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13 The king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, one;

14 The king of Hormah, one; the king of Arad, one;

15 The king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam,
one;

16 The king of Makkedah, one; the king of Beth-el,
one;

17 The king of Tappuah, one; the king of Hepher,
one;

18 The king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon,
one;

19 The king of Madon, one; the king of Hazor, one;

20 The king of Shimron-meron, one ; the king of
Achshaph, one;

21 The king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo,
one;

22 The king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam
of Carmel, one;

23 The king of Dor in the coast of Dor, one; the
king of the nations of Gilgal, one;

24 The king of Tirzah, one: all the kings thirty and
one.



mountain country ; 2. The Shephelah ; 3. The Ara-
bah ; 4. The intervening ravine-country ; 5. The
wilderness (on the west side of the Dead Sea, and
corresponding to No. 4) ; 6. The Negeb. Note
also the omission of the Girgasliites, as in chap,
xi. 3.

Ver. 9-24. The kings in this list not specially
named before are those of Geder, Hormah, Arad,
Adullam, Bethel, Tappuah, Hepher, Aphek, La-



JOSHUA, CHAP. xn. 123

Sharon, Taanach, Megiddo, Kedesh, Jokneam, Dor,
Goim (nations), and Tirzah.*

G-eder, probably the " Gedor " of Judah (chap.
XV. 58), now Jedur, half-way between Hebron and
Bethlehem.

Hormah (or Zephath, as in Judg. i. 17) is
identified with es-Sufah by Robinson. Es-Sufah
is a pass up the high mountain buttress of southern
Judah, north of the remarkable VVady Fikreh.
Others put Hormah at Sepata, south of Elusa.

Arad is twenty miles south of Hebron.

Adullam, supposed to be Deir Duffan, twenty-
two miles south-west of Jerusalem.

Bethel, now Beitin, in close proximity to Ai
(see chap. viii. 17), ten miles north of Jerusalem.

Tappuah was on the boundary between Ephraim
and Manasseh (chap. xvi. 8, xvii. 8), and may be
looked for not far from Ebal and Gerizim to the
north-east.

Hepher, probably the same as Gath-hepher (2
Ki. xiv. 25), now el-Meshhad, between Nazareth
and Sepphoris.

ApJiek. There was an Aphek near Jerusalem,
to the north-west (1 Sam. iv. 1). The position of
the name in this list might lead us to look for this
one near the plain of Esdraelon. There may have
been another Aphek there, as we know there was

* Keil's argument to prove that the towns mentioned in verses
17 and 18 belong to the number of those conquered with the
southern confederacy, and tlierefore are to be sought for to the
south of Ai and Bethel, is plausible, but by no means conclusive.



124 COIklMENTAKY ON

one east of the Sea of Galilee (1 Ki. xx. 26), and
another in Asher (Josh. xix. 30). Perhaps the
one in Asher is here intended, and it may be identi-
cal with Haifa on the bay of Akka.

Lasliaron cannot be identified, but Knobel sug-
gests Saruneh, near the Sea of Galilee.

Taanach and Megiddo are well-known sites in
the south-western corner of the great plain of
Esdraelon.

Kedesh^ afterward in the tribe of Tssachar (1
Chron. vi. 72), and called " Kishon " (Josh. xxi.
28), was no doubt also in the great plain by the
river Kishon.

Jokneam is found at el-Kaimon, under the south-
ern end of Carmel.

Dor. (See on chap. xi. 2.)

Goim. The expression in the English version is
" king of the nations of Gilgal," but the prefix to
" Gilgal " is the same as that before " Carmel " in
ver. 22, and before " the coast " in ver. 23. Hence
we read ''^ the king of Goim (nations) by Gilgal."
The Goim lived near Gilgal, and were probably a
mixed people having a king of their own. The
Gilgal would be the Jiljilia, near Antipatris.

Tirzah is probably Telluzah, at the north of
Mount Ebal. It Avas afterward a royal Israelitish
city (1 Ki. xvi. 17).

These thirty-one kings doubtless divided the
whole territory east of the Jordan from Hermon
to Kadesh among them, excepting the Gibeonitish
confederacy.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XIII. 125



CHAPTER Xlir.

VII. The Inheritance of the Two Tribes and a
Half.

1 Now Joshua was old and stricken in years; and
the Lord said unto him, Thou art old and stricken in
years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be
possessed.

Ver. 1. Was old and stricken in years, (See Gen.
xxiv. 1.) This is not a tautology. Joshua was
old not only as compared with childhood, but as
viewed with reference to the whole career of man.
Stricken is the old English for advanced. Joshua
was eighty-seven when he had reduced the whole
land (chap. xi. 23) ; that is, when he had destroyed
its opposition and possessed it generally, abolishing
its kins^doms from Kadesh to Mount Hermon.

