Jordan in Manasseh.

Ver. 7. Merari received twelve cities in tlie
southern part of the trans-Jordanic territory (op-
posite Ephraim, Manasseh, and Judah), in Reuben
and Gad, and also in Zebulun on the west side
(in the midst of the Gershonite cities).

Ver. 11. And they gave tJicm^ &c. As the forty-
9*



202 COIkllMENTARY ON

of Anak (which city is Hebron) in the hill-country of
Judah, with the suburbs thereof round about it.

12 But the fields of the city, and the villages thereof,
gave they to Caleb the son of Jephunneh for his pos-
session.

13 ^ Thus they gave to the children of Aaron the
priest, Hebron with her suburbs, to he a city of refuge
for the slayer; and Libnah with her suburbs,

14 And Jattir with her suburbs, and Eshtemoa with
her suburbs,

15 And Holon with her suburbs, and Debir with her
suburbs,

16 And Ain with her suburbs, and Juttah with her
suburbs, and Beth-shemesh with her suburbs; nine
cities out of those two tribes.

17 And out of the tribe of Benjamin, Gibeon with
her suburbs, Geba with her suburbs,

18 Anathoth with her suburbs, and Almon with
her suburbs ; four cities.

19 All the cities of the children of Aaron, the priests,
were thirteen cities mth their suburbs.

20 ^ And the families of the children of Kohath, the
Levites which remained of the children of Kohath,
even they had the cities of their lot out of the tribe of
Ephraim.

21 For they gave them Shechem with her suburbs
in mount Ephraim, to be a city of refuge for the slayer;
and Gezer with her suburbs,

22 And Kibzaim with her suburbs, and Beth-horon
with her suburbs ; four cities.

23 And out of the tribe of Dan, Eltekeh with her
suburbs, Gibbethon with her suburbs,

24 Aijalon with her suburbs, Gath-rimmon with her
suburbs; four cities.

eight cities here enumerated have been mostly
described before, when their names occm:red in the
settlement of the tribes, notes will only be given
on any new name or circumstance mentioned.

Ver. 18. AnatTiotJi is Anata.

Almon is unknown.

Ver. 22. Kihzaim is unknown.



JOSHUA^ CHAP. XXI. 203

25 And out of the half-tribe of Manasseh, Tanach
with her suburbs, and Gath-rimmon with her suburbs;
two cities.

26 All the cities 'cere ten with their suburbs, for the
families of the children of Kohath that remained.

27 ^ And unto the children of Gershon, of the fami-
lies of the Levites, out of the other half- tribe of IManas-
seh they fjave Golan in Bashan with her suburbs, to he a
city of refuge for the slayer, and Beesh-terah with her
suburbs; two cities.

28 An


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