Moses was one hundred and tw^enty years old
when he died, Joshua was one hundred and ten
years old when he died, and Caleb probably had
an equally long life, as he was about equal in age
with Joshua, and survived him. These three prom-
inent men may have had their lives specially pro-
longed, but even if we count one hundred and ten
as the average length of life in Joshua's day,
eighty-seven would be nearly four-fifths of the
whole time, and a man of eighty-seven would be



126 COMISIENTARY ON

advanced in years. However, from Moses' psalm
(Ps. xc. 10), it would appear that human life then
already had the same limits as now, and hence that
eighty-seven was an extreme old age, far beyond
the average years of man, exactly as it. is to-da3^
There remameth yet very much land to he pos-
sessed. God had announced to Israel at Sinai
(Ex. xxiii. 29, 30) that he would not drive out
the Canaanites in one year, but by little and little,
so that the desolated land should not be filled with
wild beasts. Yet God again said (Deut. ix. 3),
through Moses, that the children of Israel should
drive them out and destroy them quickly. This
latter is a command, and with it can be quoted the
threat against disobedience given in Num. xxxiii.
55, and repeated by Joshua (chap, xxiii. 13), " but
if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land
from before you, then it shall come to pass that those
wdiich ye let remain of them shall be pricks in
your eyes and thorns in your sides, and shall vex you
in the land wherein ye dwell." From these passages,
and from the fact that Joshua just before his death
(chap, xxiii. 14) found no fault with Israel for
leaving any of the Canaanites in the land, we
gather that at the end of the seven years' conquest
God wished Israel to cease from war (chap. xi. 23),
and did not desire a renewal of the work of exter-
mination until after Joshua's death. The people
had already driven out the Canaanites quickly^
although not totally ; and now, with regard to those
left in the land, when the campaigns should com-



JOSHUA, CHAP. xin. 127

2 This {.s the land that yet remaineth: all the borders
of the Philistines, and all Geshuri,

mence against them, the people of Israel were to
act with like speed and faith. In the sequel we
find that they did not so act, and hence fell into the
evils predicted. In the twenty-three years from
the end of Joshua's conquest till his death, the
land was peacefully possessed by Israel, and the
people became numerous enough to fill up the des-
olated regions. (See Ex. xxiii. 29.) It will be
noticed in this order of God to Joshua (the first
seven verses of this chapter), although God says
there is very much land yet to be possessed, and
describes it, he does not command Joshua to seize
it and subdue it, but only to divide it (ver. 6, 7),
or allot it to the tribes.

Vek. 2. The Philistines^ who, with the Caph-
torim, originally came out from Caphtor (probably
the Nile delta), settled in the Shephelah, or fertile
and extensive plain lying between the mountains
of Judah and the sea. (See Gen. x. 14 ; Deut. ii.
23 ; Jer. xlvii. 4 ; Am. ix. 7.) Their five principal
cities, Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron,
occupied advantageous points on this plain.

G-aza (now Ghuzzeh) is situated two miles from
the sea in lat. 31^ 30', and has always been a place
of importance.

Ashdod^ which seems to have been the religious
capital of the Philistines, as Gaza was their chief
political city, is also two miles from the sea, and
twenty-two miles north of Gaza.



128 COMMENTARY ON

3 From Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the
Lorders of Ekron northward, ichich is counted to the
Canaanite: five lords of the Pliilistines ; tiie Gaza-
thites, and tlie Ashdothitcs, tiie Eslikalonites, the
Gittites, and the Ekronites ; also the Avites :

Ashkelon lies on a rocky ridge on the edge of the
sea between Gaza and Ashdod.

Gath was probably on the strong position of
Tell es-Safieh, ten miles east of Ashdod. The hill
is two hundred feet high.

JEki'on (now Akir) is nine miles from the sea,
eleven miles north of (our supposed) Gath, and
about the same distance from Ashdod, while from
Gaza to Ekron, the two most widely separated of
the Philistine cities, is a distance of thirty-three
miles. The whole land of the Philistines may be
reckoned as fifty miles in length from south to
north, and fifteen miles in breadth from the sea to
the mountains. Its southern and northern limits
would be the Wady Ghuzzeh and the southern
branch of the Nahr el-Aujeh. So large and rich a
plain could readily support a million people, and
if the advantages of the sea are added, a much
larger population could dAvell there.

Geshuri, or the Geshurites, were a part of the
ori^•inal inhabitants of the desert north of el-Arish
and south of Gaza (1 Sam. xx^ai. 8). They were
probably Bedawin hke the Amalekites and Ger-
izites (called Gezrites m 1. c), and part of their
tribe or race seem to have settled in Bashan. (See
chap. xii. 5, and in this chap. ver. 13.)

Ver. 3. jSihor is the Nile. The words, " which



JOSHTTA. CHAP. XHI. 129



4 From the south all the land of the Canaanites,
and Mearah that is beside the Sidonians, unto Aphek
to the borders of the Aniorites:



is before Egypt," would indicate the Pelusiac arm
as the boundary of Egypt, to which the Israeiitish
possession was to extend. In David's day (1 Chron.
xiii. 5), this possession was made good.

To the Canaanite. The Philistines were not
Canaanites, but their land was counted as part of
the Canaanitish territory.

Gittites, Z.6'., inhabitants of Gath.

The Avites^ or Avim (Deut. ii. 23), were the old
inhabitants near Gaza (Azzah in Deut. ii. 23),
probably a gigantic race, who were destroyed by
the Caphtorim (see on ver. 2), and a remnant of
whom still dwelt among the Philistines.

Ver. 4. From the south. Rather, on the south.
This phrase belongs to the preceding words, thus,
Also the Avites on the south.

The land of the Canaanites was the strip of
coast land running up from Carmel to Tyre.

3Iearali seems to be the designation of the Leb-
anon region about the Nahr ed-Damur, the Nahr
Beirut and the Nahr el-Kelb. Keil's notion that
it was Mugr Jezzin is too restricted.

Beside the Sidonians. Rather, belonging to the
Sidonians.

Aphek (now Af ka) is north of the sources of the
Nahr cl-Kelb and on the Nahr Ibrahim (Adonis).
It was the spot where in later da^^s the celebrated
temple of Venus stood.

6* *



130 COMMENTAKY ON

5 And the land of the Giblites, and all Lebanon
toward the sun-rising, from Baal-gad under mount Her-
mon unto the entering into Hamath.

To the borders of the Amorites, that is, to the
farthermost limit of the Amorites on the north.

Ver. 5. TJie Giblites. Translated in 1 Kings
V. 18, " stone-squarers " wrongly. They are the
people of Gebal (Ps. Ixxxiii. 7, and Ez. xxvii. 9),
now Jebeil, on the coast a little north of the mouth
of the Nahr Ibrahim.

All Lebanon toward the sun-rising^ i.e., all Leba-
non lying eastward of Jebeil from Baal-gad (chap,
xi. 17) to the entering into Hamath.

Unto the entering into Hamath, Or, " until one
comes into Hamath." Hamath was a kingdom
embracing all the course of the Orontes. Its south-
ern limit was not far north of Baalbek, east of Aphek
and Jebeil. The northern boundary of Israel is
thus put along a line extending from the Mediter-
ranean at or near Jebeil to the Bukaa, or Coele-
Syria, and down the Leontes. We may imagine
the Nahr Kadisha taking the line to the Lebanon
pass near Bezun, and thence the Leontes forming
the boundary to Jebel ed-Dahar, where the Jor-
dan (Nahr Hasbeiya) would continue it until the
neighborhood of Baneas is reached. The land in
in its full dimensions would be two hundred and
twenty miles long, and, starting from an apex
above Jebeil, would reach a width of eighty miles
at its greatest breadth, excepting the desert part
between the Nile and the Arabah, which would



JOSHUA, CHAP. xm. 131

6 All the inhabitants of the hill-counfivj from Leba-
non unto Misrephoth-raaim, aiid all the Sidonians,
them will I drive out from before the children of Israel:
only divide thou it by lot unto the Israelites for an in-
heritance, as I have commanded thee.

7 Now therefore divide this land for an inheritance
unto the nine tribes, and the half-tribe of ^Nlanasseh.

8 With whom the Reubenites and the Gadites have
received their inheritance, which Moses gave them,
beyoiid Jordan eastward, ecen as Moses the servant of
the Lord gave them ;

be still more. From the most northern portion
of this tract, the region of Lebanon, the old popu-
lation were never dislodged, but in David's and
Solomon's day it was all subject to Israel.*

Ver. 7. With this verse ends God's command,
which was probably given to Joshua through the
instrumentality of the Urim and Thummim of the
high-priest.

Ver. 8. Here begins the statement of the sacred
writer.

With whom. Or, " with it," i.e., with the half-
tribe of Manasseh, and yet not the same half of
the tribe referred to in ver. 7.

As Moses the servant of the Lord gave them.

* I have in these last two verses given the received view of
Israel's northern frontier, extending it fifty miles north of the
mcuih of the Leontes. And yet I cannot heartily accept this
view. It would make Asher's portion out of all proportion with
the rest (chap. xix. 24-31), and it would present a long reach of
territory which Israel never pretended to claim, except by such
conquest as it claimed the Euphrates on one hand, and Eziongaber
on the otlier. The line of Hermon and the Leontes appears to be
much more reasonable. In such case, of course, we should give a
different account of Mearah, Apheli, and the Gibhtes.



132 OOIVIMENTAIIY ON

9 From Aroer thab z\


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Online LibraryHoward CrosbyExpository notes on the book of Joshua → online text (page 8 of 15)